[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients and likely predisposes to obliterative bronchiolitis. Neuraminidase inhibitors shorten the duration of symptoms and virus shedding and the number of antibiotic-requiring complications in ambulatory immunocompetent patients, although the efficacy of these agents in lung transplant recipients has not been assessed previously.
In this study, 9 lung transplant patients who were treated with oseltamivir for influenza infections were identified and analyzed retrospectively.
Oseltamivir was well tolerated. Infection resolved in all patients and there were no deaths. Two patients developed pneumonia shortly after their influenza infection and both responded to antibiotic therapy. None of the patients had persistent abnormalities noted on chest imaging and most did not show significant changes on pulmonary function testing. Two patients with the lowest pulmonary function test (PFT) values pre-infection had persistent defects after infection.
Oseltamivir is well tolerated in lung transplant recipients and may reduce the risk of complications, although further studies are warranted.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opportunistic fungal infections remain a significant complication in immunosuppressed patients, especially those having undergone solid-organ transplantation. We report a 39-year-old patient who represents the second case of cutaneous Aspergillus ustus infection in a solid-organ transplant recipient, and the first documented case after lung transplantation. The patient's cutaneous lower extremity aspergillosis responded to a combination of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin and topical terbinafine cream, with a concomitant reduction in immunosuppression. A. ustus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen in transplant recipients.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living donor lobar lung transplantation is a viable therapy for carefully selected patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. Its success is largely dependent upon donor outcome, including both physical and emotional factors. To date, there has been little focus on psychosocial outcomes of lobar lung donors.
Retrospective evaluation of 15 of 20 living lobar lung transplant donors was performed. Donors underwent evaluation of pulmonary function after recovery from donor lobectomy. Participants completed two self-report questionnaires, the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), as well as an open-ended psychiatric interview.
After lobar donation, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) decreased by 21 +/- 2%, forced vital capacity (FVC) decreased by 16 +/- 3%, total lung capacity (TLC) decreased by 15 +/- 3%, and single-breath diffusing capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14 +/- 4%. All subjects scored higher than the national average on both the physical and mental health components of the SF-36. The BDI scores showed no evidence of clinical depression. However, the subjective interviews elicited two common complaints: (1) a decline in exercise performance, not accounted for by resting lung function measurements; and (2) a dissatisfaction with the degree of acknowledgment of their donation.
Living lobar lung transplant donors enjoy generally satisfactory physical and emotional health. Donors report positive feelings about donation, but wish to be recognized and valued by the transplant team and by the recipient. Despite preservation of lung function within the normal range, some donors also experience a subjective decline in exercise tolerance. Long-term medical and psychologic follow-up appears warranted to monitor symptoms of exercise impairment and to enhance the donor experience.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation remains the only effective therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease, but survival is limited by the development of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and two of its ligands, CXCL9 and CXCL10, have been identified as important mediators of OB. However, the relative contribution of CXCL9 and CXCL10 to the development of OB and the mechanism of regulation of these chemokines has not been well defined. In this study, we demonstrate that CXCL9 and CXCL10 are up-regulated in unique patterns following tracheal transplantation in mice. In these experiments, CXCL9 expression peaked 7 days posttransplant, while CXCL10 expression peaked at 1 day and then again 7 days posttransplant. Expression of CXCL10 was also up-regulated in a novel murine model of lung ischemia, and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid taken from human lungs 24 h after lung transplantation. In further analysis, we found that 3 h after transplantation CXCL10 is donor tissue derived and not dependent on IFN-gamma or STAT1, while 24 h after transplantation CXCL10 is from recipient tissue and regulated by IFN-gamma and STAT1. Expression of both CXCL9 and CXCL10 7 days posttransplant is regulated by IFN-gamma and STAT1. Finally, we demonstrate that deletion of CXCR3 in recipients reduces airway obliteration. However, deletion of either CXCL9 or CXCL10 did not affect airway obliteration. These data show that in this murine model of obliterative bronchiolitis, these chemokines are differentially regulated following transplantation, and that deletion of either chemokine alone does not affect the development of airway obliteration.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effector T cells significantly contribute to inflammatory diseases. These cells are recruited into tissue, where they orchestrate an inflammatory response that can either protect against infection or sometimes stimulate human disease. The recruitment of T cells into tissue from the blood and lymphoid compartments is an active process controlled by chemokines and the chemokine receptors expressed on distinct effector T-cell subsets. Thus, the chemokines secreted in the tissue will determine the specific types of T lymphocyte recruited into that tissue based on the chemokine receptors expressed on these cells. It follows that the chemokine receptor profile on T cells isolated from the lungs of patients with inflammatory pulmonary disease will define the subtype of pathogenic T lymphocytes mediating the disease process and will identify the mechanisms that recruit these cells into the lung. This article reviews data from both human and animal studies that define the chemokine receptors involved in the recruitment of T lymphocytes into the lung in various inflammatory pulmonary diseases, including asthma, obliterative bronchiolitis, sarcoidosis, and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. We then speculate on the potential role of these chemokine receptors in the pathogenesis of these disorders and potential novel therapeutic approaches suggested by these data.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic epidemiology studies of end-stage lung disease are potentially hindered by low numbers of participants due to early death of patients from the underlying disease, or due to exclusion from studies after patients have had lung transplants, because of concern about bias of genotype data due to chimerism. The number of participants enrolled in genetic studies of end-stage lung disease could be increased by including those individuals who have undergone lung transplant. We hypothesized that individuals who have had lung transplants can be included in genetic epidemiology studies that use single nucleotide polymorphism and short tandem repeat marker data, without confounding due to chimerism. Ten probands with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were included in this analysis. Pre- and post-lung transplant DNA samples were used in the investigation of concordance of genotype results for 12 short tandem repeat markers and 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Concordance was observed for all genotypes before and after lung transplant. We conclude that the risk of biasing genetic epidemiology studies due to donor lung-related DNA microchimerism is low, and that the inclusion of post-lung transplantation participants will allow for larger genetic epidemiology studies of individuals with end-stage lung disease.
Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukotriene B4 is a lipid mediator that recently has been shown to have potent chemotactic activity for effector T lymphocytes mediated through its receptor, BLT1. Here, we developed a novel murine model of acute lung rejection to demonstrate that BLT1 controls effector CD8+ T cell trafficking into the lung and that disruption of BLT1 signaling in CD8+ T cells reduces lung inflammation and mortality in the model. In addition, we used BLT1-deficient mice and a BLT1 antagonist in two tracheal transplant models of lung transplantation to demonstrate the importance of BLT1 for the recruitment of T cells into tracheal allografts. We also show that BLT1-mediated CD8+ T cell recruitment plays an important role in the development of airway fibroproliferation and obliteration. Finally, in human studies of lung transplant recipients, we found that BLT1 is up-regulated on T lymphocytes isolated from the airways of patients with obliterative bronchiolitis. These data demonstrate that BLT1 contributes to the development of lung rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis by mediating effector T lymphocyte trafficking into the lung. This is the first report that describes a pathologic role for BLT1-mediated T lymphocyte recruitment in disease and identifies BLT1 as a potential therapeutic target after lung transplantation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple risk factors for mortality in patients with COPD have been described, but most studies have involved older, primarily male subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality rate and predictors of survival in subjects with severe, early onset COPD.
The cohort of 139 probands in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study was recruited from lung transplant and general pulmonary clinics between September 1994 and July 2002. Subjects were < 53 years old, had an FEV(1) of < 40% of predicted, did not have severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency, and had not undergone lung transplantation. The initial evaluation included a standardized respiratory questionnaire, spirometry, and a blood sample. A follow-up telephone interview was conducted between May and December 2002.
Subjects were young (mean age at enrollment, 47.9 years) and had severe airflow obstruction (mean baseline FEV(1), 19.4% predicted). A total of 72.7% of the subjects were women (p < 0.0001 [comparison to equal gender distribution]). The median estimated survival time was 7.0 years from the time of study enrollment, determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. The majority of deaths were due to cardiorespiratory illness. In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, gender, and baseline FEV(1), lifetime cigarette consumption (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20 [per 10 pack-years]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.40) and recent smoking status (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.03 to 6.05) were both significant predictors of mortality.
In this cohort, recent smoking status predicted increased mortality independent of the effects of lifetime smoking intensity. Smoking cessation may confer a survival benefit even among patients with very severe COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the shortage of donor lungs, liberalization of donor selection criteria in terms of age, gas exchange, and smoking history has been proposed.
We evaluated a single-institution population of lung transplant recipients (n = 98) for donor-recipient gender matching. We measured overall survival, time to acute allograft rejection, and time to development of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB).
We found significant improvement in overall survival for gender-mismatched donor and recipient pairs (p = 0.078) and a significantly shorter OB-free period for male donor and female recipient pairs (p = 0.017).
These findings suggest that donor organ allocation based on gender may affect long-term survival and other outcomes after lung transplantation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Boston Early-Onset COPD study showed that current or ex-smoking first degree relatives of severe early onset COPD probands have significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) values than current or ex-smoking control subjects, which suggests the existence of genetic risk factors for the development of COPD in response to cigarette smoking. We hypothesised that first degree relatives of early onset COPD probands may also have lower values of spirometric parameters such as forced expiratory flow at the mid-portion of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75)) and FEF(25-75)/FVC.
Using generalised estimating equations, FEF(25-75) and FEF(25-75)/FVC were analysed in 333 first degree relatives of probands with severe early onset COPD and 83 population based controls; analyses were also performed on data stratified by smoking status. Narrow sense heritability estimates were calculated using a variance component approach.
Significantly lower FEF(25-75) and FEF(25-75)/FVC were observed in smoking (FEF(25-75): beta -0.788 l/s (95% CI -1.118 to -0.457), FEF(25-75)/FVC: beta -20.4% (95% CI -29.3 to -11.6, p<0.0001 for both phenotypes) and non-smoking (FEF(25-75): beta -0.357 l/s (95% CI -0.673 to -0.041, p = 0.0271), FEF(25-75)/FVC: beta -9.5% (95% CI -17.1 to -1.9, p = 0.0145)) first degree relatives of early onset COPD probands. Narrow sense heritability estimates for FEF(25-75) (h(2) = 0.38) and FEF(25-75)/FVC (h(2) = 0.45) were similar to those for FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC.
Lower values of FEF(25-75) and FEF(25-75)/FVC in non-smoking first degree relatives of early onset COPD probands than in controls suggest a genetic susceptibility to develop obstructive lung disease, independent of smoking, which is magnified by exposure to deleterious environments as suggested by the further decrements in FEF(25-75) and FEF(25-75)/FVC seen in smoking first degree relatives. FEF(25-75) and FEF(25-75)/FVC have high heritability and are important intermediate phenotypes for inclusion in genetic epidemiological studies of COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here our experience in achieving remission in a 20-year-old man with pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) with atypical endotheliomatosis following therapy with doxycycline. PCH is a rare disorder characterized by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium and alveolar septae, and occlude the pulmonary vasculature. The patient's symptoms, lung function, and radiographic findings had worsened despite treatment with both prednisone and alpha-interferon. He was considered to be a candidate for transplantation. Given the elevated levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in urine and the capillary proliferation noted on biopsy specimens, we elected to treat the patient with doxycycline, a matrix metalloproteinase and angiogenesis inhibitor. Following several weeks of therapy, a gradual resolution of symptoms was noted, with normalization of pulmonary function test results and urine bFGF levels. After 18 months of therapy, the patient remains in complete remission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in adult patients with cystic fibrosis using radionuclide ventriculography.
Although myocardial fibrosis has been described in autopsy specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis, the possibility that myocardial dysfunction may occur during life in adult patients with cystic fibrosis has not been explored.
To assess the possibility of cardiac dysfunction occurring in cystic fibrosis, we studied 40 patients with advanced cystic fibrosis with first-pass radionuclide ventriculography and compared them to 9 patients with advanced bronchiectasis and 18 normal control subjects.
Indexes of right ventricular systolic function were similarly impaired in patients with cystic fibrosis and patients with bronchiectasis. Left ventricular ejection fraction of patients with cystic fibrosis, patients with bronchiectasis, and normal control subjects did not differ. Fractional left ventricular filling at 50% of diastole, an index of diastolic function, was significantly lower in patients with cystic fibrosis (54 +/- 13%, mean +/- SD) in comparison to patients with bronchiectasis (66 +/- 4%, p = 0.009) or normal control subjects (69 +/- 14, p = 0.0002). The contribution of atrial systole to total diastolic left ventricular filling was greater in patients with cystic fibrosis (38 +/- 18%) than in patients with bronchiectasis (21 +/- 4%, p = 0.01) or normal control subjects (25 +/- 12%, p = 0.01).
Patients with advanced cystic fibrosis demonstrate impaired left ventricular distensibility when compared to normal control subjects and patients with bronchiectasis. Patients with cystic fibrosis may be at risk of heart failure due to right ventricular dysfunction or left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breathing low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) produces selective pulmonary vasodilatation and increases exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary hypertension of various etiologies,(1,2) and an acute pulmonary vasodilator response to NO inhalation has been used as a predictor of response to oral vasodilators.(3) Continuous or intermittent NO inhalation has been proposed as chronic pulmonary vasodilator therapy;(4) however, many patients with pulmonary hypertension do not have a pulmonary vasodilator response to inhaled NO, and in patients who do respond, the duration of vasodilatation after cessation of NO inhalation is brief. Inhaled NO exerts its pulmonary vasodilator effects by diffusing into pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and stimulating the production of cyclic guanosine 3'-5' monophosphate, a mediator of vasodilatation.(5) One approach to augment and prolong the pulmonary vasodilator effects of inhaled NO is the concomitant administration of an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine 3'-5' monophosphate metabolism. Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of type 5 phosphodiesterase, a phosphodiesterase isoenzyme that metabolizes cyclic guanosine 3'-5' monophosphate specifically and is present in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells.(6) Our laboratory has recently reported that sildenafil is a selective pulmonary vasodilator in lambs with experimental pulmonary hypertension.(7) Several case reports have suggested that sildenafil has pulmonary vasodilator effects in humans,(8-10) that it can augment the pulmonary vasodilator effects of inhaled NO,(11) and that it can prevent rebound pulmonary hypertension after cessation of NO inhalation.(12,13) In this report, we describe hemodynamic effects of sildenafil administered alone and in combination with inhaled NO in a series of adult patients with primary pulmonary hypertension.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proportion of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients dying while on the lung transplant wait list remains high; identification of such patients remains difficult. The breathing reserve index (BRI = minute ventilation/maximal voluntary ventilation) at the lactate threshold (LT) is a predictor of a pulmonary mechanical limit to incremental exercise. We hypothesized that an elevated BRI at the LT in patients with CF awaiting lung transplantation would be a predictor of wait list mortality. Forty-five consecutive patients with CF completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing as part of their pretransplant assessment. We evaluated BRI at LT, baseline demographic characteristics, pulmonary function, and other exercise parameters via Cox proportional hazards modeling. Fifteen patients died while awaiting transplant. Twenty one were transplanted, and nine still awaited transplantation. Relative risks from the multivariate model included (95% confidence interval in parentheses) BRI at LT, 17.52 (2.45-123.97); resting Pa(CO(2)), 1.29 (1.10-1.49); resting Pa(O(2)), 0.97 (0.90-1.05); and forced expiratory volume at one second as a percent of predicted, 1.19 (1.05-1.34). BRI at LT not only provided the highest point estimate of risk for wait list mortality but also identified a physiologically significant threshold value (0.70 or more) for those at risk. This measurement may allow improved timing of listing for transplantation, including consideration for living donor transplantation.
Preview · Article · Jul 2002 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. COPD is defined by irreversible airflow obstruction; airflow obstruction is typically determined by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices, including forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC). To identify genetic determinants of quantitative spirometric phenotypes, an autosomal 10-cM genomewide scan of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic markers was performed in 72 pedigrees (585 individuals) ascertained through probands with severe early-onset COPD. Multipoint variance-component linkage analysis (using SOLAR) was performed for quantitative phenotypes, including FEV(1), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC. In the initial genomewide scan, significant evidence for linkage to FEV(1)/FVC was demonstrated on chromosome 2q (LOD score 4.12 at 222 cM). Suggestive evidence was found for linkage to FEV(1)/FVC on chromosomes 1 (LOD score 1.92 at 120 cM) and 17 (LOD score 2.03 at 67 cM) and to FVC on chromosome 1 (LOD score 2.05 at 13 cM). The highest LOD score for FEV(1) in the initial genomewide scan was 1.53, on chromosome 12, at 36 cM. After inclusion of 12 additional STR markers on chromosome 12p, which had been previously genotyped in this population, suggestive evidence for linkage of FEV(1) (LOD score 2.43 at 37 cM) to this region was demonstrated. These observations provide both significant evidence for an early-onset COPD-susceptibility locus on chromosome 2 and suggestive evidence for linkage of spirometry-related phenotypes to several other genomic regions. The significant linkage of FEV(1)/FVC to chromosome 2q could reflect one or more genes influencing the development of airflow obstruction or dysanapsis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial aggregation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been demonstrated, but linkage analysis of COPD-related phenotypes has not been reported previously. An autosomal 10 cM genome-wide scan of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic markers was analyzed for linkage to COPD-related phenotypes in 585 members of 72 pedigrees ascertained through severe, early-onset COPD probands without severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Multipoint non-parametric linkage analysis (using the ALLEGRO program) was performed for qualitative phenotypes including moderate airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV(1)) < 60% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC < 90% predicted], mild airflow obstruction (FEV(1) < 80% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC < 90% predicted) and chronic bronchitis. The strongest evidence for linkage in all subjects was observed at chromosomes 12 (LOD = 1.70) and 19 (LOD = 1.54) for moderate airflow obstruction, chromosomes 8 (LOD = 1.36) and 19 (LOD = 1.09) for mild airflow obstruction and chromosomes 19 (LOD = 1.21) and 22 (LOD = 1.37) for chronic bronchitis. Restricting analysis to cigarette smokers only provided increased evidence for linkage of mild airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis to several genomic regions; for mild airflow obstruction in smokers only, the maximum LOD was 1.64 at chromosome 19, whereas for chronic bronchitis in smokers only, the maximum LOD was 2.08 at chromosome 22. On chromosome 12p, 12 additional STR markers were genotyped, which provided additional support for an airflow obstruction locus in that region with a non-parametric multipoint approach for moderate airflow obstruction (LOD = 2.13) and mild airflow obstruction (LOD = 1.43). Using a dominant model with the STR markers on 12p, two point parametric linkage analysis of all subjects demonstrated a maximum LOD score of 2.09 for moderate airflow obstruction and 2.61 for mild airflow obstruction. In smokers only, the maximum two point LOD score for mild airflow obstruction was 3.14. These observations provide suggestive evidence that there is a locus on chromosome 12p which contributes to susceptibility to early-onset COPD.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of death for patients with end-stage cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation remains high and most patients succumb to respiratory failure. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of ventilation-perfusion scintillation scans, obtained during the pre-transplant period, to identify patterns that predict prognosis while on the waiting list. These patterns were compared with other pulmonary physiologic markers of ventilation and perfusion obtained from pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests.
From November 1990 to January 1999, 46 patients with cystic fibrosis were listed for bilateral lung transplantation. Fourteen (30.4%) died while waiting for a transplant (Group 1), whereas 32 were transplanted successfully or remain alive and waiting (Group 2). Mean arterial blood gas values, Brasfield radiograph scores, cardiopulmonary exercise data and the degree of scintillation scan abnormalities between lungs were compared for each group.
Mean survival for Group 1 was 10.2 +/- 1.7 months, and for Group 2 was 23.5 +/- 3.0 months (p < 0.001). The right upper lung zone was the most severely affected segment. The Cox proportional hazards model revealed an increased perfusion disparity and resting hypercapnia as the main predictors of death while on the transplant list. The Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated greater survival for the groups with <30% disparity between lungs on the pre-transplant scintillation scans.
The results suggest that severe, unilateral perfusion abnormalities seen on scintillation scans in patients with cystic fibrosis are associated with an increased risk of dying while on the lung transplant waiting list and may be helpful in identifying patients who should be considered for early or living-donor transplantation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation