Jia Liu

Dalian Medical University, Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China

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Publications (168)512.03 Total impact

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Faces contain a variety of information such as one's identity and expression. One prevailing model suggests a functional division of labor in processing faces that different aspects of facial information are processed in anatomically separated and functionally encapsulated brain regions. Here, we demonstrate that facial identity and expression can be processed in the same region, yet with different neural coding strategies. To this end, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine two types of coding schemes, namely univariate activity and multivariate pattern, in the posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTS) - a face-selective region that is traditionally viewed as being specialized for processing facial expression. With the individual difference approach, we found that participants with higher overall face selectivity in the right pSTS were better at differentiating facial expressions measured outside of the scanner. In contrast, individuals whose spatial pattern for faces in the right pSTS was less similar to that for objects were more accurate in identifying previously presented faces. The double dissociation of behavioral relevance between overall neural activity and spatial neural pattern suggests that the functional-division-of-labor model on face processing is over-simplified, and that coding strategies shall be incorporated in a revised model.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    RuoSi Wang · Ling Liu · Jia Liu
    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a test-retest dataset for evaluation of long-term reliability of measures from structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and rfMRI) scans. The repeated scan dataset was collected from 61 healthy adults in two sessions using highly similar imaging parameters at an interval of 103-189 days. However, as the imaging parameters were not completely identical, the reliability estimated from this dataset shall reflect the lower bounds of the true reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures. Furthermore, in conjunction with other test-retest datasets, our dataset may help explore the impact of different imaging parameters on reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures, which is especially critical for assessing datasets collected from multiple centers. In addition, intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured for each participant using Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. The data can thus be used for purposes other than assessing reliability of sMRI/rfMRI alone. For example, data from each single session could be used to associate structural and functional measures of the brain with the IQ metrics to explore brain-IQ association.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016
  • Song Xue · Xu Wang · Wanqian Wang · Jia Liu · Jiang Qiu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have found abnormal spontaneous neural activity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Yet, the frequency-dependent neural activity in MDD is largely unknown. Here, we used resting-state fMRI and regional homogeneity (ReHo) methods to investigate spontaneous neural activity in specific frequency bands of 31 MDD patients and 31 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls. We examined spontaneous neural activity in three frequency bands: slow-4 (0.027–0.073 Hz), slow-5 (0.010–0.027 Hz), and the typical band (0.01–0.08 Hz). Compared to controls, MDD patients showed increased ReHo in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and decreased ReHo in the fusiform and postcentral gyrus at the typical band. Importantly, MDD patients showed increased ReHo in the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and decreased ReHo in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and the bilateral thalamus in the slow-4 band, while they showed increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the slow-5 band. Our results suggest that the abnormality of ReHo in MDD is associated with the frequency band and that future studies should take frequency band effect into account when examining spontaneous neural activity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Behavioural brain research
  • Song Xue · Yu Li · Xia Kong · Qiaolin He · Jia Liu · Jiang Qiu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated differences in the neural time-course of cognitive conflict and emotional conflict control, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although imaging studies have provided some evidence that distinct, dissociable neural systems underlie emotional and nonemotional conflict resolution, no ERP study has directly compared these two types of conflict. Therefore, the present study used a modified face-word Stroop task to explore the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive and emotional conflict control. The behavioral data showed that the difference in response time of congruency (incongruent condition minus the congruent condition) was larger in the cognitive conflict task than in the emotional conflict task, which indicated that cognitive conflict was stronger than the emotional conflict in the present tasks. Analysis of the ERP data revealed a main effect of task type on N2, which may be associated with top-down attention. The N450 results showed an interaction between cognitive and emotional conflict, which might be related to conflict detection. In addition, we found the incongruent condition elicited a larger SP than the congruent condition, which might be related to conflict resolution.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Neuroscience Letters
  • Xu Wang · Yiying Song · Zonglei Zhen · Jia Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Human Brain Mapping
  • Lin Zhang · Yiying Song · Ling Liu · Jia Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The problem of emotion recognition has been tackled by researchers in both affective computing and cognitive neuroscience. While affective computing relies on analyzing visual features from facial expressions, it has been proposed that humans recognize emotions by internally simulating the emotional states conveyed by others' expressions, in addition to perceptual analysis of facial features. Here we investigated whether and how our internal feelings contributed to the ability to decode facial expression. In two independent large samples of participants, we observed that individuals who generally experienced richer internal feelings exhibited a higher ability to decode facial expressions, and the contribution of internal feelings was independent of face recognition ability. Further, using voxel-based morphometry, we found that the gray matter volume (GMV) of bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the right inferior parietal lobule was associated with facial expression decoding through the mediating effect of internal feelings, while the GMV of bilateral STS, precuneus, and the right central opercular cortex contributed to facial expression decoding through the mediating effect of face recognition ability. In addition, the clusters in bilateral STS involved in the two components were neighboring yet separate. Our results may provide clues about the mechanism by which internal feelings, in addition to face recognition ability, serve as an important instrument for humans in facial expressions decoding.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · NeuroImage
  • Zhirui Guo · Shasha Xu · Na Du · Jia Liu · Yiyun Huang · Mei Han
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a loss of nigrostriata dopaminergic neurons, which has been thought, at least in part, to result from oxidative stress. The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of stemazole (ST) on the dopamine (DA) system and its possible mechanisms of action in a mouse model of PD. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with MPTP (20 mg/kg) four times at 2-h intervals for one day to induce Parkinsonism, and then treated with ST (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) or Madopar (120 mg/kg) for 7 days. Behavioral analyses were performed with locomotor activity measures and rotarod test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were detected by immunohistochemistry method. DA and its metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector. Oxidative stress levels were assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH–PX). Our results demonstrated that ST treatment improved locomotor activity and motor coordination in MPTP mice. There was also a significant increase in TH-positive cells (∼24%, P < 0.01) and DAT levels (∼26%, P < 0.01) in MPTP mice treated with ST (50 mg/kg) compared with the vehicle group. Madopar treatment showed weaker effects on TH-positive cells (21%, P < 0.05) and DAT levels (21%, P < 0.05). DA and its metabolite levels were significantly increased with ST (50 mg/kg) treatment (P < 0.01, compared with the vehicle group). In addition, SOD and GSH–PX activities were elevated notably in ST treatment groups compared with the vehicle group. In conclusion, these results suggest that ST has neuroprotective effect on the impaired DA system, potentially through enhancement of the cell’s anti-oxidative capacity. Hence it may be used as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson’s disease.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Neuroscience Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The functional region of interest (fROI) approach has increasingly become a favored methodology in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because it can circumvent inter-subject anatomical and functional variability, and thus increase the sensitivity and functional resolution of fMRI analyses. The standard fROI method requires human experts to meticulously examine and identify subject-specific fROIs within activation clusters. This process is time-consuming and heavily dependent on experts’ knowledge. Several algorithmic approaches have been proposed for identifying subject-specific fROIs; however, these approaches cannot easily incorporate prior knowledge of inter-subject variability. In the present study, we improved the multi-atlas labeling approach for defining subject-specific fROIs. In particular, we used a classifier-based atlas-encoding scheme and an atlas selection procedure to account for the large spatial variability across subjects. Using a functional atlas database for face recognition, we showed that with these two features, our approach efficiently circumvented inter-subject anatomical and functional variability and thus improved labeling accuracy. Moreover, in comparison with a single-atlas approach, our multi-atlas labeling approach showed better performance in identifying subject-specific fROIs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spatial navigation is a crucial ability for living. Previous animal studies have shown that the S100B gene is causally related to spatial navigation performance in mice. However, the genetic factors influencing human navigation and its neural substrates remain unclear. Here, we provided the first evidence that the S100B gene modulates neural processing of navigationally relevant scenes in humans. First, with a novel protocol, we demonstrated that the spatial pattern of S100B gene expression in postmortem brains was associated with brain activation pattern for spatial navigation in general, and for scene processing in particular. Further, in a large fMRI cohort of healthy adults of Han Chinese (N = 202), we found that S100B gene polymorphisms modulated scene selectivity in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and parahippocampal place area. Finally, the serum levels of S100B protein mediated the association between S100B gene polymorphism and scene selectivity in the RSC. Our study takes the first step toward understanding the neurogenetic mechanism of human spatial navigation and suggests a novel approach to discover candidate genes modulating cognitive functions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cerebral Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: TPN729MA is a novel selective PDE5 inhibitor currently under clinical development in China for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In this study we characterized its preclinical pharmacokinetics (PK) and predict its human PK using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Methods: The preclinical PK of TPN729MA was studied in rats and dogs. Human clearance (CL) values for TPN729MA were predicted from various allometric methods and from intrinsic CL determined in human liver microsomes. Human PK and plasma concentration versus time profiles of TPN729MA were predicted by using a PBPK model in GastroPlus. Considering the uncertainties in the prediction, a preliminary human study was conducted in 3 healthy male volunteers with an oral dose of 25 mg. Results: After a single intravenous administration of TPN729MA at a dose of 1 mg/kg in rats and 3 mg/kg in dogs, the plasma CL was 69.7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) in rats and 26.3 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) in dogs, and the steady-state volumes of distribution (Vss) were 7.35 L/kg in rats and 6.48 L/kg in dogs. The oral bioavailability of TPN729MA was 10% in rats and above 34% in dogs. Profiles of predicted plasma concentration versus time were similar to those observed in humans at 25 mg, and the predicted Tmax, Cmax and AUC values were within 2-fold of the observed values. Conclusion: TPN729MA demonstrates good preclinical PK. This compound is a valuable candidate for further clinical development. This study shows the benefits of using a PBPK model to predict PK in humans.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of 'isolated' structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions. This implementation allows nodes in the brain network to be functionally/anatomically homogeneous but different with respect to shape and size. We first demonstrated the new network framework in a healthy sample. Thereafter, we studied the graph-theoretical properties of the networks obtained and compared the results with previous morphological, anatomical, and functional networks. The robustness of the method was assessed via measurement of the reliability of the network metrics using a test-retest dataset. Finally, to illustrate potential applications, the networks were used to measure age-related changes in commonly used network metrics. Results suggest that the proposed method could provide a concise description of brain organization at a network level and be used to investigate interindividual variability in brain morphology from the perspective of complex networks. Furthermore, the method could open a new window into modeling the complexly distributed brain and facilitate the emerging field of human connectomics.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Yiying Song · Qi Zhu · Jingguang Li · Xu Wang · Jia Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive studies have demonstrated that face recognition performance does not reach adult levels until adolescence. However, there is no consensus on whether such prolonged improvement stems from development of general cognitive factors or face-specific mechanisms. Here, we used behavioral experiments and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate these two hypotheses. With a large cohort of children (n = 379), we found that the ability of face-specific recognition in humans increased with age throughout childhood and into late adolescence in both face memory and face perception. Neurally, to circumvent the potential problem of age differences in task performance, attention, or cognitive strategies in task-state fMRI studies, we measured the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) inhumanbrain and found that theOFA-FFARSFC increased until 11–13 years of age. Moreover, the OFA-FFA RSFC was selectively impaired in adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). In contrast, no age-related changes or differences between DP and normal adults were observed for RSFCs in the object system. Finally, the OFA-FFA RSFC matured earlier than face selectivity in either the OFA or FFA. These results suggest the critical role of the OFA-FFA RSFC in the development of face recognition. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that prolonged development of face recognition is face specific, not domain general.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Resveratrol inhibits cervical cancer (CC) cells by blocking STAT3 signaling. However, the mechanism of resveratrol-induced STAT3 inactivation remains largely unknown. SHP2, PIAS3, and SOCS3 are STAT3 negative regulators; therefore, their statuses in cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa and C33A) cell lines without and with resveratrol treatment and their correlation with STAT3 activation in CC specimens were investigated. Methods: MTT and TUNEL assays were used to check the resveratrol sensitivity of CC cells, and immunocytochemical staining, Western blotting, and RT-PCR were used to analyze SHP2, PIAS3, and SOCS3 expression and the intracellular distribution of STAT3. Tissue microarray based immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate potential correlations between SHP2, PIAS3, and SOCS3 expression and STAT3 activation. Results: PIAS3 and SOCS3 were found to be weakly expressed in CC cells and upregulated by resveratrol; this was accompanied by inhibition of STAT3 signaling. The SHP2 level remained unchanged in all three cell lines after resveratrol treatment. STAT3 nuclear translocation was more frequent in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas than that of their noncancerous counterparts. The SOCS3 level and detection rate were higher in noncancerous squamous cells (but not in glandular epithelia) compared with their cancerous counterparts. The phospho-SHP2 detection rate was similar in noncancerous and tumor tissues of squamous and glandular origins; however, PIAS3 levels were distinct. Conclusions: Of the three STAT3 negative regulators, PIAS3 correlated most negatively with STAT3 nuclear translocation and may inhibit STAT3 signaling in both histological CC subtypes. PIAS3 responsiveness may reflect greater resveratrol sensitivity and improved therapeutic outcome in CCs.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Gynecologic Oncology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efforts to identify meaningful functional imaging-based biomarkers are limited by the ability to reliably characterize inter-individual differences in human brain function. Although a growing number of connectomics-based measures are reported to have moderate to high test-retest reliability, the variability in data acquisition, experimental designs, and analytic methods precludes the ability to generalize results. The Consortium for Reliability and Reproducibility (CoRR) is working to address this challenge and establish test-retest reliability as a minimum standard for methods development in functional connectomics. Specifically, CoRR has aggregated 1,629 typical individuals’ resting state fMRI (rfMRI) data (5,093 rfMRI scans) from 18 international sites, and is openly sharing them via the International Data-sharing Neuroimaging Initiative (INDI). To allow researchers to generate various estimates of reliability and reproducibility, a variety of data acquisition procedures and experimental designs are included. Similarly, to enable users to assess the impact of commonly encountered artifacts (for example, motion) on characterizations of inter-individual variation, datasets of varying quality are included.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    Feng Kong · Xu Wang · Yiying Song · Jia Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mindfulness can be viewed as an important dispositional characteristic that reflects the tendency to be mindful in daily life, which is beneficial for improving individuals' both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, no study to date has examined the brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional mindfulness during the resting state and its relation with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. To investigate this issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) that measures the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in a large sample. We found that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with the ReHo in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and right insula implicated in emotion processing, body awareness and self-referential processing, and negatively associated with the ReHo in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) implicated in response inhibition and attentional control. Furthermore, we found different neural associations with hedonic (i.e., positive and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (i.e., the meaningful and purposeful life). Specifically, the ReHo in the IFG predicted eudaimonic well-being whereas the OFC predicted positive affect, both of which were mediated by dispositional mindfulness. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for linking individual differences in dispositional mindfulness to spontaneous brain activity and demonstrates that dispositional mindfulness engages multiple brain mechanisms that differentially influence hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Social neuroscience
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    RuoSi Wang · Ling Liu · Jia Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficits in social communication are one of the behavioral signatures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because faces are arguably the most important social stimuli that we encounter in everyday life, investigating the ability of individuals with ASD to process faces is thought to be important for understanding the nature of ASD. However, although a considerable body of evidence suggests that ASD individuals show specific impairments in face processing, a significant number of studies argue otherwise. Through a literature review, we found that this controversy is largely attributable to the different face tests used across different studies. Therefore, a more reliable and valid face test is needed. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis on data gleaned from a variety of face tests conducted on individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) who suffer a selective deficit in face processing. Based on this meta-analysis, we selected an old/new face recognition test that relies on face memory as a standard diagnostic test for measuring specific face processing deficits. This test not only reliably reflects DP individuals' subjective experiences with faces in their daily lives, but also effectively differentiates deficits in face processing from deficits caused by other general problems. In addition, DP individuals' performance in this test predicts their performance in a variety of face tests that examine specific components of face processing (e.g., holistic processing of faces). Finally, this test can be easily administrated and is not overly sensitive to prior knowledge. In summary, this test can be used to evaluate face-processing ability, and it helped to resolve the controversy whether individuals with ASD exhibit face-processing deficits.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Science China. Life sciences
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
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    Feng Kong · Xu Wang · Siyuan Hu · Jia Liu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychological resilience refers to the ability to thrive in the face of risk and adversity, which is crucial for individuals' mental and physical health. However, its precise neural correlates are still largely unknown. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to identify the brain regions underlying this construct by correlating individuals' psychological resilience scores with the regional homogeneity (ReHo), and then examined how these resilience-related regions predicted life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults. We found that the ReHo in the bilateral insula, right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right rostral ACC (rACC) negatively predicted individual differences in psychological resilience, revealing the critical role of the salience network (SN) in psychological resilience. Crucially, the ReHo in the dACC within the SN mediated the effects of psychological resilience on life satisfaction. In summary, these findings suggest that spontaneous activity of the human brain reflect the efficiency of psychological resilience and highlight the dACC within the SN as a neural substrate linking psychological resilience and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · NeuroImage
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2015

Publication Stats

3k Citations
512.03 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2015
    • Dalian Medical University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Pathology
      Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China
  • 2012
    • Wuhan University
      • State Key Lab of Software Engineering
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2011
    • Yunnan University
      • Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources
      Yün-nan, Yunnan, China
  • 2009-2010
    • Beijing Normal University
      • State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Center for Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Research
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2006
    • Instituto de Ciencia y Medicina Genómica
      Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico
  • 2001-2005
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States