Naoaki Yokoyama

Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obibiro, Hokkaidō, Japan

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Publications (210)404.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Babesia bovis is the most virulent Babesia organism, resulting in a high mortality rate in cattle. The genetic diversity of B. bovis merozoite surface antigens (MSAs), such as MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c, might be linked to altered immune profiles in the host animals. The present study aimed to develop type-specific PCR assays for Asian msa-1 genotypes, thereby re-analyzing the genetic diversity of msa-1 in Sri Lanka, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Specific primers were designed for nine Asian msa-1 genotypes, which had been detected based on the phylogeny constructed using msa-1 gene sequences retrieved from the GenBank database. Specificity of the type-specific PCR assays was confirmed using plasmids containing the inserts of msa-1 gene fragments that represent Asian genotypes. Furthermore, no amplicons were observed by these PCR assays when DNA samples of B. bigemina, B. ovata, Theileria annulata, T. orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi, T. theileri, Anaplasma marginale, A. bovis, and non-infected bovine blood were analyzed. In total, 109 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from Sri Lanka (44 cattle), Mongolia (26 cattle), and Vietnam (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then screened by the type-specific PCR assays. The sequences derived from all of the PCR amplicons were phylogenetically analyzed. Out of 109 DNA samples, 23 (20 from cattle and 3 from water buffaloes) were positive for at least one genotype. In agreement with previous studies, five and four different genotypes were detected among the DNA samples from Sri Lanka and Vietnam, respectively. In contrast, four genotypes, including three novel genotypes, were detected from Mongolia. Five DNA samples were found to be co-infected with multiple genotypes. The sequences of the PCR amplicons clustered phylogenetically within the corresponding clades. These findings indicated that the type-specific PCR assays described herein are useful for the determination of genotypic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Asia.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To use two diagnostic antigens belonging to the frequently associated in Theileria domain, Theileria equi (T. equi) protein 82 (Te 82) and T. equi 104 kDa microneme-rhoptry antigen precursor (Te 43), to diagnose T. equi infection in horses as compared with equi merozoite antigen-2 (EMA-2). Methods: In the current study, we applied a cocktail ELISA containing two antigens (EMA-2 + Te 82) to diagnose T. equi infection either in experimentally infected horses or in field infection. Results: Our findings have revealed that a cocktail formula of EMA-2 + Te 82 provided a more practical and sensitive diagnostic candidate for diagnosing T. equi infection in horses as compared with Te 82 or Te 43 alone. Conclusions: The ELISA technique using a cocktail formula of EMA-2 + Te 82 offers a practical and sensitive diagnostic tool for diagnosing T. equi infection in horses and using of this promising cocktail formula will be applicable for epidemiological surveys and will help control the infection in horses.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: Babesia microti is a tick-transmitted zoonotic hemoprotozoan parasite. In the present study, we investigated B. microti infection in questing ticks in Mongolia. A total of 219 questing ticks were collected from three different Mongolian provinces (Bayan-Olgii, Khovsgol, and Selenge). Of these, 63 from Selenge were identified as Ixodes persulcatus, while the remaining 156 (from all three provinces) were identified as Dermacentor nuttalli. When the tick DNA samples were screened using a B. microti-specific nested PCR, 19 (30.2%) of the 63 I. persulcatus ticks were found to be B. microti-positive. The parasite was not detected in D. nuttalli. Subsequently, the 18S rRNA, cox1, and tufA sequences of B. microti were amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Sequencing analyses showed that the Mongolian 18S rRNA, cox1, and tufA sequences were 99.6-100%, 96.7-97.2%, and 94.7-95.3% homologous, respectively, with B. microti R1 strain US-type sequences from humans. In the phylogenetic analyses, the Mongolian cox1 and tufA sequences were found to be separate lineages, which formed sister-clades to the R1 strain sequences, while all of the Mongolian B. microti 18S rRNA sequences were clustered within US-type clade containing several other sequences of human origin. In conclusion, in addition to reporting the presence of B. microti for the first time in questing ticks in Mongolia, the present study found that Mongolian I. persulcatus ticks were infected with US-type B. microti. These findings warrant large-scale studies to detect and characterize B. microti in ticks, small mammals, and humans. Such studies should provide us with a better understanding of zoonotic Babesia epidemiology in Mongolia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Parasitology International
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic manipulation is an essential technique to analyze gene function; however, limited methods are available for Babesia bovis, a causative pathogen of the globally important cattle disease, bovine babesiosis. To date, two stable transfection systems have been developed for B. bovis, using selectable markers blasticidin-S deaminase (bsd) or human dihydrofolate reductase (hdhfr). In this work, we combine these two selectable markers in a sequential transfection system. Specifically, a parent transgenic B. bovis line which episomally expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR), was transfected with a plasmid encoding a fusion protein consisting of red fluorescent protein (RFP) and blasticidin-S deaminase (BSD). Selection with WR99210 and blasticidin-S resulted in the emergence of parasites double positive for GFP and RFP. We then applied this method to complement gene function in a parasite line in which thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (Bbtpx-1) gene was knocked out using hDHFR as a selectable marker. A plasmid was constructed harboring both RFP-BSD and Bbtpx-1 expression cassettes, and transfected into a Bbtpx-1 knockout (KO) parasite. Transfectants were independently obtained by two transfection methods, episomal transfection and genome integration. Complementation of Bbtpx-1 resulted in full recovery of resistance to nitrosative stress, via the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, which was impaired in the Bbtpx-1 KO parasites. In conclusion, we developed a sequential transfection method in B. bovis and subsequently applied this technique in a gene complementation study. This method will enable broader genetic manipulation of Babesia toward enhancing our understanding of the biology of this parasite.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the effi-cacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Thei-leria parasites. The IC 50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and mi-croscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC 50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The genes that encode merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in Babesia bovis are genetically diverse. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of B. bovis MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes in Vietnamese cattle and water buffaloes. Blood DNA samples from 265 cattle and 50 water buffaloes reared in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam were screened with a B. bovis-specific diagnostic PCR assay. The B. bovis-positive DNA samples (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then subjected to PCR assays to amplify the MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Sequencing analyses showed that the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences are genetically diverse, whereas MSA-2c is relatively conserved. The nucleotide identity values for these MSA gene sequences were similar in the cattle and water buffaloes. Consistent with the sequencing data, the Vietnamese MSA-1 and MSA-2b sequences were dispersed across several clades in the corresponding phylogenetic trees, whereas the MSA-2c sequences occurred in a single clade. Cattle- and water-buffalo-derived sequences also often clustered together on the phylogenetic trees. The Vietnamese MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c sequences were then screened for recombination with automated methods. Of the seven recombination events detected, five and two were associated with the MSA-2b and MSA-2c recombinant sequences, respectively, whereas no MSA-1 recombinants were detected among the sequences analyzed. Recombination between the sequences derived from cattle and water buffaloes was very common, and the resultant recombinant sequences were found in both host animals. These data indicate that the genetic diversity of the MSA sequences does not differ between cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam. They also suggest that recombination between the B. bovis MSA sequences in both cattle and water buffaloes might contribute to the genetic variation in these genes in Vietnam.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Infection Genetics and Evolution
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the effect of systematic tick control programs for reducing Theileria orientalis (TO) infection in heifers and ticks. Grazing heifers in two selected public pastures in Kushiro, Hokkaido, which had been previously known for a high prevalence of TO, were treated with acaricides for a period of three years starting from 2011. Blood samples collected from heifers and ticks collected from grasses were analyzed as follows: morphological identification of ticks, TO infection in heifers and ticks, and anemia status in cattle. Several heifers in both pastures were PCR-positive for TO before the beginning of grazing, and only the TO-negative heifers were subsequently monitored to evaluate the impact of the tick control programs. Three tick species, including Ixodes persulcatus, I. ovatus and Haemaphysalis douglasi, were found to be active in both pastures during spring, and TO was detected by PCR in all three tick species. During the study period, a gradual decrease was observed in the parasite burden among the ticks and in the numbers of animals that developed TO infection. Additionally, a gradual reduction in anemia rates was also observed among these animals as the tick control programs progressed. These findings suggest that the implementation of systematic tick control strategies for several years, together with the continuous monitoring of TO infection in heifers and ticks, is effective in reducing the prevalence of this parasite among heifers in these pastures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ehrlichia canis, a canine tick-borne pathogen with wide geographic distribution, has been serologically and molecularly detected in the Philippines. The present study aimed to characterize E. canis detected from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and dogs in Cebu, Philippines, using the RNA polymerase sub-unit Beta (rpoB), a gene that has been used for disease diagnosis and resolution of phylogenetic relationships between closelyrelated species. Using a 16S rRNA gene-based PCR that screens Ehrlichia spp., DNA samples obtained from the blood of 10 dogs, confi rmed to be serologically positive for E. canis, were tested and found positive for E. canis after subsequent DNA sequencing. DNA from infected ticks and the 16S rRNA-E. canis-positive canine blood samples from the present study were further analyzed using the rpoB gene. All registered Ehrlichia spp. rpoB gene sequences were aligned to design specifi c primers that can amplify a partial 1572-bp length sequence of E. canis. The obtained sequences revealed 99.8-100 % identities with each other, and 99.8-100 % and 87.8-89.1 % identities with registered E. canis and E. chaffeensis sequences from the USA, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the obtained partial rpOB sequences formed a clade with E. canis strains from the USA. The present study is the fi rst rpoB characterization of E. canis in the Philippines, and apparently in Asia, and provides additional evidence of the presence of the pathogen in the country. It also adds information on the high conservation of the rpoB gene in E. canis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Veterinarski Arhiv
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    ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma theileri is a hemoprotozoan parasite that infects various ruminant species. We investigated the epidemiology of this parasite among cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Sri Lanka, using a diagnostic PCR assay based on the cathepsin L-like protein (CATL) gene. Blood DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=316) and water buffaloes (n=320) bred in different geographical areas of Sri Lanka were PCR screened for T. theileri. Parasite DNA was detected in cattle and water buffaloes alike in all the sampling locations. The overall T. theileri-positive rate was higher in water buffaloes (15.9%) than in cattle (7.6%). Subsequently, PCR amplicons were sequenced and the partial CATL sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The identity values for the CATL gene were 89.6-99.7% among the cattle-derived sequences, compared with values of 90.7-100% for the buffalo-derived sequences. However, the cattle-derived sequences shared 88.2-100% identity values with those from buffaloes. In the phylogenetic tree, the Sri Lankan CATL gene sequences fell into two major clades (TthI and TthII), both of which contain CATL sequences from several other countries. Although most of the CATL sequences from Sri Lankan cattle and buffaloes clustered independently, two buffalo-derived sequences were observed to be closely related to those of the Sri Lankan cattle. Furthermore, a Sri Lankan buffalo sequence clustered with CATL gene sequences from Brazilian buffalo and Thai cattle. In addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of T. theileri among Sri Lankan-bred cattle and water buffaloes, the present study found that some of the CATL gene fragments sourced from water buffaloes shared similarity with those determined from cattle in this country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Veterinary Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Parasitology International
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the contributions of macrophages to the outcome of infection with Babesia microti, the etiological agent of human and rodent babesiosis, in BALB/c mice. Mice were treated with clodronate liposome at different times during the course of B. microti infection in order to deplete the macrophages. Notably, a depletion of host macrophages at the early and acute phases of infection caused a significant elevation of parasitemia associated with remarkable mortality in the mice. The depletion of macrophages at the resolving and latent phases of infection resulted in an immediate and temporal exacerbation of parasitemia coupled with mortality in mice. Reconstituting clodronate liposome-treated mice at the acute phase of infection with macrophages from naive mice resulted in a slight reduction in parasitemia with improved survival compared to that of mice that received the drug alone. These results indicate that macrophages play a crucial role in the control of and resistance to B. microti infection in mice. Moreover, analyses of host immune responses revealed that macrophage-depleted mice diminished their production of Th1 cell cytokines, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, depletion of macrophages at different times exaggerated the pathogenesis of the infection in deficient IFN-γ−/− and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Collectively, our data provide important clues about the role of macrophages in the resistance and control of B. microti and imply that the severity of the infection in immunocompromised patients might be due to impairment of macrophage function.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Infection and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Theileria annulata, and T. orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata Merozoite Surface Antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Parasitology International
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine babesiosis is a livestock disease known to cause economic losses in endemic areas. The apicomplexan parasite Babesia bovis is able to invade and destroy the host's erythrocytes leading to the serious pathologies of the disease, such as anemia and hemoglobinuria. Understanding the egress mechanisms of this parasite is therefore a key step to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this study, the possible involvement of Ca(2+) in the egress of B. bovis merozoites from infected erythrocytes was investigated. Egress was artificially induced in vitro using calcium ionophore A23187 and thapsigargin to increase Ca(2+) concentration in the cytosol of the parasite cells. The increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration following these treatments was confirmed using live cell Ca(2+) imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Based on our findings, we suggest a Ca(2+) signalling pathway in the egress of B. bovis merozoites.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: Background Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan parasite that causes babesiosis in infected cattle. Genomes of pathogens contain promising information that can facilitate the development of methods for controlling infections. Although the genome of B. bovis is publically available, annotated gene models are not highly reliable prior to experimental validation. Therefore, we validated a preproposed gene model of B. bovis and extended the associated annotations on the basis of experimentally obtained full-length expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Results From in vitro cultured merozoites, 12,286 clones harboring full-length cDNAs were sequenced from both ends using the Sanger method, and 6,787 full-length cDNAs were assembled. These were then clustered, and a nonredundant referential data set of 2,115 full-length cDNA sequences was constructed. The comparison of the preproposed gene model with our data set identified 310 identical genes, 342 almost identical genes, 1,054 genes with potential structural inconsistencies, and 409 novel genes. The median length of 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) was 152 nt. Subsequently, we identified 4,086 transcription start sites (TSSs) and 2,023 transcriptionally active regions (TARs) by examining 5' ESTs. We identified ATGGGG and CCCCAT sites as consensus motifs in TARs that were distributed around -50 bp from TSSs. In addition, we found ACACA, TGTGT, and TATAT sites, which were distributed periodically around TSSs in cycles of approximately 150 bp. Moreover, related periodical distributions were not observed in mammalian promoter regions. Conclusions The observations in this study indicate the utility of integrated bioinformatics and experimental data for improving genome annotations. In particular, full-length cDNAs with one-base resolution for TSSs enabled the identification of consensus motifs in promoter sequences and demonstrated clear distributions of identified motifs. These observations allowed the illustration of a model promoter composition, which supports the differences in transcriptional regulation frameworks between apicomplexan parasites and mammals. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-678) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Genomics
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    ABSTRACT: Theileria parasites infect a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide, causing diseases with varying degrees of severity. A broad classification, based on the parasite’s ability to transform the leukocytes of host animals, divides Theileria into two groups, consisting of transforming and non-transforming species. The evolution of transforming Theileria has been accompanied by drastic changes in its genetic makeup, such as acquisition or expansion of gene families, which are thought to play critical roles in the transformation of host cells. Genetic variation among Theileria parasites is sometimes linked with host specificity and virulence in the parasites. Immunity against Theileria parasites primarily involves cell-mediated immune responses in the host. Immunodominance and major histocompatibility complex class I phenotype-specificity result in a host immunity that is tightly focused and strain-specific. Immune escape in Theileria is facilitated by genetic diversity in its antigenic determinants, which potentially results in a loss of T cell receptor recognition in its host. In the recent past, several reviews have focused on genetic diversity in the transforming species, Theileria parva and Theileria annulata. In contrast, genetic diversity in Theileria orientalis, a benign non-transforming parasite, which occasionally causes disease outbreaks in cattle, has not been extensively examined. In this review, therefore, we provide an outline of the evolution of Theileria, which includes T. orientalis, and discuss the possible mechanisms generating genetic diversity among parasite populations. Additionally, we discuss the potential implications of a genetically diverse parasite population in the context of Theileria vaccine development.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Infection Genetics and Evolution

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Veterinary record
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia and Theileria parasites has become routine, and the effectiveness of these chemicals is usually determined by comparing the parasitemia dynamics of untreated and treated parasites. Although microscopy is widely used to calculate parasitemia, several disadvantages are associated with this technique. The present study evaluates a fluorescent-based method using SYBR Green I stain (SG I) to screen antibabesial agents in in vitro cultures of Babesia bovis. The linearity between relative fluorescence units (RFU) and parasitemia was found to be well correlated with a 0.9944 goodness of fit (r(2)) value. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated for 3 antiprotozoan agents, diminazene aceturate, nimbolide, and gedunin, by this method. For diminazene aceturate and nimbolide, the IC50 values by fluorescence-based method (408 nM and 8.13 μM, respectively) and microscopy (400.3 nM and 9.4 μM, respectively) were in agreement. Furthermore, the IC50 value of gedunin by fluorescence-based method (19 μM) was similar to the recently described microscopy-based value (21.7 μM) for B. bovis. Additionally, the Z' factor (0.80-0.90), signal to noise (S/N) ratio (44.15-87.64), coefficient of variation at the maximum signal (%CVmax) (0.50-2.85), and coefficient of variation at the minimum signal (%CVmin) (1.23-2.21) calculated for the fluorescence method using diminazene aceturate were comparable to those previously determined in malaria research for this assay. These findings suggest that the fluorescence-based method might be useful for antibabesial drug screening and may have potential to be developed into a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Miltefosine, a membrane-active synthetic ether-lipid analogue, has antiproliferative and antiparasitic effects. In this study, the inhibitory effects of miltefosine were evaluated against three Babesia species and Theileria equi in vitro and against Babesia microti in mice. The drug showed significant growth inhibition from an initial parasitemia of 1% for Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia caballi, and T. equi with IC50 values of 25, 10.2, 10.4, and 99μM, respectively. Complete inhibition was observed at 200μM of miltefosine on the third day of culture for the three Babesia species and 400μM on the fourth day for T. equi. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) showed that miltefosine inhibited the transcription of choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase in B. bovis. Miltefosine at a dose rate of 30mg/kg resulted in a 71.7% inhibition of B. microti growth in BALB/c mice. Miltefosine might be used for drug therapy in babesiosis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Veterinary Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: The 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein of Theileria orientalis (p23) is an immunogenic protein expressed during the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite; its function, however, remains unclear. To evaluate the host factor or factors that interact with p23, we examined the binding of p23 to components of the host cell surface. Recombinant p23 protein of the Ikeda genotype failed to bind to bovine red blood cells or to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but did bind to Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. A glycoarray assay showed that recombinant p23 proteins from the three genotypes bound to heparin, indicating that p23 is a heparin-binding Theileria surface molecule. Further analysis of heparin-binding molecules is useful for understanding attachment and invasion of T. orientalis merozoites.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Japanese journal of veterinary research
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 658 cattle in 6 provinces in the Philippines were screened for Anaplasma marginale infection by using a diagnostic heat-shock operon (groEL) gene-PCR assay. The screening-positive samples were further tested using the major surface antigen protein 1a (Msp1a) gene-PCR assay. Screening PCR results showed 130 cattle (19.8%) were positive for the A. marginale infection. Subsequent amplification using the Msp1a gene only showed 93 samples (14.1%) to be positive. In addition, 37 tandem-repeat structures, including 20 novel structures, and 41 distinct genotypes were identified. Interestingly, multiple infections of 4 different genotypes were also observed in A. marginale-infected cattle. The present study demonstrated the prevalence and characterization of diverse genotypes of A. marginale in the Philippine cattle.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

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  • 2001-2015
    • Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
      • National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases
      Obibiro, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2012-2013
    • Gifu University
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 2003
    • Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases
      Wu-hsi, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2002
    • Kitasato University
      • Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999-2001
    • Aichi Cancer Center
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1995-1998
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Global Agricultural Sciences
      • • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1997
    • Kagoshima University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan