[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate scalp ripples distribution in secondary bilateral synchrony as a tool to lateralize the epileptic focus and to differentiate focal from generalized epilepsy. Methods: Seventeen EEG recordings with bilateral synchronous discharges of focal (Focal Group-FG:10) and generalized (Generalized Group-GG: 7) epilepsy patients were selected for spikes and ripples marking; the spike-normalized ripple rate was calculated in each hemisphere (Right/Left - Anterior/Posterior) and a ripple-dominant hemisphere (the one with the highest rate) was identified. Concordance in FG between the ripple dominant hemisphere and the hemisphere of clinical lateralization was evaluated. The ripple-dominant/ripple-nondominant spike-normalized ripple rate ratio was studied to compare groups. Results: In FG the hemisphere of clinical lateralization and the ripple-dominant hemisphere were 100% concordant. In GG only 3/7 patients showed ripples (vs 10/10 FG), all with anterior dominance. No difference in hemisphere ripple dominance between groups was found. Conclusions: Ripples in secondary bilateral synchrony help to lateralize the epileptic focus but do not help to differentiate between focal and generalized epilepsy. This is the first report of visually identified ripples in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Significance: Ripples confirm the clinical lateralization of the epileptic focus in secondary bilateral synchrony but cannot distinguish between focal and generalized epilepsy.
Keywords: bilateral synchrony, scalp EEG, ripple, fast oscillations, idiopathic generalized epilepsy
- Scalp ripples can be used as an additional tool to lateralize the epileptic focus in secondary bilateral synchrony
- In idiopathic generalized epilepsy scalp ripples are recordable and show an anterior dominance
- To differentiate focal patients with secondary bilateral synchrony from patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy scalp ripples are not useful
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Although a clear correlation has been observed between high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and the seizure-onset zone in distinct lesions, the role of the underlying pathologic substrates in the generation of HFOs is not well established. We aimed to investigate HFO correlates of different pathologic substrates in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, and to examine the relation of HFOs with the anatomic location of the dysplastic lesion and surrounding tissue in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).
We studied consecutive patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) investigations with depth electrodes at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, between November 2004 and May 2013. Inclusion criteria were the following: a focal lesion documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); EEG recording at a 2,000 Hz sampling rate; and seizures starting from depth electrode contacts placed in lesion and perilesional tissue.
Thirty-seven patients (13 FCD, 12 mesial temporal sclerosis, five cortical atrophy, three polymicrogyria, three nodular heterotopia, and one tuberous sclerosis) were included; 18 were women (median age 34). Ripples and fast ripples were found in all lesion types, except tuberous sclerosis, which showed no fast ripples. There was a significant difference in rates of ripples and fast ripples across different lesions (p < 0.001), with higher rates in FCD, mesial temporal sclerosis, and nodular heterotopia than in atrophy, polymicrogyria, and tuberous sclerosis. Regarding patients with FCD, HFOs rates differed significantly across the three types of tissue (lesional, perilesional, and nonlesional; p < 0.001), being higher within the borders of the MRI-visible dysplastic lesion, followed by the surrounding area, and rare in the remote cortex.
Our findings suggest that in patients who are all intractable, the HFO rates vary with different pathologies, and reflect different types of neuronal derangements. Our results also emphasize the potential usefulness of HFOs as an additional method to better define the extent of the epileptogenic dysplastic tissue in FCD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distributed inverse solutions aim to realistically reconstruct the origin of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) from noninvasively recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Our aim was to compare the performance of different distributed inverse solutions in localizing IEDs: coherent maximum entropy on the mean (cMEM), hierarchical Bayesian implementations of independent identically distributed sources (IID, minimum norm prior) and spatially coherent sources (COH, spatial smoothness prior). Source maxima (i.e., the vertex with the maximum source amplitude) of IEDs in 14 EEG and 19 MEG studies from 15 patients with focal epilepsy were analyzed. We visually compared their concordance with intracranial EEG (iEEG) based on 17 cortical regions of interest and their spatial dispersion around source maxima. Magnetic source imaging (MSI) maxima from cMEM were most often confirmed by iEEG (cMEM: 14/19, COH: 9/19, IID: 8/19 studies). COH electric source imaging (ESI) maxima co-localized best with iEEG (cMEM: 8/14, COH: 11/14, IID: 10/14 studies). In addition, cMEM was less spatially spread than COH and IID for ESI and MSI (p < 0.001 Bonferroni-corrected post hoc t test). Highest positive predictive values for cortical regions with IEDs in iEEG could be obtained with cMEM for MSI and with COH for ESI. Additional realistic EEG/MEG simulations confirmed our findings. Accurate spatially extended sources, as found in cMEM (ESI and MSI) and COH (ESI) are desirable for source imaging of IEDs because this might influence surgical decision. Our simulations suggest that COH and IID overestimate the spatial extent of the generators compared to cMEM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate whether specific frontal regions have a tendency to generate widespread bilateral synchronous discharges (WBSDs) and others focal spikes and to determine the regions most involved when WBSDs occur; to assess the relationships between the extent of electroencephalography (EEG) discharges and the extent of metabolic changes measured by EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Methods
Thirty-seven patients with interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) with frontocentral predominance underwent EEG/fMRI. Patients were divided into a Focal (20 patients) group with focal frontal spikes and a WBSD group (17 patients). Maps of hemodynamic responses related to IEDs were compared between the two groups.ResultsThe mean number ± SD of IEDs in the Focal group was 137.5 ± 38.1 and in the WBSD group, 73.5 ± 16.6 (p = 0.07). The volume of hemodynamic responses in the WBSD group was significantly larger than in the Focal group (mean, 243.3 ± 41.1 versus 114.8 ± 27.4 cm3, p = 0.01). Maximum hemodynamic responses occurred in both groups in the following regions: dorsolateral prefrontal, mesial prefrontal, cingulate, and supplementary motor cortices. Maxima in premotor and motor cortex, frontal operculum, frontopolar, and orbitofrontal regions were found only in the Focal group, and maxima in thalamus and caudate only occurred in the WBSD group. Thalamic responses were significantly more common in the WBSD group (14/17) than in the Focal group (7/20), p = 0.004. Deactivation in the default mode network was significantly more common in the WBSD group (14/17) than in the Focal group (10/20), p = 0.04.SignificanceThe spatial distribution and extent of blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) responses correlate well with electrophysiologic changes. Focal frontal spikes and WBSDs are not region specific in the frontal lobe, and the same frontal region can generate focal and generalized discharges. This suggests that widespread discharges reflect widespread epileptogenicity rather than a focal discharge located in a region favorable to spreading. The thalamus plays an important role in bilateral synchronization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:
High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the range of 40 to 250 Hz (gamma and ripples) have recently been described on the scalp EEG of patients affected by focal and generalized epilepsy. In focal epilepsy, HFOs were shown to be more specific to the seizure-onset zone (SOZ) than spikes, suggesting they can be used as interictal EEG marker of the epileptogenic areas. Fast ripples (FRs) are more specific and accurate than ripples to identify the SOZ in intracerebral EEG. To our knowledge, no studies have recorded FRs on the scalp EEG of epileptic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if FRs can be detected on the scalp EEG of adult patients with focal epilepsy and to assess their relationship with the SOZ.
Patients who had at least 10 unambiguous spikes on the subdermal EEG during the first consecutive 30 minutes of N3 sleep were included. Recordings were selected from 55 patients with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent combined subdermal - intracranial EEG (500Hz filter and 2000Hz sampling) from January 2010 to May 2014 at the Montreal Neurological Institute for presurgical evaluation. Subdermal electrodes were placed at positions Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4. Sleep was manually scored in the subdermal EEG according to AASM 2.0. FRs were visually marked, using a bipolar montage, in the first 30 minutes of N3 sleep. FRs were defined as events containing at least 4 consecutive sinusoidal oscillations and amplitude clearly greater than the background and with a frequency > 250 Hz. We excluded the events that have morphological features resembling artifacts and the oscillations associated with artifacts identifiable in the original unfiltered record (also reviewed in expanded time scale). After marking all the events, the EEGs were re-analyzed by the same reviewer together with two HFO experts and only events for which there was consensus were retained. The SOZ was defined using depth recordings during the presurgical investigation, independently of this study. Events recorded in subdermal electrodes were categorized as related to the SOZ if localized in the same brain lobe, and not related to the SOZ, if detected in other lobes.
Ten patients fulfilled our criteria. FRs, of generally low amplitude, were found in 60% (6/10) of patients. The mean rate of FRs was 0.19/minute. Considering the 6 patients with FRs, 2 exhibited events related to the SOZ (patients 5 and 7) and 3 showed no relationship between FRs and SOZ (patients 3, 6 and10). In the remaining patient (patient 8) the SOZ could not be identified (Table 1).
FRs can be detected with surface EEG using subdermal electrodes in patients with focal epilepsy. FRs were not present in all patients analyzed, and when present, occurred at a very low rate. The distinction between FRs and artifacts is challenging. The relationship between surface FRs and SOZ remains unclear. Further studies, with a higher spatial sampling on the surface EEG, are necessary to clarify this issue.
- See more at: https://www.aesnet.org/meetings_events/annual_meeting_abstracts/view/1868609#sthash.14QRvr1e.dpuf
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, the knowledge of intracranial correlates of spindles is mainly gathered from noninvasive neurophysiologic and functional imaging studies which provide an indirect estimate of neuronal intracranial activity. This potential limitation can be overcome by intracranial electroencephalography used in presurgical epilepsy evaluation. We investigated the intracranial correlates of scalp spindles using combined scalp and intracerebral depth electrodes covering the frontal, parietal and temporal neocortex, and the scalp and intracranial correlates of hippocampal and insula spindles in 35 pre-surgical epilepsy patients. Spindles in the scalp were accompanied by widespread cortical increases in sigma band energy (10–16 Hz): the highest percentages were observed in the frontoparietal lateral and mesial cortex, whereas in temporal lateral and mesial structures only a low or no simultaneous increase was present. This intracranial involvement during scalp spindles showed no consistent pattern, and exhibited unexpectedly low synchrony across brain regions. Hippocampal spindles were shorter and spatially restricted with a low synchrony even within the temporal lobe. Similar results were found for the insula. We suggest that the generation of spindles is under a high local cortical influence contributing to the concept of sleep as a local phenomenon and challenging the notion of spindles as widespread synchronous oscillations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a life-threatening condition often caused by focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Resection of the motor cortex is contemplated in the hope that the trade-off between a severe motor deficit and complete seizure control justifies the procedure.
Report of 3 patients with EPC due to histologically confirmed FCD, who underwent resection of the motor cortex under acute electrocorticography.
All had re-emergence of medically intractable EPC in the other side of the body after rolandic resection. Two patients died and the third continues with refractory attacks.
In some instances, EPC due to FCD may shift sides and re-emerge in the contralateral, previously asymptomatic, hemibody. A mechanism of disinhibition by surgery of a suppressed contralateral and homologous epileptogenic zone is speculated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes at the time of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) identify their associated vascular/hemodynamic responses. BOLD activations and deactivations can be found within the epileptogenic zone but also at a distance. Source imaging identifies electric (ESI) and magnetic (MSI) sources of IEDs, with the advantage of a higher temporal resolution. Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate the spatial concordance between ESI/MSI and BOLD responses for similar IEDs.
Methods: Twenty-one patients with similar IEDs in simultaneous electroencephalogram/functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) and in simultaneous EEG/magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings were studied. IEDs in EEG/fMRI acquisition were analyzed in an event-related paradigm within a general linear model (GLM). ESI/MSI of averaged IEDs was performed using the Maximum Entropy on the Mean. We assessed the spatial concordance between ESI/MSI and clusters of BOLD activations/deactivations with surface-based metrics.
Results: ESI/MSI were concordant with one BOLD cluster for 20/21patients (concordance with activation: 14/21 patients, deactivation: 6/21 patients, no concordance: 1/21 patients; concordance with MSI only: 3/21, ESI only: 2/21). These BOLD clusters exhibited in 19/20 cases the most significant voxel. BOLD clusters that were spatially concordant with ESI/MSI were concordant
with IEDs from invasive recordings in 8/11 patients (activations: 5/8, deactivations: 3/8).
Conclusion: As the results of BOLD, ESI and MSI are often concordant, they reinforce our confidence in all of them. ESI and MSI confirm the most significant BOLD cluster within BOLD maps, emphasizing the importance of these clusters for the definition of the epileptic focus.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Human Brain Mapping
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Interictal high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the 40-200 Hz range have been identified in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of patients with focal epilepsy. HFOs usually co-occur with interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), and are specific and accurate markers for the epileptic focus, but the brain regions involved when HFOs are generated are unknown. We investigated this question with combined EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), measuring the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, and examined HFOs in the gamma (40-80 Hz) and ripple (80-200 Hz) bands.
Twenty-eight consecutive patients with focal epilepsy who underwent HFO and EEG-fMRI studies were selected; six were excluded because of negative EEG-fMRI. The remaining 22 patients were divided into two equal groups (11 patients each) based on the frequency of co-occurrence of gamma or ripples with IEDs: low versus high gamma (LG/HG) and low versus high ripples (LR/HR).
No significant changes were found in the BOLD characteristics between the LG and HG groups. As a group, HR had a larger IED concordant BOLD cluster than the LR group, despite similar IED rates. In addition, the HR group had significantly more thalamic BOLD changes than the LR group (11/11 vs. 2/11). In HR, 5 of 11 patients had thalamic activation only, 4 of 11 had thalamic deactivation only, and 2 of 11 had activation and deactivation in different thalamic regions. In the LR group, 2 of 11 had thalamic activation. The lateralization of thalamic BOLD responses was concordant with the lateralization of cortical ripples in 12 of 13 patients.
Scalp IEDs, when frequently accompanied by HFOs in the ripple but not in the gamma band, are associated with larger cortical metabolic responses and with thalamic involvement lateralized to the side of cortical ripples. We propose that a high rate of epileptic ripples is associated with a more active pathologic cortical-thalamocortical network.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Epilepsy is a common medical condition for which physicians perform driver fitness assessments. The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and the Canadian Council of Motor Transportation Administrators (CCMTA) publish documents to guide Canadian physicians' driver fitness assessments. Objectives: We aimed to measure the consistency of driver fitness counseling among epileptologists in Canada, and to determine whether inconsistencies between national guidelines are associated with greater variability in counseling instructions. Methods: We surveyed 35 epileptologists in Canada (response rate 71%) using a questionnaire that explored physicians' philosophies about driver fitness assessments and counseling practices of seizure patients in common clinical scenarios. Of the nine scenarios, CCMTA and CMA recommendations were concordant for only two. Cumulative agreement for all scenarios was calculated using Kappa statistic. Agreement for concordant (two) vs. discordant (seven) scenarios were split at the median and analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Results: Overall the agreement between respondents for the clinical scenarios was not acceptable (Kappa=0.28). For the two scenarios where CMA and CCMTA guidelines were concordant, specialists had high levels of agreement with recommendations (89% each). A majority of specialists disagreed with CMA recommendations in three of seven discordant scenarios. The lack of consistency in respondents' agreement attained statistical significance (p<0.001). Conclusions: Canadian epileptologists have variable counseling practices about driving, and this may be attributable to inconsistencies between CMA and CCMTA medical fitness guidelines. This study highlights the need to harmonize driving recommendations in order to prevent physician and patient confusion about driving fitness in Canada.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe two patients who showed snapping of the right hand fingers during invasive intracranial EEG evaluation for epilepsy surgery. We correlated the EEG changes with the finger-snapping movements in both patients to determine the underlying pathophysiology of this phenomenon. At the time of finger snapping, EEG spread from the supplementary motor area towards the temporal region was seen, suggesting involvement of these sites.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) has recently been applied for mapping the hemodynamic changes related to epileptic activity. The aim of this study is to compare the hemodynamic response function (HRF) to epileptic spikes in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and those with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). In EEG-fMRI studies, the HRF represents the temporal evolution of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal changes. Several studies demonstrated that amplitude and latency of the HRF are variable in patients with epilepsy. However, the consistency of HRF parameters with underlying brain pathology is unknown. In this study, we examined 14 patients with FCD and 12 with unilateral HS selected from our EEG-fMRI database and compared the amplitude and latency of the HRF peak. We analyzed (1) HRFs in peak activation clusters, (2) HRFs in peak deactivation clusters, and (3) the maximum absolute responses within the EEG spike field, activation or deactivation. We found that the HRF peak amplitude in deactivation clusters was larger in the HS group than in the FCD when the deactivation occurred in default mode network (DMN) regions. This result suggests that spikes in patients with HS affect the DMN more strongly than those with FCD. However, if we focus on the maximum absolute t-value in the spike field, there is no significant difference between the two groups. The current study indicates that it is not necessary to use different HRF models for EEG-fMRI studies in patients with FCD and HS.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Brain Topography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous electroencephalography/functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) recording can noninvasively map in the whole brain the hemodynamic response following an interictal epileptic discharge. EEG/fMRI is gaining interest as a presurgical evaluation tool. This study aims to determine how hemodynamic responses related to epileptic activity can help predict surgical outcome in patients considered for epilepsy surgery.
Thirty-five consecutive patients with focal epilepsy who had significant hemodynamic responses and eventually surgical resection, were studied. The statistical map of hemodynamic responses were generated and coregistered to postoperative anatomic imaging. Patients were classified into four groups defined by the relative relationship between the location of the maximum hemodynamic response and the resection: group 1, fully concordant; group 2, partially concordant; group 3, partially discordant; and group 4, fully discordant. These findings were correlated with surgical outcome with at least 12-month follow-up.
Ten patients in group 1 had the maximum t value (t-max) inside the resection; nine in group 2 had the t-max outside but close to the resection and the cluster with t-max overlapped the resection; five in group 3 had the t-max remote from resection, but with another less significant cluster in the resection; and 11 in group 4 had no response in the resection. The degree of concordance correlated largely with surgical outcome: a good surgical outcome (Engel's class I) was found in 7 of 10 patients of group 1, 4 of 9 of group 2, 3 of 5 of group 3, and only 1 of 11 of group 4. These results indicate that the partially concordant and partially discordant groups are best considered as inconclusive. In contrast, in the fully concordant and fully discordant groups, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were high, 87.5%, 76.9%, 70%, and 90.9%, respectively.
This study demonstrates that hemodynamic responses related to epileptic activity can help delineate the epileptogenic region. Full concordance between maximum response and surgical resection is indicative of seizure freedom, whereas a resection leaving the maximum response intact is likely to lead to a poor outcome. EEG/fMRI is noninvasive but is limited to patients in whom interictal epileptic discharges can be recorded during the 60-90 min scan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal), and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline). Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma) and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples). At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development), but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because seizures originate from different pathological substrates, the question arises of whether distinct or similar mechanisms underlie seizure generation across different pathologies. Better defining intracranial electroencephalographic morphological patterns at seizure-onset could improve the understanding of such mechanisms. To this end, we investigated intracranial electroencephalographic seizure-onset patterns associated with different epileptogenic lesions, and defined high-frequency oscillation correlates of each pattern. We analysed representative seizure types from 33 consecutive patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy and a structural magnetic resonance imaging lesion (11 mesial temporal sclerosis, nine focal cortical dysplasia, six cortical atrophy, three periventricular nodular heterotopia, three polymicrogyria, and one tuberous sclerosis complex) who underwent depth-electrode electroencephalographic recordings (500 Hz filter, 2000 Hz sampling rate). Patients were included only if seizures arose from contacts located in lesional/peri-lesional tissue, and if clinical manifestations followed the electrographic onset. Seizure-onset patterns were defined independently by two reviewers blinded to clinical information, and consensus was reached after discussion. For each seizure, pre-ictal and ictal sections were selected for high-frequency oscillation analysis. Seven seizure-onset patterns were identified across the 53 seizures sampled: low-voltage fast activity (43%); low-frequency high-amplitude periodic spikes (21%); sharp activity at ≤13 Hz (15%); spike-and-wave activity (9%); burst of high-amplitude polyspikes (6%); burst suppression (4%); and delta brush (4%). Each pattern occurred across several pathologies, except for periodic spikes, only observed with mesial temporal sclerosis, and delta brush, exclusive to focal cortical dysplasia. However, mesial temporal sclerosis was not always associated with periodic spikes nor focal cortical dysplasia with delta brush. Compared to other patterns, low-voltage fast activity was associated with a larger seizure-onset zone (P = 0.04). Four patterns, sharp activity at ≤13 Hz, low-voltage fast activity, spike-and-wave activity and periodic spikes, were also found in regions of seizure spread, with periodic spikes only emerging from mesial temporal sclerosis. Each of the seven patterns was accompanied by a significant increase in high-frequency oscillations upon seizure-onset. Overall, our data indicate that: (i) biologically-distinct epileptogenic lesions share intracranial electroencephalographic seizure-onset patterns, suggesting that different pathological substrates can affect similarly networks or mechanisms underlying seizure generation; (ii) certain pathologies are associated with intracranial electroencephalographic signatures at seizure-onset, e.g. periodic spikes which may reflect mechanisms specific to mesial temporal sclerosis; (iii) some seizure-onset patterns, including periodic spikes, can also be found in regions of spread, which cautions against relying on the morphology of the initial discharge to define the epileptogenic zone; and (iv) high-frequency oscillations increase at seizure-onset, independently of the pattern.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aim to analyze the fast oscillations in the scalp EEG of focal epilepsy patients with low-to-high rates of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), in order to determine how this neurophysiological feature influences fast oscillation occurrence and their significance as markers of the seizure onset zone (SOZ).
Thirty-two patients were studied, subdivided in four categories based on IED frequency: groups A, B and C respectively with high, intermediate and low IED rate, and group D with no IED. Thirty minutes of slow-wave sleep EEG, low-pass filtered at 300Hz and sampled at 1000Hz, were reviewed. IEDs and fast oscillations (gamma activity, 40-80Hz; and ripples, >80Hz) were marked. Each channel was classified as inside or outside the irritative zone and the SOZ. We calculated the number and rates of IEDs and fast oscillation, their co-occurrence, their frequency in the irritative zone and SOZ, and the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy to determine the SOZ in the overall population and separately for each group.
We analyzed 984 channels. Group A (high IED rate) showed the highest fast oscillation rate (gamma: 0.37±0.73; ripples: 0.17±0.26), followed by group B (gamma: 0.08±0.06; ripples: 0.07±0.05), group C (gamma: 0.06±0.06; ripples: 0.04±0.01), and finally group D, with very low values (gamma: 0.03±0; ripples: 0.03±0). IEDs co-occurred with gamma in 9.5% and with ripples in 3.2%; and gamma and ripples co-occurred with IEDs in 46.2% and 44.4%, respectively. The fast oscillations were more frequent inside than outside the irritative zone and the SOZ (p<0.001). Compared to the IEDs, the fast oscillations were less sensitive (sensitivity: IEDs 78%, gamma 66% and ripples 48%) but more specific (specificity: IEDs 50%, gamma 76% and ripples 83%) and accurate (accuracy: IEDs 54%, gamma 74% and ripples 77%) in identifying the SOZ; the same results were reproduced for the different groups separately.
This study confirms that fast oscillations can be recorded from the scalp EEG. Gamma activity and ripples are more frequent in patients with frequent IEDs and, in general, inside the irritative zone. However, compared to IEDs, gamma and ripples are less sensitive but more specific and accurate in identifying the SOZ, and this remains in patients with low fast oscillation rates. These findings suggest that IEDs and fast oscillations could share some common neuronal network, but gamma activity and ripples are a better biomarker of epileptogenicity.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Epilepsy research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging studies of epilepsy patients often show, at the time of epileptic activity, deactivation in default mode network (DMN) regions, which is hypothesized to reflect altered consciousness. We aimed to study the metabolic and electrophysiological correlates of these changes in the DMN regions. We studied six epilepsy patients that underwent scalp EEG-fMRI and later stereotaxic intracerebral EEG (SEEG) sampling regions of DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, Pre-cuneus, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral frontal cortex) as well as non-DMN regions. SEEG recordings were subject to frequency analyses comparing sections with interictal epileptic discharges (IED) to IED-free baselines in the IED-generating region, DMN and non-DMN regions. EEG-fMRI and SEEG were obtained at rest. During IEDs, EEG-fMRI demonstrated deactivation in various DMN nodes in 5 of 6 patients, most frequently the pre-cuneus and inferior parietal lobule, and less frequently the other DMN nodes. SEEG analyses demonstrated decrease in gamma power (50-150 Hz), and increase in the power of lower frequencies (<30 Hz) at times of IEDs, in at least one DMN node in all patients. These changes were not apparent in the non-DMN regions. We demonstrate that, at the time of IEDs, DMN regions decrease their metabolic demand and undergo an EEG change consisting of decreased gamma and increased lower frequencies. These findings, specific to DMN regions, confirm in a pathological condition a direct relationship between DMN BOLD activity and EEG activity. They indicate that epileptic activity affects the DMN, and therefore may momentarily reduce the consciousness level and cognitive reserve.