[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha has been shown to play critical roles in regulating mitochondria biogenesis, respiration, and muscle oxidative phenotype. Furthermore, reductions in the expression of PGC-1alpha in muscle have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To determine the effect of increased muscle-specific PGC-1alpha expression on muscle mitochondrial function and glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo, we examined body composition, energy balance, and liver and muscle insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies and muscle energetics by using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in transgenic mice. Increased expression of PGC-1alpha in muscle resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in mitochondrial density, which was associated with an approximately 60% increase in the unidirectional rate of ATP synthesis. Surprisingly, there was no effect of increased muscle PGC-1alpha expression on whole-body energy expenditure, and PGC-1alpha transgenic mice were more prone to fat-induced insulin resistance because of decreased insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. The reduced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could most likely be attributed to a relative increase in fatty acid delivery/triglyceride reesterfication, as reflected by increased expression of CD36, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, and mitochondrial acyl-CoA:glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase, that may have exceeded mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, resulting in increased intracellular lipid accumulation and an increase in the membrane to cytosol diacylglycerol content. This, in turn, caused activation of PKC, decreased insulin signaling at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation, and skeletal muscle insulin resistance.
Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for insulin resistance are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the role of serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 in mediating fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vivo.
To directly assess the role of serine phosphorylation in mediating fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, we generated muscle-specific IRS-1 Ser(302), Ser(307), and Ser(612) mutated to alanine (Tg IRS-1 Ser-->Ala) and IRS-1 wild-type (Tg IRS-1 WT) transgenic mice and examined insulin signaling and insulin action in skeletal muscle in vivo.
Tg IRS-1 Ser-->Ala mice were protected from fat-induced insulin resistance, as reflected by lower plasma glucose concentrations during a glucose tolerance test and increased insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. In contrast, Tg IRS-1 WT mice exhibited no improvement in glucose tolerance after high-fat feeding. Furthermore, Tg IRS-1 Ser-->Ala mice displayed a significant increase in insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in vivo compared with WT control littermates.
These data demonstrate that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 plays an important role in mediating fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC)2 is a key regulator of mitochondrial fat oxidation. To examine the impact of ACC2 deletion on whole-body energy metabolism, we measured changes in substrate oxidation and total energy expenditure in Acc2(-/-) and WT control mice fed either regular or high-fat diets. To determine insulin action in vivo, we also measured whole-body insulin-stimulated liver and muscle glucose metabolism during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in Acc2(-/-) and WT control mice fed a high-fat diet. Contrary to previous studies that have suggested that increased fat oxidation might result in lower glucose oxidation, both fat and carbohydrate oxidation were simultaneously increased in Acc2(-/-) mice. This increase in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation resulted in an increase in total energy expenditure, reductions in fat and lean body mass and prevention from diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, Acc2(-/-) mice were protected from fat-induced peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. These improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism were associated with reduced diacylglycerol content in muscle and liver, decreased PKC activity in muscle and PKCepsilon activity in liver, and increased insulin-stimulated Akt2 activity in these tissues. Taken together with previous work demonstrating that Acc2(-/-) mice have a normal lifespan, these data suggest that Acc2 inhibition is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with obesity. Increased concentrations of intracellular fatty acid metabolites have been postulated to interfere with insulin signaling by activation of a serine kinase cascade involving PKCtheta in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been postulated to dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient and cause metabolic inefficiency. We therefore hypothesized that overexpression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle might protect against fat-induced insulin resistance in muscle by conversion of intramyocellular fat into thermal energy. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet were markedly insulin resistant, a result of defects in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in these tissues was associated with reduced insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1- (IRS-1-) and IRS-2-associated PI3K activity in muscle and liver, respectively. In contrast, UCP3-overexpressing mice were completely protected against fat-induced defects in insulin signaling and action in these tissues. Furthermore, these changes were associated with a lower membrane-to-cytosolic ratio of diacylglycerol and reduced PKCtheta activity in whole-body fat-matched UCP3 transgenic mice. These results suggest that increasing mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle may be an excellent therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between aging-associated reductions in mitochondrial function, dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Given the important role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of fat oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined AMPK activity in young and old rats and found that acute stimulation of AMPK-alpha(2) activity by 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and exercise was blunted in skeletal muscle of old rats. Furthermore, mitochondrial biogenesis in response to chronic activation of AMPK with beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GPA) feeding was also diminished in old rats. These results suggest that aging-associated reductions in AMPK activity may be an important contributing factor in the reduced mitochondrial function and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism associated with aging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While it has been known for more than 75 years that physical activity is associated with increased mitochondrial content in muscle, the molecular mechanism for this adaptive process has only recently been elucidated. This brief review examines existing studies that have identified AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and several other key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, and nitric oxide. In addition, the potential role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance associated with ageing and type 2 diabetes mellitus is also discussed.
Preview · Article · Aug 2006 · The Journal of Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PGC-1alpha is a coactivator of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors that regulates several metabolic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and muscle fiber-type switching. We show here that, while hepatocytes lacking PGC-1alpha are defective in the program of hormone-stimulated gluconeogenesis, the mice have constitutively activated gluconeogenic gene expression that is completely insensitive to normal feeding controls. C/EBPbeta is elevated in the livers of these mice and activates the gluconeogenic genes in a PGC-1alpha-independent manner. Despite having reduced mitochondrial function, PGC-1alpha null mice are paradoxically lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. This is largely due to a profound hyperactivity displayed by the null animals and is associated with lesions in the striatal region of the brain that controls movement. These data illustrate a central role for PGC-1alpha in the control of energy metabolism but also reveal novel systemic compensatory mechanisms and pathogenic effects of impaired energy homeostasis.