[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the industrialized world and accounts for much of the excess mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 45% of U.S. patients with incident end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have DKD. Independent of glycemic control, DKD aggregates in families and has higher incidence rates in African, Mexican, and American Indian ancestral groups relative to European populations. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) contrasting 6,197 unrelated individuals with advanced DKD with healthy and diabetic individuals lacking nephropathy of European American, African American, Mexican American, or American Indian ancestry. A large-scale replication and trans-ethnic meta-analysis included 7,539 additional European American, African American and American Indian DKD cases and non-nephropathy controls. Within ethnic group meta-analysis of discovery GWAS and replication set results identified genome-wide significant evidence for association between DKD and rs12523822 on chromosome 6q25.2 in American Indians (P = 5.74x10-9). The strongest signal of association in the trans-ethnic meta-analysis was with a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs12523822 (rs955333; P = 1.31x10-8), with directionally consistent results across ethnic groups. These 6q25.2 SNPs are located between the SCAF8 and CNKSR3 genes, a region with DKD relevant changes in gene expression and an eQTL with IPCEF1, a gene co-translated with CNKSR3. Several other SNPs demonstrated suggestive evidence of association with DKD, within and across populations. These data identify a novel DKD susceptibility locus with consistent directions of effect across diverse ancestral groups and provide insight into the genetic architecture of DKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CKD is simultaneously associated with immune activation, marked by systemic inflammation, and immune deficiency. Systemic inflammation contributes to atherosclerosis, CVD, cachexia and anemia, while immune deficiency leads to impaired response to vaccination, and increased incidence and severity of microbial infections. CKD-associated inflammation and immune deficiency are associated with several kinds of abnormalities. These include general expansion of monocytes and elevations of their basal integrin, Toll-like receptor expression, cytokine production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reduced phagocytic capacity. Depletion and impaired inhibitory activity of regulatory T cells is present in CKD. CKD is characterized by spontaneous activation, degranulation, increased basal ROS production, decreased phagocytic capacity, and increased apoptosis of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Upregulation of production of ROS and chemokine expression occurs in the cellular constituents of various tissues, highlighting the participation of non-immune cells in the prevailing inflammatory state in CKD. CKD is also associated with depletion of the antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Reduction in the CD4/CD8. T cell ratio and depletion of naïve and central memory T cells occurs in CKD patients. Finally, diffuse B cell lymphopenia leading to impaired humoral immunity is seen in patients with CKD. Thus, CKD-associated inflammation is due to activation of innate immune system, orchestrated by monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, and cellular constituents of other organs and tissues. This is coupled with immune deficiency that is caused by depletion of dendritic cells, naïve and central memory T cells and B cells, and impaired phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Intestinal microbiome constitutes a symbiotic ecosystem that is essential for health, and changes in its composition/function cause various illnesses. Biochemical milieu shapes the structure and function of the microbiome. Recently, we found marked differences in the abundance of numerous bacterial taxa between ESRD and healthy individuals. Influx of urea and uric acid and dietary restriction of fruits and vegetables to prevent hyperkalemia alter ESRD patients' intestinal milieu. We hypothesized that relative abundances of bacteria possessing urease, uricase, and p-cresol- and indole-producing enzymes is increased, while abundance of bacteria containing enzymes converting dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) is reduced in ESRD.
Reference sets of bacteria containing genes of interest were compiled to family, and sets of intestinal bacterial families showing differential abundances between 12 healthy and 24 ESRD individuals enrolled in our original study were compiled. Overlap between sets was assessed using hypergeometric distribution tests.
Among 19 microbial families that were dominant in ESRD patients, 12 possessed urease, 5 possessed uricase, and 4 possessed indole and p-cresol-forming enzymes. Among 4 microbial families that were diminished in ESRD patients, 2 possessed butyrate-forming enzymes. Probabilities of these overlapping distributions were <0.05.
ESRD patients exhibited significant expansion of bacterial families possessing urease, uricase, and indole and p-cresol forming enzymes, and contraction of families possessing butyrate-forming enzymes. Given the deleterious effects of indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, and urea-derived ammonia, and beneficial actions of SCFA, these changes in intestinal microbial metabolism contribute to uremic toxicity and inflammation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · American Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decade, the number of patients starting dialysis after a failed kidney transplant has increased substantially. These patients appear to be different from their transplant-naïve counterparts, and so may be the timing of dialysis therapy initiation. An increasing number of studies suggest that in transplant-naïve patients, later dialysis initiation is associated with better outcomes. Very few data are available on timing of dialysis reinitiation in failed transplant recipients, and they suggest that an earlier return to dialysis therapy tended to be associated with worse survival, especially among healthier and younger patients and women. Failed transplant patients may also have unique issues such as continuation of immunosuppression versus withdrawal or the need for remnant allograft nephrectomy with regard to dialysis reinitiation. These patients may have a different predialysis preparation work-up, worse blood pressure control, higher or lower serum phosphorus levels, lower serum bicarbonate concentration, and worse anemia management. The choice of dialysis modality may also represent an important question for these patients, even though there appears to be no difference in mortality between patients starting peritoneal versus hemodialysis. Finally, failed transplant patients returning to dialysis appear to have a higher mortality rate compared with transplant-naïve incident dialysis patients, especially in the first several months of dialysis therapy. In this review, we will summarize the available data related to the timing of dialysis initiation and outcomes in failed kidney transplant patients after returning to dialysis.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Seminars in Dialysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The population of microbes (microbiome) in the intestine is a symbiotic ecosystem conferring trophic and protective functions. Since the biochemical environment shapes the structure and function of the microbiome, we tested whether uremia and/or dietary and pharmacologic interventions in chronic kidney disease alters the microbiome. To identify different microbial populations, microbial DNA was isolated from the stools of 24 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 12 healthy persons, and analyzed by phylogenetic microarray. There were marked differences in the abundance of 190 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the ESRD and control groups. OTUs from Brachybacterium, Catenibacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae, Nesterenkonia, Polyangiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Thiothrix families were markedly increased in patients with ESRD. To isolate the effect of uremia from inter-individual variations, comorbid conditions, and dietary and medicinal interventions, rats were studied 8 weeks post 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. This showed a significant difference in the abundance of 175 bacterial OTUs between the uremic and control animals, most notably as decreases in the Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Thus, uremia profoundly alters the composition of the gut microbiome. The biological impact of this phenomenon is unknown and awaits further investigation.Kidney International advance online publication, 19 September 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.345.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although much is known about the effect of chronic kidney failure and dialysis on the composition of solutes in plasma, little is known about their impact on the composition of gaseous compounds in exhaled breath. This study was designed to explore the effect of uremia and the hemodialysis (HD) procedure on the composition of exhaled breath. Breath samples were collected from 10 dialysis patients immediately before, during, and after a dialysis session. To determine the potential introduction of gaseous compounds from dialysis components, gasses emitted from dialyzers, tubing set, dialysate, and water supplies were collected.
Prospective cohort study.
10 HD patients and 10 age-matched healthy individuals.
Predictors include the dialyzers, tubing set, dialysate, and water supplies before, during, and after dialysis.
Changes in the composition of exhaled breath.
A 5-column/detector gas chromatography system was used to measure hydrocarbon, halocarbon, oxygenate, and alkyl nitrate compounds.
Concentrations of 14 hydrocarbons and halocarbons in patients' breath rapidly increased after the onset of the HD treatment. All 14 compounds and 5 others not found in patients' breath were emitted from the dialyzers and tubing sets. Contrary to earlier reports, exhaled breath ethane concentrations in our dialysis patients were virtually unchanged during the HD treatment.
Single-center study with a small sample size may limit the generalizability of the findings.
The study documented the release of several potentially toxic hydrocarbons and halocarbons to patients from the dialyzer and tubing sets during the HD procedure. Because long-term exposure to these compounds may contribute to the morbidity and mortality in dialysis population, this issue should be considered in the manufacturing of the new generation of dialyzers and dialysis tubing sets.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is simultaneously associated with immune activation, marked by systemic inflammation, and immune deficiency. Systemic inflammation contributes to atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cachexia, and anemia, whereas immune deficiency leads to impaired response to vaccination, and increased incidence and severity of microbial infections. ESRD-associated inflammation and immune deficiency are associated with the following: (a) general expansion of monocytes and elevations of their basal integrin, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 expression, cytokine production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reduced phagocytic capacity, (b) depletion and impaired inhibitory activity of regulatory T cells, (c) spontaneous activation, degranulation, increased basal ROS production, decreased phagocytic capacity, and increased apoptosis of the circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes, (d) upregulation of ROS production machinery and chemokine expression in the cellular constituents of various tissues, highlighting participation of nonimmune cells in the prevailing inflammatory state, (e) depletion of the antigen-presenting dendritic cells, (f) reduced CD4/CD8 T cell ratio and depletion of naïve and central memory T cells, (g) diffuse B cell lymphopenia leading to impaired humoral immunity, and (h) increased proinflammatory activity of low-density lipoprotein and reduced anti-inflammatory capacity of high-density lipoprotein. Thus, ESRD-associated inflammation is due to activation of innate immune system, orchestrated by monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, and cellular constituents of other organs/tissues. This is coupled with immune deficiency that is caused by depletion of dendritic cells, naïve and central memory T cells and B cells, and impaired phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Renal Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes accumulation of nitrogenous waste products and acid-base, mineral, fluid, and electrolyte disorders, which are partially corrected by hemodialysis (HD). While the effects of ESRD and dialysis on body fluid composition are well known, the effects on composition of expired breath are uncertain. Methanol is produced from unabsorbable complex carbohydrates by the colonic microbiome. Dietary restrictions of fruits and vegetables aimed at limiting potassium intake lower the intake of dietary fibers; the reduced fiber intake can in turn reduce production of methanol and its appearance in the exhaled breath. In this study, we investigated the inter- and intradialytic changes in the breath methanol levels.
Ten ESRD patients were studied during HD procedures at 3- and 2-day interdialytic intervals. On each occasion, 20 exhaled breath and room air samples were collected using evacuated canisters. Ten age-matched normal subjects served as controls. The samples were analyzed on a unique 6-column/detector gas chromatography system.
Seven ESRD patients consuming renal diet had lower methanol concentration (90 ± 29 ppbv) than the 3 patients consuming high-fiber diet (340 ± 48 ppbv, P ≤ .0006) and the 10 controls consuming unrestricted diets (202 ± 80 ppbv, P ≤ .001). HD significantly lowered breath methanol (60% ± 12%), paralleling the fall in serum urea concentration (70% ± 6%). The predialysis methanol concentration was slightly higher at 3-day than the 2-day interdialytic intervals.
Dietary restriction of fruits and vegetables lowers methanol production by the gut microbial flora in ESRD patients. Perhaps, methanol is a reliable breath biomarker to monitor individuals' daily fiber intake. Breath methanol is dramatically reduced by HD, reflecting its efficient removal.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Renal Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes oxidative stress, inflammation, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency and accelerated atherosclerosis. Uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages results in foam cell and plaque formation. HDL mitigates atherosclerosis via reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of LDL oxidation. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory activity and suppresses HDL anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of hemodialysis on the LDL and HDL inflammatory properties is unknown. By removing the potential pro-oxidant/proinflammatory uremic toxins, dialysis may attenuate LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory properties. Conversely, exposure to dialyzer membrane and tubing and influx of impurities from dialysate can intensify LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. This study examined the effect of hemodialysis on LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. Plasma samples were obtained from 12 normal control and 26 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis with (16 patients) or without (10 patients) heparinization. HDL and LDL were isolated and tested for monocyte chemotactic activity in cultured endothelial cells. ESRD patients had increased LDL chemotactic activity, reduced HDL anti-inflammatory activity, paraoxonase and glutathione peroxidase levels, and elevated plasma IL-6 before dialysis. Hemodialysis partially improved LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory activities and enhanced patients' HDL ability to suppress their LDL inflammatory activity. The salutary effect on LDL inflammatory activity was significantly greater in patients dialyzed with than those without heparin. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory and impairs HDL anti-inflammatory activities. Hemodialysis partially improves LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. The salutary effects of hemodialysis are in part mediated by heparin, which is known to possess lipolytic and antioxidant properties.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of the National Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes accelerated atherosclerosis which is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. Activation and infiltration of monocytes represent the critical steps in atherogenesis which is advanced by oxidized LDL and inhibited by HDL. Via its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I) and constituent enzymes (paraoxonase; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), LCAT) HDL exerts potent antioxidant/anti-inflammatory functions. We have found marked reduction of HDL antioxidant/anti-inflammatory and heightened LDL pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory activities in ESRD patients. Given the inseparable link between oxidative stress and inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant therapy may improve anti-inflammatory (monocyte adhesion-promoting capacity) properties of plasma in ESRD patients.
We studied 20 hemodialysis patients who after a 4-week wash-out period were treated with a potent antioxidant cocktail (vitamin (v) E, 800 IU; vC, 250 mg; vB6, 100 mg; vB12, 250 µg and folic acid 10 mg daily) for 8 weeks. Twelve healthy volunteers served as control. Pre-dialysis plasma samples were obtained at the onset and conclusion of the study. Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, apoA-I, HDL-associated enzymes and monocyte adhesion assay were measured using cultured aortic endothelial cells.
ESRD patients exhibited reduced plasma level of apoA-1 and antioxidant enzymes, elevated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and heightened monocyte adhesion-promoting capacity. Antioxidant therapy failed to improve these abnormalities.
High doses of antioxidant vitamins fail to improve oxidative stress, inflammation or plasma monocyte adhesion-promoting capacity in ESRD patients. Thus, high doses of vitamins beyond the routinely-prescribed supplements do not appear to be beneficial in this patient population.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Clinical nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is a classic complex trait, whose development in a given individual reflects contributions from multiple genes and whose expression is modulated by environmental factors. Numerous genetic strategies have been used to identify common disease risk loci and genes, including candidate gene analyses, linkage analysis, transmission disequilibrium testing (a family based association test to identify linkage between a genetic marker and a biological trait or disease), and admixture mapping (also referred to as mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium). Choosing the best genetic strategy to identify susceptibility genes in a disease is dependent on knowing whether the disorder is monogenic (the result of one gene), oligogenic (the result of a few genes), or polygenic (the result of many genes). The likelihood of finding risk loci for a disease with a putative genetic contribution is in part owing to the disease recurrence risk ratio (the risk of expressing the disease phenotype in siblings of the proband divided by the risk observed in the general population), the genotypic risk ratio (the risk of expressing the phenotype if the gene is present divided by the risk if the gene is not present), the number of susceptibility genes, how the susceptibility genes interact, how much of the disease risk is contributed by environmental factors, and the disease penetrance (the likelihood that the phenotype will be expressed if the gene is present).
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Seminars in Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a multifactorial complication characterized by persistent proteinuria in susceptible individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Disease burden in people of Mexican-American descent is particularly high, but there are only a few studies that characterize genes for DN in this ethnic group. Two genes, carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) and engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) previously showed association with DN in other ethnic groups. CNDP1 and ELMO1 were examined along with eight other genes that are less well characterized for DN in a new study of Mexican-Americans.
The target sample was patients of Mexican-American ancestry collected from three centers: 455 patients with DN and 437 controls with long-term diabetes but no incident nephropathy. Forty-two, 227, and 401 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CNDP1, ELMO1, and the other eight genes, respectively, were examined.
No region in CNDP1 or ELMO1 showed significant P values. Of the other eight candidate genes, an association of DN with a SNP pair, rs2146098 and rs6659783, was found in hemicentin 1 (HMCN1) (unadjusted P = 6.1 x 10(-5)). Association with a rare haplotype in this region was subsequently identified.
The associations in CNDP1 or ELMO1 were not replicable; however, an association of DN with HMCN1 was found. Additional work at this and other loci will enable refinement of the genetic hypotheses regarding DN in the Mexican-American population to find therapies for this debilitating disease.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is simultaneously associated with inflammation, impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to microbial infections. Innate immune cells, monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) recognize pathogens via toll-like receptors (TLR) triggering phagocytosis, cellular activation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Data on expression and function of TLRs in ESRD are limited.
Blood samples from 21 stable ESRD patients and 21 normal controls were processed for TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR 9 expression on monocytes and PMN by flow cytometry. TLR activity was examined by determining the response to TLR4 and TLR2 ligands.
The ESRD group exhibited significant upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 (but not TLR7 or TLR 9) expressions on monocytes and of TLR4 on PMN. This was coupled with heightened cytokine production in response to TLR4 activation with lipopolysaccharide. However, the response to TLR2 stimulation with peptidoglycan was unchanged in the ESRD group.
Monocyte TLR2 and TLR4 and neutrophil TLR4 expressions and TLR4 activity are increased hemodialysis patients, representing another dimension of ESRD-associated inflammation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · American Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic growth factor-inducible neurokinin 1 (HGFIN), also known as Gpnmb and osteoactivin, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in numerous cells, including osteoclasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It serves as an osteoblast differentiation factor, participates in bone mineralization, and functions as a negative regulator of inflammation in macrophages. Although measurable at low levels in monocytes, monocyte-to-macrophage transformation causes substantial increase in HGFIN expression. HGFIN is involved in systemic inflammation, bone demineralization, and soft tissue vascular calcification.
We explored HGFIN expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in 21 stable hemodialysis patients and 22 control subjects.
Dialysis patients exhibited marked upregulation of colony-stimulating factor and IL-6 and significant downregulation of IL-10 in intact monocytes and transformed macrophages. HGFIN expression in intact monocytes was negligible in control subjects but conspicuously elevated (8.6-fold) in dialysis patients. As expected, in vitro monocyte-to-macrophage transformation resulted in marked upregulation of HGFIN in cells obtained from both groups but much more so in dialysis patients (17.5-fold higher). Upregulation of HGFIN and inflammatory cytokines in the uremic monocyte-derived macrophages occurred when grown in the presence of either normal or uremic serum, suggesting the enduring effect of the in vivo uremic milieu on monocyte/macrophage phenotype and function.
Uremic macrophages exhibit increased HGFIN gene and protein expression and heightened expression of proinflammatory and a suppressed expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are needed to determine the role of heightened monocyte/macrophage HGFIN expression in the pathogenesis of ESRD-induced inflammation and vascular and soft tissue calcification.
Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology