Hirofumi Kawamoto

Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Kawasaki, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (97)332.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is limited by the need for liver biopsies. Serum cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) levels have been investigated as potential biomarkers for the presence of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Herein, we assessed the correlation between CK-18 levels and NAFLD progression. Material and methods: Serum CK-18 levels were estimated using the M30 antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 147 patients diagnosed with NAFLD. In 72 patients, disease progression was evaluated by repeated liver biopsy, which was conducted after 4.3 ± 2.6 years. The relationship between the CK-18 levels and liver histological findings was assessed. Results: The CK-18 levels were useful for identifying NAFLD patients with NAFLD activity scores (NAS) ≥ 5 (NAS ≥ 5 vs. ≤ 4: 675.1 U/L vs. 348.7 U/L; p < 0.0001). A cut-off value of 375 U/L was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve approach, with a specificity and sensitivity of 81.5 and 65%, respectively, for the diagnosis of NASH. Among the 72 patients who underwent repeated liver biopsy, 11 patients with a progressed NAS also had significantly increased serum CK-18 levels (p < 0.01); in 30 patients with an improved NAS, there was a significant improvement in the mean CK-18 levels (p < 0.0001). The 31 patients with static NAS had static CK-18 levels. Conclusions: In conclusion, serum CK-18 levels can predict NAS ≥ 5 in NAFLD patients. In NAFLD patients, serum CK-18 levels reflect NAS values and correlate with histological changes, and they appear to be useful indicators of progression and improvement.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology
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    Hironari Kato · Koichiro Tsutsumi · Hirofumi Kawamoto · Hiroyuki Okada
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    ABSTRACT: The management of jaundice and cholangitis is important for improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients with unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures (UMHBS). In addition, effective chemotherapy, such as a combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin, requires the successful control of jaundice and cholangitis. However, endoscopic drainage for UMHBS is technical demanding, and continuing controversies exist in the selection of the most appropriate devices and techniques for stent deployment. Although metallic stents (MS) are superior to the usual plastic stents in terms of patency, an extensive comparison between MS and "inside stents", which are deployed above the sphincter of Oddi, is necessary. Which techniques are preferred remains as yet unresolved: for instance, whether to use a unilateral or bilateral drainage, or a stent-in-stent or side-by-side method for the deployment of bilateral MS, although a new cell design and thin delivery system for MS allowed us to accomplish successful deployments of bilateral MS. The development of techniques and devices for re-intervention after stent occlusion is also imperative. Further critical investigations of more effective devices and techniques, and increased randomized controlled trials are warranted to resolve these important issues.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Amino acid imbalance is often found in patients with cirrhosis, and this imbalance is associated with insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance remains unclear. We evaluated serum amino acid concentrations in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to determine if any of the levels of amino acids were associated with the biochemical markers and fibrosis stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In 137 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent liver biopsy, plasma levels of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), tyrosine (Tyr), and the BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were determined using mass spectroscopy. These values were then assessed for associations with fibrosis stage, anthropometric markers (age, sex, and body mass index), biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, albumin, platelet count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin), and relevant disease-specific biomarkers (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], serum iron, ferritin, leptin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid). Serum albumin levels, plasma BCAA levels, and BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were negatively associated with the fibrosis stage. In contrast, Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic staging. Tyr levels were also correlated with HOMA-IR results. Plasma BCAA levels in patients with NASH decreased with increasing liver fibrosis, while Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic stage. These results suggest that amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance are intimately involved in a complex pathogenic mechanism for NASH.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: A 68-year-old man presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven months earlier, he had received systemic chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the spleen, followed by splenectomy. Abdominal computed tomography and abdominal arterial angiography showed diffuse ischemia of the mesenteric artery without apparent occlusion. The patient also suffered from septicemia caused by Enterococcus faecium. Therefore, a diagnosis of non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) induced by septicemia was supposed. Although treatment with antibiotics and papaverine hydrochloride was administered and the necrotic tissue in the intestinal tract was resected, the patient died. Physicians should be aware that patients undergoing splenectomy are likely to be affected by septicemia, which may subsequently induce NOMI.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Observation of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD) is important; however, biopsy is gold standard for assessing liver fibrosis, and has risk of critical complications. New non-invasive examination, a measurement of serum Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) was invented. We investigated the significance of measuring serum WFA+-M2BP for observing hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD by analyzing repeated biopsied cases. 46 patients were enrolled, and between two biopsies, liver fibrosis of 15 patients was unchanged, 18 patients worsened, and 13 patients improved. In unchanged group, serum WFA+-M2BP did not change, but worsened group tended to increase and improved group decreased. From present data monitoring serum WFA+-M2BP may useful to non-invasively observe liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Kanzo
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive jaundice caused by metastases to the porta hepatis is often observed in patients with various advanced cancers; however, metastasis of lung cancer to the common bile duct with subsequent development of jaundice is rare. A 75-year-old female with lung adenocarcinoma harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (15-bp in-frame deletion in exon 19 and T790M in exon 20) developed obstructive jaundice during therapy. Obstruction of the common bile duct caused by an intraductal tumor was identified by computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography. Although primary cholangiocarcinoma was highly suspected according to the imaging findings, immunohistochemical evaluation of the intraductal tumor demonstrated thyroid transcription factor-1 positive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp analysis showed that the tumor contained the same EGFR mutation as that in the primary lung cancer. Thus, we confirmed intraductal metastasis from a lung adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the second report of obstructive jaundice caused by intraductal metastasis of lung cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · OncoTargets and Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: There have been limited studies evaluating single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP for evaluation of pancreatic masses. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP, and to compare the diagnostic accuracies of cytodiagnosis by EUS-FNA, ERCP, and their combination. A total of 100 patients with pancreatic masses were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP. The main outcome measurement was frequency of post-procedural complications. Another measurement was diagnostic accuracy of cytodiagnosis by EUS-FNA, ERCP, and their combination. Procedure-related pancreatitis occurred in 10 patients, but all patients were conservatively managed. Cytodiagnosis by EUS-FNA was significantly superior to ERCP in accuracy. In patients with a pancreatic head mass, 3 cases of false negative EUS-FNA were positive on ERCP. The combination procedures improved accuracy compared with EUS-FNA alone. By contrast, in the subgroup of the pancreatic body or tail mass, the combination of EUS-FNA and ERCP did not improve cytodiagnosis compared to that with EUS-FNA alone. Single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP appears to be as safe as performing each procedure separately. EUS-FNA should be considered the principal procedure for cytodiagnosis. ERCP has only a complementary role in patients with pancreatic head mass.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Hepato-gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The treatment of biliary stricture is crucially important for continuing stable chemotherapy for unresectable biliary carcinoma; however, there is no consensus regarding the use of hilar biliary drainage. In this study, we examined the efficacy of endoscopic over 3-branched biliary drainage using self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) in patients with unresectable malignant hilar biliary stricture (HBS). Methods: A total of 77 patients with unresectable HBS treated with a SEMS and chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. There were 59 patients with cholangiocarcinoma and 18 patients with gallbladder carcinoma. The patients were divided into 2 groups (4- or 3-branched group and 2- or 1-branched group) and compared with respect to the duration of stent patency and overall survival. Results: A comparison of the patients' baseline characteristics showed no significant differences between the 4- or 3-branched group and the 2- or 1-branched group. Neither the duration of patency nor survival time exhibited significant differences between the 2 groups, although, among the patients achieving disease control , the duration of patency period and survival time of the 4- or 3-branched group were significantly higher than those observed in the 2- or 1-branched group (P=0.0231 and 0.0466). Conclusions: The use of endoscopic over 3-branched biliary drainage with a SEMS may improve the duration of patency in patients with HBS.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA are an important predictor of the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic HBV infection. However, little is known about whether high levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) increase the risk for HCC. We investigated 167 patients who were treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) for at least 2 years (median: 5.8 years, range: 2-13.1 years). Relationships between reduced levels of HBsAg and various factors were evaluated. In addition, we evaluated the usefulness of quantitative serum levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg as predictors of HCC development in patients receiving long-term NA therapy. HCC developed in 9 of the 167 NA-treated patients. In the 9 patients with HCC, HBV DNA was undetectable (<2.1 log copies/mL), but HBsAg levels were ≥2000 C.O.I. in 7 patients. No maternal transmission, long NA treatment period, HBV DNA levels <3.0 log copies/mL, and reduced hepatitis B e antigen levels during the first 24 weeks of treatment were a significant factor of HBsAg levels <2000 C.O.I.. Hepatocarcinogenesis was observed in patients with high HBsAg levels, despite the negative conversion of HBV DNA as a result of long-term NA therapy. Therefore, to suppress hepatocarcinogenesis, it is important to control not only HBV DNA levels but also HBsAg levels.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an interesting clinical course of a patient who developed severe ischemic liver injury due to acute embolism of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery. A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for abdominal pain and diarrhea. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a variant common hepatic artery arising from the SMA and multiple thromboembolic occlusions of visceral arteries, including the SMA and celiac artery. Laboratory data showed markedly elevated hepatic enzymes, which increased after admission despite the initiation of systemic anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapy. The patient was successfully treated by endovascular recanalization of the SMA occlusion via transcatheter embolus aspiration, thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty, and stent placement. Severe ischemic liver injury may occur in the setting of synchronous embolism of the SMA and celiac artery, and these phenomena may have a critical impact on the choice of treatment strategies and prognosis. Endovascular treatment appears to an effective treatment option.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Acta medica Okayama
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is considered to be an effective salvage procedure for failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of EUS-BD. From November 2006 to May 2012, a total of 64 patients who underwent EUS-BD (44 EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy [EUS-CDS] and 20 EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy [EUS-HGS]) at seven tertiary-care referral centers in Japan were included. The primary outcome was the technical success rate, and the secondary outcomes were the incidence of complications, stent dysfunction rate, time to stent dysfunction, and overall survival. The technical success rate for both EUS-CDS and EUS-HGS was 95%. The reasons for technical failure were two failed dilations of the anastomosis in EUS-CDS and one puncture failure in EUS-HGS. The stent dysfunction rate and 3-month dysfunction-free patency rate were 21% and 80% for EUS-CDS and 32% and 51% for EUS-HGS. There were 12 (six in EUS-CDS and six in EUS-HGS) procedure-related complications (19%): five cases of bile leakage (3/2), three stent misplacements (1/2), one pneumoperitoneum (1/0), two cases of bleeding (1/1), one perforation (1/0), and one biloma (0/1). Bile leakage was more frequently observed in patients who underwent plastic stent placement (11%) than in those with covered metal stents (4%). This Japanese multicenter study revealed a high success rate in EUS-BD. However, the complication rate was as high as that in previous series. Covered metal stents may be useful to reduce bile leakage in EUS-BD.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis. Oxidative stress is one of the central mechanisms causing hepatocellular injury in the disease. In this study, antioxidant therapy using both vitamins C and E was conducted in patients with NASH. Vitamin E 300 mg/day and vitamin C 300 mg/day were administered orally to 23 patients with NASH for 12 months. Body mass index was measured during therapy. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin (an oxidative stress marker), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured before treatment and after 12 months in all patients. Ten of the 23 patients underwent liver biopsy before and after treatment. Body mass index remained unchanged during treatment with vitamins C and E. Serum alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were decreased significantly at 12 months compared with pretreatment. Liver biopsies showed improved necroinflammatory activity in eight cases and improved fibrosis staging in 4. Serum alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and liver histology were clearly improved with vitamin C and E therapy. These findings suggest that combination therapy using these vitamins may be useful in patients with NASH to minimize damage from oxidative stress and slow the processes leading to cirrhosis.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
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    ABSTRACT: The endoscopic management of malignant hilar biliary strictures using multiple metallic stents (MS) is technically demanding, in the initial deployment of MS and the recovery from MS occlusion with deployment of multiple plastic stents (PS). We evaluated the outcomes of the application of a Soehendra stent retriever (SSR) as a dilator of intractable strictures. Fifty-nine patients with malignant hilar biliary strictures had multiple MS inserted using a partial stent-in-stent procedure. When we encountered intractable strictures, we adopted SSR to dilate the stricture and the interstice of the MS. We evaluated the success rate of MS or PS deployment after SSR application and procedural complications. Five of 59 patients (8%) were subjected to SSR application for the initial MS deployment. MS were successfully deployed in all of these patients (100%). MS occlusion was noted in 27 patients. We applied SSR to seven patients (26%) for the deployment of multiple PS after MS occlusion. In five patients (71%), successful PS deployment was achieved after the SSR application. No complications related to dilatation using SSR occurred in any patient. SSR proved to be a potent dilator of difficult strictures in the management of malignant hilar biliary strictures.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Hepato-gastroenterology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients who progressed from stage 3, zone 3 bridging fibrosis (F3 stage NASH) to cirrhosis. Of 95 NASH patients with repeated liver biopsies during a period of 4.6 years, 6 patients progressed to cirrhosis. The initial liver biopsies of these 6 patients were diagnosed as F3 stage NASH. Simple clinical variables and non-invasive biological tests were evaluated in 33 cases of F3 stage NASH. Increases in body mass index and fluctuations in transaminase levels, as well as the evaluation of homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, ferritin, and hyaluronic acid in F3 stage NASH patients may prove useful in identifying individuals at risk of progression to cirrhosis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Little is known about the management of occluded multiple metallic stent (MS) deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures (HBS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic management of occluded multiple MSs deployed in HBS. Methodology: Fifty-five patients with unresectable biliary tract carcinoma had multiple MSs inserted due to HBS. The endoscopic intervention through the duodenal papilla was performed on 30 cases that had MS occlusion. The procedure success rate, the survival time after the procedure and the number of endoscopic interventions before death were analyzed, retrospectively. Results: The causes of MS obstruction were tissue ingrowth (n=20), sludge (n=7), tumor overgrowth (n=2), and hemobilia (n=1). Endoscopic cleaning or deployment of plastic stents or metallic stents was performed on these patients and was successfully accomplished only via the transpapillary approach. The survival time after MS obstruction was 219 days. The median number of endoscopic interventions before death was 3. The median interval of endoscopic intervention after the first plastic stent occlusion was 84 days. Conclusions: Our long-term data regarding the endoscopic management of occluded MSs deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures are acceptable although the patency time of plastic stents deployed after MS occlusion was relatively short.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Hepato-gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of objective response to chemotherapy using imaging modalities is sometimes difficult in pancreatic cancer (PC). We aimed to verify whether monitoring of serum tumor markers (TMs), namely carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, DUPAN-2, SPan-1, can facilitate earlier confirmation of treatment failure. Monitoring of serum TMs and computed tomography were performed every 4 weeks until progression of disease in 90 patients with PC undergoing gemcitabine therapy. In Group A (January 2006-October 2007), we analyzed the fluctuation rates of TMs with high pretreatment positive rates, and defined the criteria of progressive disease under TM monitoring (TM-PD). In Group B (November 2007-October 2008), we calculated the time to progression (TTP) under this TM-PD criteria, which was compared with the TTP under the RECIST criteria. CA19-9 and SPan-1 had the highest pretreatment positive rates: 83% and 90%, respectively. In Group A (CA19-9, n = 38; SPan-1, n = 36), TM-PD criteria were defined as follows: fluctuation rates were ≥25% for a month or ≥10% for 2 consecutive months in CA19-9, and ≥10% for a month in SPan-1. In Group B (CA19-9, n = 18; SPan-1, n = 17), under these criteria, one-month earlier confirmation of treatment failure was feasible in 61% by CA19-9 and 59% by SPan-1. Furthermore, the combination could facilitate this determination in 72% (35/49), significantly better than CA19-9 alone (P = 0.004). Monitoring of serum CA19-9 and SPan-1 is helpful for earlier confirmation of treatment failure during gemcitabine therapy in PC.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Pancreatology
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing cholangitis is reported. IgG4 was diagnosed based on observations from peroral cholangioscopy and laparoscopy, and these methods are proposed for definitive and precise diagnosis of this disease. A 76-year-old male patient with inguinal Paget's disease had intrahepatic bile duct dilatations detected with computed tomography at his periodic check-up. Magnetic resonance cholangiography showed stenosis of the upper common bile duct and poststenotic dilatation of left intrahepatic bile ducts. The portal tract and bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts were surrounded by a low-density area, facing a tumor-like lesion at segment 2. Cytological examinations of the stenotic and dilated lesions revealed no cellular atypia. Histological examination of the tumor showed normal liver tissue with infiltration of lymphocytes, indicating an inflammatory pseudotumor. Peroral cholangioscopy excluded the possibility of biliary cancer and indicated that the stenotic legion was of submucosal, not mucosal, origin. Laparoscopic observations showed discoloration with wide yellowish-white lobular markings and wide depressed lesions at segments 2 and 7. Liver histology showed mild cholangitis with infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells around the bile ducts. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis. After treatment with prednisolone, blood liver enzymes and IgG4 rapidly normalized, bile duct dilatations improved, and the hepatic pseudotumor disappeared. The cholangitis did not recur. In this case, biliary cancer was ruled out by observation with peroral cholangioscopy, and the spread of cholangitis in the liver periphery was verified with laparoscopy; this information could not be obtained with other modalities.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Digestive Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) were developed to prevent tumor ingrowth, but stent migration is one of the problems with CSEMSs. To evaluate a new, commercially available CSEMS with flared ends and low axial force compared with a commercially available CSEMS without the anti-migration system and high axial force. Multicenter, prospective study with a historical cohort. Twenty Japanese referral centers. This study involved patients with unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction. Placement of a new, commercially available, partially covered SEMS. Recurrent biliary obstruction rate, time to recurrent biliary obstruction, stent-related complications, survival. Between April 2009 and March 2010, 141 patients underwent partially covered nitinol stent placement, and between May 2001 and January 2007, 138 patients underwent placement of partially covered stainless stents as a historical control. The silicone cover of the partially covered nitinol stents prevented tumor ingrowth. There were no significant differences in survival (229 vs 219 days; P = .250) or the rate of recurrent biliary obstruction (33% vs 38%; P = .385) between partially covered nitinol stents and partially covered stainless stents. Stent migration was less frequent (8% vs 17%; P = .019), and time to recurrent biliary obstruction was significantly longer (373 vs 285 days; P = .007) with partially covered nitinol stents. Stent removal was successful in 26 of 27 patients (96%). Nonrandomized, controlled trial. Partially covered nitinol stents with an anti-migration system and less axial force demonstrated longer time to recurrent biliary obstruction with no tumor ingrowth and less stent migration.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy

Publication Stats

735 Citations
332.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital
      Kawasaki, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2012-2015
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      • Department of General Medicine
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
  • 2014
    • Kawasaki Hospital
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2004-2013
    • Okayama University
      • • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      • • Department of Medicine and Clinical Science
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan