[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of dietary zinc supplementation on bone metabolism in rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a 30.0 mg zinc/kg diet (C), a 300.0 mg zinc/kg diet (HZ) or a 3,000.0 mg zinc/kg diet (EZ) for 4 weeks. The zinc content of the femur gradually increased in accordance with the gradual increase in the dietary zinc level. Although the mRNA expression of zinc transporters in bone did not differ between the groups, the mRNA expression of metallothioneins was increased in the HZ and EZ groups compared to the C group. Moreover, the bone mineral density was significantly decreased in the HZ and EZ groups compared to the C group. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin-1β and osteoclastogenesis-related genes such as receptor for activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 was significantly increased in the HZ and EZ groups compared to the C group. These findings suggested that dietary zinc supplementation reduced bone mineral density through the promotion of bone resorption via an increase in the expression of receptor for activator of NF-κB ligand induced by tumor necrosis factor α and Interleukin-1β.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency on oxidative stress and bone metabolism. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups for 4 weeks: a zinc-adequate group (30 ppm); a zinc-deficient group (1 ppm); and a pair-fed group (30 ppm) that was pair-fed to the zinc-deficient group. The iron content and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level in bone were higher in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. The mRNA expression level of osteoblastogenesis-related genes such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt-related transcription factor 2 was lower in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. In contrast, the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and osteoclastogenesis-related genes such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 were higher in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups.These findings suggested that dietary zinc deficiency reduced osteoblastogenesis via a decrease in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and increased osteoclastogenesis via enhancement of the expression of receptor for activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand induced by oxidative stress-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation on bone metabolism, kidney mineral concentrations, and kidney function in rats fed a high-phosphorus (P) diet. Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups and fed their respective diets for 21 d: a diet containing 0.3% P and 0.5% Ca (C), a diet containing 1.5% P and 0.5% Ca (HP), a diet containing 0.3% P and 1.0% Ca (HCa), or a diet containing 1.5% P and 1.0% Ca (HPCa). Compared to the C group, the high-P diet increased serum parathyroid hormone concentration, markers of bone turnover, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand mRNA expression of the femur, kidney Ca and P concentrations, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, and urinary β2-microglobulin excretion, and decreased bone mineral content and bone mineral density of the femur and tibia. Dietary Ca supplementation improved the parameters of bone metabolism and kidney function in rats fed the high-P diet, while there were no significant differences in kidney Ca or P concentrations between the HP and HPCa groups. These results suggest that dietary Ca supplementation prevented the bone loss and decline in kidney function induced by a high-P diet, whereas dietary Ca supplementation did not affect kidney mineral concentrations in rats fed the high-P diet.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the effects of high phosphorus (P) diet on bone metabolism-related gene expression were investigated in young and aged mice. Twelve- and 80-week-old ddY male mice were divided into two groups, respectively, and fed a control diet containing 0.3% P or a high P diet containing 1.2% P. After 4 weeks of treatment, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration was significantly higher in the high P groups than in the control groups in both young and aged mice and was significantly higher in aged mice than in young mice fed the high P diet. High P diet significantly increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA in the femur of both young and aged mice and significantly increased the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA ratio only in aged mice. High P diet significantly increased mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6, calbindin-D9k, and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 1b in the duodenum of both young and aged mice. These results suggest that high P diet increased RANKL mRNA expression in the femur and calcium absorption-related gene expression in the duodenum regardless of age. Furthermore, the high P diet-induced increase in PTH secretion might increase the RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in aged mice.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of nutrition and metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria, which cleave isoflavone glycosides to yield corresponding aglycones, and convert metabolites by enhancing enterohepatic recirculation of isoflavones in rats. In the present study, we determined the synergistic effect of dietary isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were gastrectomized (n = 20) or sham operated, (control, n = 5) and then randomly assigned to 5 diet groups: sham-a purified diet control, gastrectomized-control, gastrectomized-isoflavone (0.2% isoflavone glycosides), gastrectomized-fructooligosaccharides (7.5% fructooligosaccharides), and isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides (0.2% isoflavone glycosides + 7.5% fructooligosaccharides). After 6 weeks, the rats were killed and biological samples were collected. In gastrectomized rats, fructooligosaccharides prevented femoral bone fragility, but isoflavone without fructooligosaccharides did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia. Isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides exhibited a synergistic in the distal metaphyseal trabecular bone, indicated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Moreover, fructooligosaccharides increased calcium absorption and equol production from daidzein in gastrectomized rats. These results indicate that isoflavone alone did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia, but the combination of isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides improved the inhibition of trabecular bone loss by increasing calcium absorption and equol production through fructooligosaccharides supplementation.
Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the effects of the S-enantiomer and racemic forms of equol on bone using ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Femoral bone mineral density and bone strength decreased in the OVX mice, but not in OVX mice administered 0.5 mg/d S-equol. This, however, did not hold for racemic equol. Serum and urine S-equol concentrations were higher in the mice administered S-equol than in those administered racemic equol. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of S-equol on bone fragility in OVX mice are greater than those of racemic equol.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the influence of Mg feeding frequency on the variation in serum Mg concentration and tissue Mg levels in Mg-deficient rats. Sprague-Dawley rats, which had been fed a Mg-deficient diet for 14 d, were divided into 3 groups that were kept on 3 diets differing in their Mg content. The rats were fed 0.5-fold (Mg250 group), 1-fold (Mg500 group), or 1.5-fold (Mg750 group) the amounts of recommended Mg in their standard AIN-93G diet (Mg: 478 mg/kg diet) during the recovery period (12 d). The Mg500 and Mg750 groups were intermittently fed (Mg500, every 2 d; Mg750, every 3 d) so that their total intake of Mg during the recovery period could equal the Mg intake of the Mg250 group. The serum Mg concentrations increased in the 3 groups after feeding with a Mg-containing diet. However, serum Mg levels were only maintained within the normal range in the Mg250 group. After feeding on the Mg-deficient diet, in the intermittently fed groups, serum Mg concentrations decreased. Urinary Mg excretion was higher and Mg retention was lower in the Mg500 and Mg750 groups than in the Mg250 group. Moreover, bone Mg, especially elutable bone Mg, was lower in the Mg500 and Mg750 groups than in the Mg250 group. The elutable fraction of bone Mg correlated to the coefficient of variation of serum Mg concentration. In conclusion, for the maintenance of serum Mg concentration, it is important to increase the amount of elutable bone Mg by frequent Mg consumption.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrus bioflavonoids may offer some protection against the early stage of diabetes mellitus and the development of complications. We investigated the effect of hesperidin on blood glucose levels, hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities, serum insulin and adiponectin levels, serum and hepatic lipid levels, and parameters of bone loss in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced marginal type 1 diabetic rats. Weanling male rats were randomly assigned to experimental 3 groups: a control (C) group, a STZ induced marginal type 1 diabetes (S) group, and a diabetes and hesperidin group, and fed their respective diets for 4 weeks. STZ injection increased blood glucose in rats, but the increase was marginal. Serum and hepatic lipids, serum adiponectin and insulin levels were significantly changed by STZ injection. Dietary hesperidin (10 g/kg diet) decreased blood glucose by altering the activity of glucose-regulating enzymes, and normalized the lipids and adiponectin levels, but did not change bone parameters in the marginal type 1 diabetic rats. Hesperidin showed both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects but did not affect bone tissue and bone metabolic makers in STZ-injected marginal diabetic weanling rats without any body weight loss due to STZ injection.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of two hesperertin glycosides, namely, hesperidin and cyclodextrin (CD)-clathrated hesperetin, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) weanling rats with type 2 diabetes. We demonstrated that hesperidin and CD-hesperetin normalized glucose metabolism by altering the activities of glucose-regulating enzymes and reducing the levels of lipids in the serum and liver of the GK rats. These effects of hesperidin glycosides were partly produced by altering the expression of genes encoding the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and the low-density lipoprotein receptor.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency (ID) is one of the most commonly known forms of nutritional deficiencies. Low body iron is thought to induce neurologic defects but may also play a protective role against cancer development by cell growth arrest. Thus, ID may affect cellular pathways controlling cell growth and proliferation, the mechanism of which is still not fully understood. The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt and its downstream target, the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is known to play a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth and survival. Therefore, we hypothesized that Akt/mTOR pathway could be influenced by ID. Three-week-old male Wistar-strain rats were divided into 3 groups and the 2 groups had free access to a control diet (C group) or an iron-deficient diet (D group). The third group (PF group) were pair-fed the control diet to the mean intake of the D group. After 4 weeks, rats were killed and their brains were sampled. In separate experiments, COS-1 cells were cultured with or without the iron chelator deferoxamine. Western blots of brain samples and COS-1 lysates were used to analyze the expression and phosphorylation state of Akt, TSC2, mTOR, and S6 kinase proteins implicated in the Akt/mTOR pathway. Using 2 different ID models, we show for the first time that iron deficiency depresses Akt activity in rats and in COS-1 cells, leading to a decrease in mTOR activity.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Nutrition research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to clarify the regulatory mechanism of Mg homeostasis on administration of excessive Mg in rats. Six-week-old male Wistar rats (n=30) were fed a Mg-deficient diet (D) or a control diet (M) in addition to which they received subcutaneous injections of saline (S) or additional Mg (M) for 14 d. Feces and urine were collected from the rats for 4 d every week. Between the MS and MM rats and the DS and DM rats, the injection of additional Mg increased Mg retention, but intestinal Mg absorption did not differ. Urinary Mg excretion in the MM rats was significantly greater than that in the MS rats, but fecal Mg excretion did not increase. Mg retention in the DM rats was approximately 30% of that in the MS rats, and urinary Mg excretion did not differ between the 2 groups, although the serum Mg in DM rats was low. There was no significant difference in the femoral Mg between the MM and MS groups. The physiological Mg pool in the bone appears to be limited. Therefore, there is no physiological Mg pool for the storage of excessive Mg, and there appears to be no negative feedback mechanism on intestinal Mg absorption upon administration of excessive Mg in the rats. In conclusion, it appears that the kidney is the only organ that regulates Mg in the body; apart from this, regulatory mechanisms corresponding to the physiological Mg requirement do not exist or are weak.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We estimated the intake of individual flavonoids in a cross sectional study and clarified the major sources contributing to the flavonoid levels in the middle-aged Japanese women by a 24-h weighed dietary record study. The subjects included in the study were 516 free-living women. Each subject completed a 24-h weighed dietary record and received a health check-up. We used the Functional Food Factor database for estimating the intake of 5 major flavonoid intakes, i.e. flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavones. The mean intake of flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavones was 1277, 216, 58, 31 and 15 micromol/d, respectively. The richest source of flavan-3-ols was green tea. The 3 major food sources of isoflavone were the processed soy foods and those of flavonol were the onion, moroheiya (nalta jute) and Japanese radish leaves. Grapefruit and citrus fruit juices were the major sources of flavanones, and tsurumurasaki (malabar spinach), green pepper and grapefruit were the main sources of flavone. Furthermore, analysis of sub-samples from middle-aged Japanese women indicated that there may be an association between flavonoid intake and the levels of oxidized LDL, which might be related to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the manner in which dietary iron deficiency decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. Eighteen 3-wk-old male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each. The rats in 2 of the 3 groups had free access to a control diet (C group) or an iron-deficient diet (ID group) for 4 wk. The rats in the third group (PF group) were pair-fed the control diet to the mean intake of the ID group. Compared with the C and PF groups, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly reduced and bone mineral content and BMD of the femur were significantly lower in the ID group. Bone histomorphometric parameters showed that the bone formation rate and osteoclast surface in the lumbar vertebra were significantly reduced in the ID group compared with the C and PF groups. Furthermore, dietary iron deficiency decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, insulin-like growth factor-I, and osteocalcin concentrations and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline. These results suggest that severe iron deficiency decreases not only bone formation but also bone resorption.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) supplementation on lipid peroxidation and the lipid content in the liver and serum of magnesium (Mg)-deficient rats. Eighteen 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley strain rats were divided into 3 groups and maintained on a control diet (C group), a low-Mg diet (D group), or a low-Mg diet supplemented with AsA (DA group) for 42 d. At the end of this period, the final body weight, weight gain, and serum Mg concentrations were significantly decreased in the Mg-deficient rats. Further, dietary AsA supplementation had no effect on the growth, serum Mg concentration, Mg absorption, and Mg retention. The serum concentration of AsA was significantly lower in the D group than in the C group but was unaltered in the DA group. The levels of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) in the serum and of triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) in the serum and liver were significantly higher in the D group than in the C group. The serum PCOOH, liver TG, and liver TC levels were decreased in the DA group. These results indicate that Mg deficiency increases the AsA requirement of the body and that AsA supplementation normalizes the serum levels of PCOOH and the liver lipid content in Mg-deficient rats, without altering the Mg status.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Daidzein, a major isoflavone predominantly found in soybean, is mainly metabolized to equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) by the human gut microflora. Equol exhibits a stronger estrogenic activity than daidzein, however, only approximately 30% of the population has been identified as equol-producers and there are too few direct evidences of the effects of the other major metabolite, O-DMA on estrogen-deficient status. The purpose of this study is therefore, to compare the effect of both O-DMA and equol on bone and lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro. For the in vivo study, 8-week-old female mice were assigned to five groups as follows: sham-operated (sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + 0.5 mg/day O-DMA (OVX + O-DMA), OVX + 0.5 mg/day equol (OVX + Eq), and OVX + 0.03 microg/day 17beta-estradiol (OVX + E2) administration. Three weeks after the intervention, O-DMA and equol did not affect uterine atrophy in OVX mice. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was lower in the OVX group than in the sham group. The administration of equol but not O-DMA, maintained BMD through the intervention. Values of whole body fat mass and plasma lipids were lower in the equol and O-DMA treated OVX mice than those in OVX mice. In the in vitro study, equol significantly inhibited the osteoclast formation induced by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in a dose-dependent manner in a co-culture system of mouse bone-marrow cells with primary osteoblastic cells. However, O-DMA slightly inhibited osteoclast formation, and the effect was not dose dependent. These results suggest that the effects of O-DMA on bone and lipid metabolism in OVX mice and osteoclast cell cultures are weaker than those of equol.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-phosphorus (P) diet induces nephrocalcinosis in rats; however, the mechanism for onset of this disorder is unclear. The calcium (Ca) deposits in kidney are a form of hydroxyapatite, while osteopontin is combined with hydroxyapatite. Based on these observations, we speculated that the osteopontin play an important role in the formation of the Ca deposits induced by high-P diet. This study was investigated the effect of high-P diet on osteopontin expression in kidney. Female Wistar rats were fed diets containing P concentrations of either 0.3% (control diet) or 1.5% (high-P diet) for 14 days. On von Kossa staining, Ca deposits were seen in the tubules of the cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla in rats fed on the high-P diet. Expression of osteopontin was confirmed in rats fed on the high-P diet by immunohistochemical staining, and the localization of this protein was in the same region as the Ca deposits. On the other hand, no evidence of Ca deposits and osteopontin expression was observed in the tubules of the cortex, outer medulla or inner medulla of rats fed on the control diet. These results suggest that high-P diet induces osteopontin expression in the renal tubules. Moreover, our results suggest that increase in osteopontin expression in the renal tubules is presumably involved in the formation of Ca deposits induced by high-P diet.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition