[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice subjected to traumatic brain injury at postnatal day 21 show emerging cognitive deficits that coincide with hippocampal neuronal loss. Here we consider glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity as a determinant of recovery in the injured immature brain.
Wild-type and transgenic (GPxTg) mice overexpressing GPx were subjected to traumatic brain injury or sham surgery at postnatal day 21. Animals were killed acutely (3 or 24 hours after injury) to assess oxidative stress and cell injury in the hippocampus or 4 months after injury after behavioral assessments.
In the acutely injured brains, a reduction in oxidative stress markers including nitrotyrosine was seen in the injured GPxTg group relative to wild-type control mice. In contrast, cell injury, with marked vulnerability in the dentate gyrus, was apparent despite no differences between genotypes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an emerging cortical lesion during brain maturation that was also indistinguishable between injured genotypes. Stereological analyses of cortical volumes likewise confirmed no genotypic differences between injured groups. However, behavioral tests beginning 3 months after injury demonstrated improved spatial memory learning in the GPxTg group. Moreover, stereological analysis within hippocampal subregions demonstrated a significantly greater number of neurons within the dentate of the GPx group.
Our results implicate GPx in recovery of spatial memory after traumatic brain injury. This recovery may be attributed, in part, to a reduction in early oxidative stress and selective, long-term sparing of neurons in the dentate.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Annals of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children and both clinical and experimental data reveal that the immature brain is unique in its response and vulnerability to TBI compared to the adult brain. Current therapies for pediatric TBI focus on physiologic derangements and are based primarily on adult data. However, it is now evident that secondary biochemical perturbations play an important role in the pathobiology of pediatric TBI and may provide specific therapeutic targets for the treatment of the head-injured child. In this review, we discuss three specific components of the secondary pathogenesis of pediatric TBI-- inflammation, oxidative injury, and iron-induced damage-- and potential therapeutic strategies associated with each. The inflammatory response in the immature brain is more robust than in the adult and characterized by greater disruption of the blood-brain barrier and elaboration of cytokines. The immature brain also has a muted response to oxidative stress compared to the adult due to inadequate expression of certain antioxidant molecules. In addition, the developing brain is less able to detoxify free iron after TBI-induced hemorrhage and cell death. These processes thus provide potential therapeutic targets that may be tailored to pediatric TBI, including anti-inflammatory agents such as minocycline, antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase, and the iron chelator deferoxamine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immature brain may be particularly vulnerable to injury during critical periods of development. To address the biologic basis for this vulnerability, mice were subjected to traumatic brain injury at postnatal day 21, a time point that approximates that of the toddler-aged child. After motor and cognitive testing at either 2 weeks (juveniles) or 3 months (adults) after injury, animals were euthanized and the brains prepared for quantitative histologic assessment. Brain-injured mice exhibited hyperactivity and age-dependent anxiolysis. Cortical lesion volume and subcortical neuronal loss were greater in brain-injured adults than in juveniles. Importantly, cognitive decline was delayed in onset and coincided with loss of neurons in the hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate that trauma to the developing brain results in a prolonged period of pathogenesis in both cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral changes are a likely consequence of regional-specific neuronal degeneration.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Developmental Neuroscience