[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many investigations have demonstrated that cell injuries caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common mechanism of various hepatic disorders. Recently, we have demonstrated that epimorphin, originally cloned as a mesenchymal protein, protects cultured intestinal epithelial cells from ROS. We therefore examine whether epimorphin protects primary cultured hepatocytes from ROS-induced cell injury.
We explored the cell viability and the intracellular ROS levels of purified murine hepatocytes after exposure to 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) with or without pretreatment of epimorphin. Then, we observed mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and depolarization using confocal microscopy to make clear the mechanism that epimorphin inhibited cell injuries after exposure to H(2)O(2). In addition, to clarify the signaling pathways related to cell survival, we carried out Western blotting analysis with phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) polyclonal antibody to evaluate the inhibition of JNK by epimorphin. Finally, we evaluated the cell viability in hepatocytes administered JNK inhibitor.
Epimorphin protected primary cultured hepatocytes from H(2)O(2)-induced cell injuries independent of intracellular ROS levels. Epimorphin also inhibited onset of MPT, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and eventually cell killing. The cell protective function of epimorphin after exposure to H(2)O(2) was not dependent on Akt signaling but on JNK signaling.
Epimorphin can protect hepatocytes from MPT-dependent cell injury induced by ROS. Since hepatic disorders could be caused by MPT-dependent cell injuries with excessive ROS, epimorphin might open a new therapeutic avenue for hepatic disorders.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a public health problem worldwide. NAFLD is more prevalent in men than in women. Tamoxifen, a potent estrogen receptor antagonist, causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD. Thus, there may be a sex difference that is dependent on estrogens in NAFLD and NASH. Hepatocyte-specific Pten-deficient mice exhibit hepatic lesions analogous to NASH and are considered to be a clinical model of NASH. We aimed to shed light on any sex differences in the hepatic lesions of Pten-deficient mice and the underlying mechanisms.
Methods: At 40 weeks, livers from male and female Pten-deficient mice were processed for measuring lipid content, genes expression analysis, and histological examination. Level of serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also determined. Seventy-six-week-old mice were used in tumor burden experiments.
Results: Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and even carcinogenesis in Pten-deficient mice were attenuated in females compared to males. Attenuated fatty liver in females was ascribed to inactivation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c. Hepatic inflammation in females was suppressed via decreased ROS with increased antioxidant gene expression and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. Anti-cancer effect in female mice was, at least in part, due to the significantly lower ratio of oleic to stearic acid in the liver.
Conclusions: Hepatic lesions in Pten-deficient mice were attenuated in females compared to males, as were human NAFLD and NASH. Some of the underlying mechanisms in sex difference appeared to be due to the change of gene expression, dependent on estrogens.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been known as a reagent for improving lipid metabolism and inflammation. Hepatocyte-specific Pten-deficient mice exhibit hepatic lesions analogous to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therefore, we administered EPA to Pten-deficient mice to investigate the mechanisms of NASH.
Pten-deficient mice were assigned to a control group fed with a standard chow or an EPA group fed with a 5% EPA-supplemented standard chow. At 40 weeks, livers from each group were processed to measure triglyceride content, gene expression analysis, Western blotting analysis, and histological examination. Level of serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also determined. Forty- and 76-week-old mice were used in tumor burden experiments.
EPA-ameliorated hepatic steatosis in Pten-deficient mice was based on decreased expression of AMPKalpha1-mediated SREBP-1c and increased PPARalpha expression. The EPA group exhibited less severe chronic hepatic inflammation compared to the control group, resulting from decreased ROS formation and a dramatically low ratio of arachidonic acid to EPA. Moreover, EPA inhibited development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Pten-deficient mice based on an inhibition of MAPK activity and a low ratio of oleic to stealic acid, and a reduction in ROS formation.
EPA ameliorated steatohepatitis and development of HCC in Pten-deficient mice.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of gastric hamartomatous inverted polyps that are a rare histological type of gastric polyp and difficult to diagnose. Gastric submucosal tumor was detected by upper gastrointestinal X-ray series in 37-year-old man. Endoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor (SMT) , which eroded with a depression on its surface in the fornix. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a heterogeneous tumor in the third layer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed to resect the tumor completely. The pathological diagnosis was a gastric hamartomatous inverted polyp. The patient was later discharged without any complications. Hamartomatous inverted polyps without a stalk are classified as the SMT type because the tumor is inverted down growth into the submucosal layer, otherwise polyps with a stalk are classified as the polyp type. All of the polyps were resected endoscopically, however, surgical resection was performed for those of the SMT type, because it is difficult to remove this type completely by en-block resection using conventional EMR technique. ESD method may be indicated for SMT-type hamartomatous inverted polyps.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Internal Medicine