[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells attracted the great interests for their therapeutic capacity in tissue regeneration. cAMP, existing high concentration at wound sites, mediated various signaling pathways such as cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, and cell migration in stem cells, which suggest the critical roles of cAMP in wound healing process through functional regulation of stem cells. However, the mechanisms behind effect of cAMP on mESCs motility and its roles on skin wound healing remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, 8-Bromo cAMP-treated mESCs showed significant wound closure and improved neovascularization. Moreover, 8-Bromo cAMP stimulated mESCs migration into the wound bed. 8-Bromo cAMP also increased ESCs motility in vitro migration assay. 8-Bromo cAMP induced MLC phosphorylation through Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling, which were involved in 8-Bromo cAMP-induced decrease in expression of junction proteins (connexin 43, E-cadherin, and occludin) at plasma membrane. Subsequently, 8-Bromo cAMP induced the disruption of cell junctions (including gap junctions, adherence junctions, and tight junctions), which reduced the function of the gap junctions and cell adhesion. In addition, 8-Bromo cAMP-induced Rac1 and Cdc42 activation increased Arp3, TOCA, PAK, and N-WASP expression, but decreased Cofilin phosphorylation level, which elicited actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In contrast to the control, 8-Bromo cAMP evoked a substantial migration of cells into the denuded area, which was blocked by the siRNAs of the signaling-pathway-related molecules or by inhibitors. In conclusion, cAMP enhanced the migration of mESCs through effective coordination of junctional disruption and actin cytoskeleton remodeling, which increased the wound healing capacity of ESCs.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to study the relationship between glucosamine and FoxO1/Notch in gluconeogenesis and maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal. Glucosamine (GlcN) increased glucose production and gluconeogenic enzymes (G6Pase and PEPCK) expression. GlcN also increased the percentage of cells in S phase, the protein expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, and number of cells, which were blocked by 3-mercaptopicolinic acid (gluconeogenesis inhibitor) or glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 neutralizing antibody. GlcN increased the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)-dependent protein O-GlcNAc level. Moreover, inhibition of OGT (by ST045849) decreased glucose production. GlcN enhanced the expression of OGT-dependent O-GlcNAcylated Notch1 and then increased the translocation of cleaved Notch1 to the nucleus. Moreover, GlcN stimulated the translocation of O-GlcNAcylated FoxO1 to the nucleus. GlcN increased the binding between cleaved Notch1 and FoxO1 with CSL, a transcription factor, which was blocked by L-685,458 (γ-secretase inhibitor) or ST045849, respectively. Simultaneous blockage of cleaved Notch1 and FoxO1 also decreased the expression of G6Pase and PEPCK more significantly than that by inhibition of cleaved Notch1 alone or FoxO1 alone. In addition, GlcN maintained the undifferentiation status while depletion of Notch1 and FoxO1 for 3 days decreased Oct4 and SSEA-1 expression and alkaline phosphatase activity or increased the mRNA expression of GATA4, Tbx5, Cdx2, and Fgf5. In conclusion, GlcN-induced OGT activation mediated glucose production through cleaved Notch1 and FoxO1, which contributed to the regulation of maintenance of self-renewal in mESCs.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potent regulators of stem cell behaviour; however, their physiological significance as regards MMP-mediated regulation of the motility of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) has not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) and associated signalling pathways in promoting UCB-MSCs motility.
The regulatory effects of H2O2 on the activation of PKC, MAPKs, NF-κB and β-catenin were determined. The expressions of MMP and extracellular matrix proteins were examined. Pharmacological inhibitors and gene-specific siRNA were used to identify the signalling pathways of H2O2 that affect UCB-MSCs motility. An experimental skin wound-healing model was used to confirm the functional role of UCB-MSCs treated with H2O2 in ICR mice.
H2O2 increased the motility of UCB-MSCs by activating PKCα via a calcium influx mechanism. H2O2 activated ERK and p38 MAPK, which are responsible for the distinct activation of transcription factors NF-κB and β-catenin. UCB-MSCs expressed eight MMP genes, but only MMP12 expression was uniquely regulated by NF-κB and β-catenin activation. H2O2 increased the MMP12-dependent degradation of collagen 5 (COL-5) and fibronectin (FN) associated with UCB-MSCs motility. Finally, topical transplantation of UCB-MSCs treated with H2O2 enhanced skin wound healing in mice.
Conclusions and implications:
H2O2 stimulated UCB-MSCs motility by increasing MMP12-dependent degradation of COL-5 and FN through the activation of NF-κB and glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin, which is critical for providing a suitable microenvironment for MSCs transplantation and re-epithelialization of skin wounds in mice.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of glucosamine (GlcN) on the integrin β4/plectin complex and its role in the regulation of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) migration and proliferation. GlcN significantly decreased integrin β4 mRNA/protein expression whereas plectin protein expression did not change. Also, decrease of integrin β4 expression caused reduction of integrin β4/plectin complex formation and then increased cell migration. GlcN increased intracellular calcium influx and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation followed by integrin β4 serine phosphorylation and reduction of the integrin β4/plectin complex. GlcN entered into the cell through GLUT1 also increased O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and the level of glycosylation (CTD 110.6). Inhibition of OGT (OGT inhibitor; ST045849) increased integrin β4/plectin complex opposite with decreased cell migration. Moreover, GlcN increased O-GlcNAc-specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and nuclear translocated p-Sp1 stimulated calmodulin (CaM) expression, which combined with plectin. In addition, GlcN increased Akt glycosylation and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation and then Snail1 glycosylation. Snail siRNA reversed the reduction of integrin β4/plectin complex and dissociation of cell junctions (tight and adherent junction). GlcN increased cell migration, cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclinD1, CDK4, cyclinE, CDK2), and the percentage of S phase cells, which were inhibited by a PKC inhibitor, CaM siRNA, or Snail1 siRNA. Additionally, GlcN maintained the undifferentiation status of ESCs. In conclusion, GlcN contributed to migration and proliferation of mESCs through integrin β4/plectin complex reduction via Ca2+/PKC as well as the Sp1/CaM and Akt/GSK-3β/Snail1 signaling pathway.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceramide, a major structural element in the cellular membrane, is a key regulatory factor in various cellular behaviors that are dependent on ceramide-induced association of specific proteins. However, molecular mechanisms that regulate ceramide-induced embryonic stem cell (ESC) migration are still not well understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of ceramide on migration and its related signal pathways in mouse ESCs. Among ceramide species with different fatty acid chain lengths, C(16)-Cer increased migration of mouse ESCs in a dose- (≥1μM) and time-dependent (≥8h) manners, as determined by the cell migration assay. C(16)-Cer (10μM) increased protein-kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation. Subsequently, C(16)-Cer increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Paxillin phosphorylation, which were inhibited by PKC inhibitor Bisindolylmaleimide I (1μM). When we examined for the downstream signaling molecules, C(16)-Cer activated small G protein (Cdc42) and increased the formation of complex with Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP)/Cdc42/Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (Arp2/3). This complex formation was disrupted by FAK- and Paxillin-specific siRNAs. Furthermore, C(16)-Cer-induced increase of filamentous actin (F-actin) expression was inhibited by Cdc42-, N-WASP-specific siRNAs, or Arp2/3-specific siRNA, respectively. Indeed, C(16)-Cer increased cofilin-1/F-actin interaction or F-actin/α-actinin-1 and α-actinin-4 interactions in the cytoskeleton compartment, which was reversed by Cdc42-specific siRNA. Finally, C(16)-Cer-induced increase of cell migration was inhibited by knocking down each signal pathway-related molecules with siRNA or inhibitors. In conclusion, C(16)-Cer enhances mouse ESC migration through the regulation of PKC and FAK/Paxillin-dependent N-WASP/Cdc42/Arp2/3 complex formation as well as through promoting the interaction between cofilin-1 or α-actinin-1/-4 and F-actin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term estrogen actions are vital for driving cell growth, but more recent evidence suggests that estrogen mediates more rapid cellular effects. However, the function of estradiol-17β (E(2))-BSA in mouse embryonic stem cells has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the role of E(2)-BSA in mouse embryonic stem cell motility and its related signal pathways. E(2)-BSA (10(-8) m) significantly increased motility after 24 h incubation and increased filamentous (F)-actin expression; these effects were inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that E(2)-BSA bound membrane estrogen receptors and initiated a signal. E(2)-BSA increased c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which was attenuated by ICI 182,780. The E(2)-BSA-induced increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation was inhibited by Src inhibitor PP2. As a downstream signal molecule, E(2)-BSA activated cdc42 and increased formation of a complex with the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP)/cdc42/transducer of cdc42-dependent actin assembly-1 (TOCA-1), which was inhibited by FAK small interfering RNA (siRNA) and EGFR inhibitor AG 1478. In addition, E(2)-BSA increased profilin-1 expression and cofilin-1 phosphorylation, which was blocked by cdc42 siRNA. Subsequently, E(2)-BSA induced an increase in F-actin expression, and cell motility was inhibited by each signal pathway-related siRNA molecule or inhibitors but not by cofilin-1 siRNA. A combined treatment of cofilin-1 siRNA and E(2)-BSA increased F-actin expression and cell motility more than that of E(2)-BSA alone. These data demonstrate that E(2)-BSA stimulated motility by interacting with profilin-1/cofilin-1 and F-actin through FAK- and c-Src/EGFR transactivation-dependent N-WASP/cdc42/TOCA-1 complex.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and intracellular pH (pH(i)) may serve as regulators of cell migration in various cell types.
The Oris migration assay was used to assess the effect of fibronectin (FN) on cell motility. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-1 activity was evaluated by measuring pH(i) and [(22)Na(+)] uptake. To examine activated signaling molecules, western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation was performed.
ECM components (FN, laminin, fibrinogen, and collagen type I) increased [(22)Na(+)] uptake, pH(i), and cell migration. In addition, FN-induced increase of cell migration was inhibited by NHE-1 inhibitor amiloride or NHE-1-specific siRNA. FN selectively increased the mRNA and protein expression of NHE-1, but not that of NHE-2 or NHE-3. FN binds integrin β1 and subsequently stimulates caveolin-1 phosphorylation and Ca(2+) influx. Then, NHE-1 is phosphorylated by RhoA and Rho kinases, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) signaling elicits complex formation with NHE-1, which is enriched in lipid raft/caveolae microdomains of the plasma membrane. Activation of NHE-1 continuously induces an increase of [(22)Na(+)] uptake and pH(i). Finally, NHE-1-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and filamentous-actin (F-actin) expression, partially contributing to the regulation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) migration.
FN stimulated mESCs migration and proliferation through NHE-1 activation, which were mediated by lipid raft-associated caveolin-1, RhoA/ROCK, and Ca(2+)/CaM signaling pathways.
The precise role of NHE in the modulation of ECM-related physiological functions such as proliferation and migration remains poorly understood. Thus, this study analyzed the relationship between FN and NHE in regulating the migration of mouse ESCs and their related signaling pathways.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of glucose transporter (GLUT) expression and activity plays a vital role in the supply of glucose to embryonic stem (ES) cells.
To observe the effect of 6-phenyl cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) on glucose uptake and cell proliferation, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation were carried out.
Among GLUT isoforms in mouse ES cells, GLUT1 was predominantly expressed and 6-phenyl cAMP increased GLUT mRNA levels. Among cAMP agonists, 6-phenyl cAMP increased 2-DG uptake more than that of 8-p-chlorophenylthio-2'-O-methyl-cAMP. 6-Phenyl cAMP increased GLUT1 expression and translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. 6-Phenyl cAMP increased 2-DG uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner due to an increase in V(max) but not K(m). 6-Phenyl cAMP increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cAMP response element binding (CREB) and expression of the CREB protein (CBP) and transducer of regulated CREB activity 2 (TORC2) in sequence. 6-Phenyl cAMP induced complex formation of NF-κB/CREB/CBP/TORC2, which are involved in the increase of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. 6-Phenyl cAMP also increased cell cycle regulatory protein expression levels, the proportion of S-phase cells, and proto-oncogene expression via protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent NF-κB signaling. Finally, GLUT1 siRNA blocked the 6-phenyl cAMP-induced increase in ES cell proliferation. We conclude that PKA stimulated the complex formation of CREB/CBP/TORC2 via NF-κB, which induced effective coordination of glucose uptake as well as proliferation in ES cells.
6-Phenyl cAMP-induced PKA activation modified the proliferation, which may be beneficial for expanding ES cell use to cell therapy.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies shows that connexins appear very early during murine embryo development, the gap junctional intercellular communication found in the inner cell mass of early embryo is also maintained in embryonic stem cells (ESC), and expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) is developmentally regulated at early embryonic development. However, effect of oxytocin (OT) on the regulation of the connexin43 (Cx43) and maintenance of undifferentiation is not fully understood in stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of OT on Cx43 expression and related signaling cascades in mouse ESC. OT increased Cx43 expression that was inhibited by the OTR inhibitor atosiban. In experiments to examine whether the effect of OT depends on lipid rafts, caveolin-1 (cav-1), cav-2, and flotillin-2, but not OTR, were detected in lipid raft fractions. Also, colocalization of OTR, cav-1, and cav-2 was not detected. Moreover, the lipid raft disruptor methyl-β-cyclodextrin did not attenuate OT-induced Cx43 expression. In experiments to examine related signaling pathways, OT activated cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) which was inhibited by adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536 and PKA inhibitor PKI. OT increased nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) phosphorylation which was inhibited by PKI. OT also increased cAMP response element-binding (CREB)/CREB-binding protein (CBP) expression in the nucleus and induced the formation of CREB1/NF-κB/CBP complexes, which was blocked by the NF-κB-specific small interfering RNA, NF-κB inhibitors, SN50, and bay11-7082. Complex disruption by NF-κB inhibitors decreased OT-induced Cx43 expression. In conclusion, OT stimulates Cx43 expression through the NF-κB/CREB/CBP complex via the lipid raft-independent OTR-mediated cAMP/PKA in mouse ESC.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although previous reports have examined the function of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) on gap junctions and undifferentiated stem cells, its effects on the reciprocal action of connexin (Cx) isoforms and undifferentiation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of PGE(2) on Cx isoforms and maintenance of mouse ESC undifferentiated state.
We have analysed 10 Cx genes, but found nine of them. PGE(2) (50 μM) stimulated Cx31, Cx32, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 mRNA expression. Amongst them, PGE(2) maximally stimulated the Cx43 mRNA expression and gap junction inter-cellular coupling. Therefore, we investigated the effect of PGE(2) on Cx43 expression. PGE(2) activated cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt phosphorylation. In addition, treatments of adenylate cyclase activators increased Cx43 expression, but not PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. PGE(2) also inactivated GSK-3β and stimulated active-β-catenin. Furthermore, a ChiP assay demonstrated the association of β-catenin with the Cx26 (as control) and Cx43 promoter. Finally, down-regulation of PGE(2) -induced Cx isoforms by AH 6809, Cx31-, Cx43-, Cx45 small interfering (si)RNA and 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid decreased levels of undifferentiated markers of ESCs, including Oct4, FoxD3, Sox2 and SSEA-1, but Nanog did not be down-regulated by Cx43 siRNA.
PGE(2) stimulates Cx isoforms via GSK-3β/β-catenin via EP2-receptor-dependent cAMP/PKA and PI3K/Akt in mouse ESCs, thereby partially contributing to the maintenance of their undifferentiated state.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Biology of the Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study demonstrated that exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) and protein kinase A (PKA) by 8-bromo (8-Br)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulated [(14)C]-α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (α-MG) uptake through increased sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) expression and translocation to lipid rafts in renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs). In PTCs, SGLTs were colocalized with lipid raft caveolin-1 (cav-1), disrupted by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Selective activators of Epac or PKA, 8-Br-cAMP, and forskolin stimulated expressions of SGLTs and α-MG uptake in PTCs. In addition, 8-Br-cAMP-induced PKA and Epac activation increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which were involved in expressions of SGLTs. Furthermore, 8-Br-cAMP stimulated SGLTs translocation to lipid rafts via filamentous actin (F-actin) organization, which was blocked by cytochalasin D. In addition, cav-1 and SGLTs stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP were detected in lipid rafts, which were blocked by cytochalasin D. Furthermore, 8-Br-cAMP-induced SGLTs translocation and α-MG uptake were attenuated by inhibition of cav-1 activation with cav-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and inhibition of F-actin organization with TRIO and F-actin binding protein (TRIOBP). In conclusion, 8-Br-cAMP stimulated α-MG uptake via Epac and PKA-dependent SGLTs expression and trafficking through cav-1 and F-actin in PTCs.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gap junctions within extracellular matrix (ECM)-defined boundaries ensure synchronous activity between cells destined to become functional mediators that regulate cell behavior. However, the role of ECM in connexin (Cx) function in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the role of laminin-111 in the control of Cx43 functions and related signal pathways in mESCs. ECM components (laminin-111, fibronectin, and collagen I) increased Cx43 phosphorylation and decreased Lucifer yellow (Ly) diffusion. In addition, laminin-111 increased the proliferation index through reduction of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which was confirmed by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA). Laminin-111 increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src and protein kinase C (PKC), which were inhibited by integrin β1 antibody (Ab) and laminin receptor-1 (LR-1) Ab, respectively. In addition, inhibition of both FAK/Src and PKC blocked Cx43 phosphorylation. Laminin-111 increased the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) activation, which was blocked by FAK/Src and PKC inhibitors, suggesting the existence of parallel pathways that merge at RhoA. Inhibition of RhoA reversed the laminin-111-induced increase of Cx43 phosphorylation and reduction of GJIC. Laminin-111 also stimulated the dissociation of Cx43/ZO-1 complex followed by disruption of Cx43/drebrin and Cx43/F-actin complexes, which were reversed by C3 (RhoA inhibitor). ZO-1 small interfering (si) RNA significantly decreased Ly diffusion. Moreover, laminin-111 decreased Cx43 labeling at the intercellular junction, whereas pretreatment with degradation inhibitors (lysosomal protease inhibitor, chloroquine; proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin) increased Cx43 expression, reversely. In conclusion, laminin-111 stimulated mESC proliferation through a reduction of GJIC via RhoA-mediated Cx43 phosphorylation and Cx43/ZO-1/drebrin complex instability-mediated Cx43 degradation.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The actual leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)) signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation have not been elucidated thoroughly although fatty acid and its metabolites play a key role in regulations of embryonic functions. Thus, this study investigated the response of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exposed to LTD(4) and elucidated the signaling pathways as well. LTD(4) increased DNA synthesis in concentration-dependent (≥10(-7) M) and time-dependent (≥12 h) manners, as determined by [(3)H] thymidine incorporation and increased cell number. LTD(4) induced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) levels via cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) 1 and 2 receptors. LTD(4) increased Akt activation and calcineurin expression, which were blocked by STAT3 inhibitor and calcium chelators. LTD(4)-induced glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation was decreased by LY294002, Akt inhibitor, and cyclosporine A. LTD(4) inhibited the phosphorylation of β-catenin. In addition, LTD(4)-stimulated migration through increased activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin which were blocked by Akt inhibitor and cyclosporine A. LTD(4)-induced increases in protooncogene and cell cycle regulatory proteins were blocked by cyclosporine A, FAK siRNA, and β-catenin siRNA. In conclusion, LTD(4)-stimulated mouse ES cell proliferation and migration via STAT3, phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, Ca(2+)-calcineurin, and GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite a lot of gap junction research, the complex connection between gap junction and cell proliferation remains an exciting area of investigation. Thus, we examined the effect of connexin 43 (Cx43) on the migration and proliferation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and its related signaling pathways following stimulation with the adenosine analogue 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA). NECA increased phosphorylation of Cx43 which was blocked by caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist. In experiment to measure the gap junctional intercellular communication, NECA blocked transfer of Lucifer yellow to neighboring cells in a scrape loading/dye transfer (SL/DT) assay. In addition, NECA-induced phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signal pathways. Inhibition of these signaling pathways reduced NECA-induced phosphorylation of Cx43. Moreover, NECA-treated cells demonstrated phosphorylation of Src, which was blocked by caffeine. In this experiment, a disruption of Cx43 using Cx43-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) also enhanced Src phosphorylation. In a further study, phosphorylations of integrin beta1, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and paxillin by NECA were restrained by caffeine as well as the Src blocker, PP2. Finally, we identified that NECA-stimulated cell migration and expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins [cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, cyclin E, and CDK2]; these increases were inhibited by caffeine, or PP2. We conclude that NECA-stimulated Cx43 phosphorylation mediated by PI3K/Akt, PKC, MAPKs, and NF-kappaB, which subsequently stimulated cell migration and proliferation through Src, integrin beta1, FAK, and paxillin signal pathways.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies suggest that adenosine modulates cell responses in a wide array of tissues through potent and selective regulation of cytokine production. This study examined the effects of adenosine on interleukin (IL)-6 expression and its related signal pathways in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, the adenosine analogue 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA) increased IL-6 protein expression level. Mouse ES cells expressed the A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs), whose expression levels were increased by NECA and NECA-induced increase of IL-6 mRNA expression or secretion level was inhibited by the non-specific AR inhibitor, caffeine. NECA increased Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, intracellular Ca(2+) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, which were blocked by caffeine. On the other hand, NECA-induced IL-6 secretion was partially inhibited by Akt inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I (PKC inhibitor), SQ 22536 (adenylate cyclate inhibitor) and completely blocked by the 3 inhibitor combination treatment. In addition, NECA increased mitogen activated protein kinase' (MAPK) phosphorylation, which were partially inhibited by the Akt inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I, and SQ 22536 and completely blocked by the 3 inhibitor combination treatment. NECA-induced increases of IL-6 protein expression and secretion levels were inhibited by MAPK inhibition. NECA-induced increase of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB phosphorylation was inhibited by MAPK inhibitors. NECA also increased cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, which was blocked by MAPK or NF-kappaB inhibitors. Indeed, NECA-induced increase of IL-6 protein expression and secretion was blocked by NF-kappaB inhibitors. In conclusion, NECA stimulated IL-6 expression via MAPK and NF-kappaB activation through Akt, Ca(2+)/PKC, and cAMP signaling pathways in mouse ES cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 752-759, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear receptor family. It is well known that PPARs function as regulators of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis, as well as influence cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the role of the PPARs with regard to embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. We will review the function of the PPARδ, one of the three PPAR isoforms, α, δ (also called β/δ), and γ, in ES cells and its role in embryo development. In addition, pluripotent mouse ES cells can be expanded in large numbers in vitro due to the process of symmetrical self-renewal. Here we describe how PPARδ sustains ES cell proliferation.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · International Journal of Stem Cells
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of linoleic acid (LA) on cell proliferation and the related signaling cascade in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells.
To examine effects of LA, mouse ES cells (ES-E14TG2a) were used. Moreover, DNA synthesis, glucose production, protein and mRNA expressions were measured.
LA increased DNA synthesis in a concentration- (> or = 10(-9) M) and time- (> or = 24 h) dependent manner, as determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and increased cell number. LA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels via regulation of phospholipase C (PLC) and activated protein kinase C (PKC). LA activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). U73122 (PLC inhibitor), staurosporine (PKC inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and Akt inhibitor blocked the phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPKs. In addition, LA stimulated gluconeogenesis through increase expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). LA-induced increases in the cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and CDK 4, were blocked by U73122, staurosporine, LY294002, Akt inhibitor, PD98059, and metformin (gluconeogenesis inhibitor).
LA stimulated cell proliferation via Ca2+, PLC/PKC, PI3K/Akt, and p44/42 MAPKs signaling pathways in mouse ES cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stresses induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Steroid hormones can protect cells against apoptosis or induce cell proliferation by several mechanisms. Among androgenic hormones, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is generated by a 5alpha- reduction of testosterone. Unlike testosterone, DHT cannot be aromatized to estradiol, therefore DHT is considered a pure androgenic steroid. This study was conducted to examine the effect of DHT (10(-7) M) on H2O2 (10(-3) M) -induced injuries in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. H2O2 induced ROS generation and increased lipid peroxide formation and DNA fragmentation. These effects of H2O2 were inhibited by pretreatment with DHT. H2O2 also increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, SAPK/JNK and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), but DHT blocked these effects. Moreover, H2O2 decreased DNA synthesis and the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins [cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and CDK 4]. These effects of H2O2 were inhibited by pretreatment with DHT. In conclusion, DHT may partially prevent H2O2-induced cell injury through inhibition of ROS and ROS-induced activation of p38 MAPK, SAPK/JNK and NF-kappaB in mouse ES cells.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Veterinary Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epinephrine is a catecholamine that plays important roles in regulating a wide variety of physiological systems by acting through the adrenergic receptors (ARs). The cellular responses to AR stimulation are mediated through various signaling pathways. Therefore, this study examined the effects of epinephrine on DNA synthesis and related signaling molecules in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Epinephrine increased DNA synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as determined by the level of [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. AR subtypes (alpha1(A), alpha2(A), beta1, beta2, and beta3) were expressed in mouse ESCs and their expression levels were increased by epinephrine. In this experiment, epinephrine increased cAMP levels, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) from the cytosol to the membrane compartment. In addition, we observed Akt phosphorylation in response to epinephrine; this was stimulated by phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epinephrine also induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (p44/42 MAPKs), while inhibition of PKC or Akt blocked this phosphorylation. Epinephrine increased the mRNA levels of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, c-myc), while inhibition of ERK1/2 decreased these mRNA levels. In experiments aimed at examining the involvement of cell cycle regulatory proteins, epinephrine increased the levels of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). In conclusion, epinephrine stimulates DNA synthesis via ERK1/2 through cAMP, Ca(2+)/PKC, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in mouse ESCs.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry