[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
The CCHF virus is one of the most geographically widespread tick-borne viruses, and has been reported in many countries of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and in Eurasia. Since 2002, there have been more than 8000 cases in Turkey, with mortality rate around 5%, making CCHF a public health concern. There are currently no specific antiviral therapies or licensed vaccines for CCHF. Due to limitations in treatment options and difficulties posed by vector control vaccination remains the most logical method of disease control. In the present study, we showed that immunization with the cell culture based vaccine against CCHF elicited a significant level of protection against a high dose challenge (1,000 PPFU) with a homologous CCHF virus Turkey-Kelkit06 strain in IFNAR−/− mice. The animals vaccinated with 5, 20, 40 μg dose of the cell culture based vaccine were partially protected (60%, 80% and 80% protection, respectively) with a significant delay in time to death. Neutralizing antibody responses are essential for the increased of protection in the mice vaccinated with the cell culture based vaccine but this cannot be the only mechanism of protection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease caused by Brucella bacteria. A successful treatment requires antibiotics that can penetrate into the cell at high concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the biotype and in vitro activity of 80 Brucella isolates obtained from blood against various antimicrobials for human brucellosis in Turkey.
Identification of the types of the species designated Brucella species was made using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with type-specific primers. Serotyping was performed using mono-specific A and M antisera. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics known to have good intracellular penetration (doxycycline, rifampicin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin) were determined by the agar dilution method.
All of the 80 Brucella isolates were determined to be Brucella melitensis: 75 B. melitensis biotype 3 (93.7%) and 5 B. melitensis biotype 1 (6.3%). Doxycycline was the most effective among the tested antibiotics against Brucella species (MIC(50)-MIC(90), 0.25-0.5 μg/ml), and it was followed by levofloxacin (MIC(50)-MIC(90), 0.5-1 μg/ml), moxifloxacin (MIC(50)-MIC(90), 1-1 μg/ml), ofloxacin (MIC(50)-MIC(90), 1-1 μg/ml), rifampicin (MIC(50)-MIC(90), 2-4 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(50)-MIC(90), 4-8 μg/ml), and clarithromycin (MIC(50)-MIC(90), 8-32 μg/ml), respectively.
The in vitro activity of doxycycline and rifampicin, which are used in the classic treatment of brucellosis, was found to be very good. Quinolones were found to have in vitro activity against Brucella isolates. Among the macrolides, azithromycin had a higher level of activity compared with clarithromycin. A combination of quinolones and azithromycin could be an alternative to doxycycline and rifampicin in the treatment of brucellosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of daptomycin in left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) patients. Fourteen patients with left heart endocarditis, monitored with a diagnosis of IE based on modified Duke criteria between July 2010 and May 2011, and receiving daptomycin as monotherapy, were enrolled. The success of daptomycin in these patients was revealed with improvements in microbiological, biochemical, and radiologic findings, as well as physical examination findings. Patient average age was 63.5 ± 14.2 years (36-80 years); 8 (57 %) were men and 6 (43 %) women. The pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (71.5 %), Streptococcus mutans (21.5 %), and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (7 %) were isolated from our patients. Daptomycin was used in initial treatment in 5 (36 %) patients; treatment was subsequently modified to daptomycin in 9 (64 %) patients as a consequence of drug serum level insufficiency, agent sensitivity to the drug administered, or drug side effects. Thirteen patients were discharged in a healthy condition, with successful surgical treatment in 5 (36 %). Only 1, an 80-year-old IE patient, was lost from advanced cardiac failure. No significant side effects were seen in any patient receiving daptomycin. The most frequent side effects were minimal rises in serum CPK levels during treatment; these values returned to normal after treatment. Daptomycin can be used successfully in left heart endocarditis with no significant side effects. Studies involving a wider patient series are now needed to support the use of daptomycin in left heart endocarditis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus family Bunyaviridae, which are enveloped viruses containing tripartite, negative polarity, single-stranded RNA. CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. Currently, there are no specific treatments or licensed vaccines available for CCHFV. Recently, two research groups have found adult mice with defective interferon responses allowed to lethal CCHFV infection. These mouse models could provide invaluable information for further studies. Efforts to develop a vaccine against CCHFV are being made. To determine the efficacy of vaccine candidates it is important to conduct serological studies that can accurately measure levels of protective antibodies. In the present study, a pseudo-plaque reduction neutralization test (PPRNT) based on enzyme-catalyzed color development of infected cells probed with anti-CCHFV antibodies was used to measure neutralization antibody of CCHFV.
Sixty-nine human serum samples (20 acute and 49 convalescent) were tested. The presence of CCHFV antibodies was determined and confirmed by a commercial ELISA kit. CCHFV RNA was determined by RT-PCR. All the samples were analyzed by PPRNT and fluorescent focus reduction neutralization test (FFRNT) to measure of CCHFV-neutralizing antibodies.
Pseudo-plaque reduction neutralization test showed a high sensitivity (98%), specificity (100%) and agreement (96,6%) in qualitative comparison with those of the FFRNT. There was a high correlation between the titers obtained in PPRNT and FFRNT (R2 = 0.92). The inter- and intra-assay variation of PPRNT revealed good reproducibility and positive cut-off of PPRNT was defined as 1:4 by the geometric mean titers for the individual samples distributed.
The pseudo-plaque reduction neutralization test described in this study is a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the measurement of CCHF neutralizing antibodies. This novel assay could serve as useful tools for CCHF research in epidemiology, vaccine development and other studies of immunity. It also provides an alternative to PRNT when viruses with no or poor CPE in cell culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal tick-borne zoonosis extensively common in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. CCHF has been reported in Turkey with high frequency since 2002. Genetic diversity of CCHF virus (CCHFV) isolates circulating in Turkey were studied by two recent studies from 2006 to the end of 2010. Since CCHFV disease has been an important public health concern in Turkey, it is necessary to continue genetic analysis of CCHFV viruses for the assessment of future patterns of disease. The aim of the present study was to genetic analysis of CCHFV isolates derived from infected patients over a two-year period (2011 and 2012) in several provinces of Turkey. Serum samples (n=10) were selected from CCHFV RNA positive patients and subjected to sequence analysis of the gene region encoding partial M segment. The nucleotide sequence alignments of the 10 partial M segments of CCHFV isolates showed that the nucleic acid relatedness of CCHFV isolates ranged from 94.4% to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis of M segment sequences revealed that CCHFV isolates circulating in Turkey belonged to the European lineage I and were closely related to the viruses previously found in Turkey and in the Eastern European-Russian and Balkan Peninsula. The results of the present study indicated the genetic stability and the lack of the genetic diversity of CCHFV isolates circulating in Turkey.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are among to the limited number of agents effective for entended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) strains which cause a considerable health problem worldwide. But the common concern about the ESBLs is the rapid resistance development. We aimed to measure in vitro activity of imipenem, meropenem, and combination of cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against the ESBL producing Klebsiella and E. coli strains. Material and Method: A total of 300 strain, 230 E. coli, 43 K. pneumoniae and 27 K. oxytoca collected from the inpatients with nosocomial infections admitted to our Institute. ESBL production of the strains were determined by using Double-disk synergy (DDS) test. The susceptibility of the strains against to the studied antibiotics was investigated with broth microdulition method according to the recommendations of NCCLS. Results: No resistance to imipenem and meropenem among E. coli and Klebsiella spp was detected. Susceptibility of E. coli strains to piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone-sulbactam and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was found as 75.2%, 72.6% and 29.3, respectively. Piperacillin-tazobactam and cephoperazon-sulbactam were determined as equally active as 69.8% to K. pneumoniae strains. Susceptibility of K. oxytoca strains to piperacillin-tazobactam and cephoperazon-sulbactam was found as 55.8% and 40.7%, orderly. The susceptibility of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid among K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains was detected as 23.3% and 18%, respectively. Conclusion: Piperacillin-tazobactam was found relatively more active against ESBL producing E. coli and K. oxytoca strains, than the cefoperazone-sulbactam. Since both antibiotics were found equally sensitive in K. pneumoniae strains they may be used in life-threatening infections when susceptible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pseudo-plaque assay was developed for detection and quantitation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Turkey-Kelkit06. Enzyme-catalyzed color development of infected cells probed with anti-Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies was used for determining the titer of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06 and for its detection in samples from persons infected with the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. The pseudo-plaque assay accuracy was confirmed by comparing pseudo-plaque assay titers with fluorescent immunofocus assay and focus formation assay titers using three stocks of virus. No significant difference in virus titers of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06 among the three methods was observed. The pseudo-plaque assay is more sensitive than the fluorescent immunofocus assay for detecting the virus in primary isolates of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus collected from humans, but no difference in sensitivity between the two methods was observed in the cell-adapted strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06. The pseudo-plaque assay is suitable for titration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06, which does not develop plaques, suggesting it may also be suitable for the detection of other viruses.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of virological methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a tick-borne disease with high mortality rates in humans. The distribution of CCHFV includes over 30 countries in Asia, the Middle East, southeastern Europe, and Africa. It was first recognized in Turkey in 2002, with an increasing number of cases reported between 2002 and 2009. Recent analysis of complete genome sequences of CCHFV isolates has revealed that the genomic plasticity of the virus is surprisingly high for an arthropod-borne virus. We have determined the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of strain CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 isolated from the blood of a patient in an endemic region of Turkey in 2006. The complete sequence length of the CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 strain is 19,186 nt, consisting of a 1673 nt S segment, a 5364 nt M segment, and a 12,149 nt L segment. Based on the analysis of S, M, and L segments, CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 clustered in Group V, which represents the Europe/Turkey geographic lineage. Although glycoproteins encoded by the M gene are the most variable part of the CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 strain, some functional domains of the glycoproteins are well conserved. Here, we report the complete sequence and genome organization of the CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 strain and its phylogenetic relationship to other strains of CCHFV. Collecting data on viral sequences among isolates from CCHF epidemics may provide valuable information regarding the molecular basis of the epidemic potential of the virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed for the presence of Ehrlichia and/or Anaplasma. A total of 242 ixodid ticks were collected from domestic ruminants and their shelters, as well as humans, and their individual salivary glands were dissected out for DNA. From the 242 ticks analyzed, six (2.47%), comprising three Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, one Rhipicephalus bursa, and two Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were positive. Of these sequenced samples directly obtained from the PCR products, three sequences from H. a. anatolicum were identical to that of the gene of Ehrlichia spp. strains. One sequence identified in R. bursa was closely related to Anaplasma platys. The remaining two sequences detected in R. sanguineus were similar to that of the gene of Anaplasma ovis. The study presented here provides preliminary data regarding the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks in Turkey.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in patients diagnosed as schizophrenia.
Ninety-eight schizophrenic patients hospitalized at The Elazig Psychiatric Hospital were included in the study. Anti-Toxocara IgG and/or IgM antibodies were determined by using commercial Toxocara canis IgG and/or IgM ELISA kit.
Seropositivity for T. canis was detected in 45 (45.9%) of 98 patients and 2 (2.0%) of 100 control subjects the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The seroprevalence was 40.4% (19 cases) and 51.0% (26 cases) for female and male subjects, respectively (p=0.3). When the seropositive and seronegative schizophrenic patients were compared with respect to the age group environment they were living in, occupation period of follow up and number of hospitalizations, there were no differences between the two groups (all, p>0.05).
In conclusion, the schizophrenic state seems to present a high risk for Toxocara infection in Turkey.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. All members of the family Bunyaviridae are enveloped viruses containing tripartite, negative polarity, single-stranded RNA. CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. During recent years, outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. However, little information is available on the genetic diversity of CCHF virus in Turkey. In this study, a total of 1227 adult ticks were collected from domestic ruminants (796 specimens from cattle, 399 specimens from goats and 32 specimens from sheep). The presence of the M segment of CCHF virus was determined in 4 of 40 (10%) Hyalomma marginatum marginatum pools, in 2 of 38 (7.89%) Rhipicephalus bursa pools, and in 1 of 7 (7%) Boophylus annulatus pools. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum pools gave negative RT-PCR result against CCHF virus. Serum samples from seven patients infected with CCHF were selected and subjected to RT-PCR to amplify partial M segment of CCHF virus. This report introduces the first data on partial nucleotide sequences of M RNA segments of CCHF virus strains circulating in Turkey, isolated from ticks.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate relationship between herpes simplex virus (HSV) corneal latency and graft survival.
Prospective case control study. 28 recipient corneal buttons and donor cornea-scleral remnants were examined for HSV DNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). None of the recipient had a history of HSV infection. Serum samples of graft recipients were analyzed for the presence of anti-HSV IgG and IgM with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. All corneas were free of stromal scarring or epithelial defect before sampling and had an endothelial cell density of >2000 cells/mm(2).
In twenty three patients (82%) anti-HSV IgG was detected in serum. In none of the recipients anti-HSV IgM was positive. HSV DNA was positive in six out of twenty eight (21%) of the recipient corneal buttons and none of the donor cornea-scleral remnants. In eighteen-months follow-up period three out of six (50%) HSV DNA positive and one out of twenty-two (4.5%) HSV DNA negative patients experienced late endothelial failure that was statistically significantly different (p = 0.022).
Even without a history of HSV keratitis, presence of latent HSV virus in recipient cornea is an important risk factor for subsequent graft survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The virus is transmitted to humans through infected tick bites or from direct contact with viremic animals or humans. In
the present study, a total of 1,015 adult ticks were collected from cattle (603 specimens), sheep (17 specimens), and goats
(395 specimens) in the Kelkit Valley in Turkey. Four tick species were recognized on the animals in the surveyed region. The
most abundant species were Rhipicephalus bursa and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, at 47.68% (484/1,015) and 46.40% (471/1,015), respectively. Reverse transcriptase PCR was used to recover partial sequences
of the CCHFV small (S) genome segment. The presence of CCHFV was determined in 3 of 33 (9.09%) R. bursa pools and in 1 of 31 (3.22%) H. m. marginatum pools. Virus sequences from R. bursa were extremely different from those of the Greek CCHFV strain (U04958) isolated from an R. bursa tick. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the CCHFV isolates obtained in this study clustered in group 5, whose range encompasses
southwestern Russian and Kosovo. This is the first evidence of CCHFV in ticks from Turkey. Even though Hyalomma is the main vector for CCHFV, R. bursa may play a role in CCHFV transmission.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first case ofextracranial tuberculous lymphadenitis which paradoxically developed during treatment of intracranial tuberculoma. Our patient, a 15-year-old girl who initially presented with meningitis and intracranial tuberculomas, developed extracranial tuberculomas during treatment for central nervous system tuberculosis. She was followed clinically with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at three monthly intervals. Within 18 months of specific antituberculous treatment, the patient had fully recovered. The course and response to therapy are discussed in light of the current literature.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Southern Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molluscum contagiosum has a worldwide occurrence and its primary mode of transmission is via direct human contact including sexual means. The aim of the study was to implement a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for detection and subtyping of Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in skin lesions diagnosed with molluscum contagiosum in a large regional teaching hospital in Turkey.
For this purpose, a total of 61 patients were included in the study. Randomly selected single lesion from each patient was used to extract DNA material and a specific PCR reaction amplifying 393-bp- and 575-bp-long regions from MCV genome was used in the detection. Subtyping was carried out by digestion of the amplified 575-bp product with restriction endonuclease enzyme BamHI. Both amplified and restriction enzyme digested products visualized on agarose gel electrophoresis.
All 61 molluscum cases (100%) included in the study contained MCV genetic material as demonstrated by the presence of 393- and 575-bp-long PCR amplified products. Restriction enzyme BamHI digestion of the 575-bp-long amplicon indicated that the infecting subtype in all the cases (100%) was MCV subtype I.
Results of this study demonstrate that subtype I is the only infecting strain dominant in our region. Because the only consecutive molluscum patients admitted to our hospital were included in the study, our data do not rule out the possibility that other genotypes might be present in the Turkish population. However, it is not unreasonable to conclude that similar trends exist in the rest of the country. Results also show that a molecular-based diagnostic assay would be feasible in cases where diagnosis was deemed necessary.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Archives of Medical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The parasitic trematode Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis that is common in ruminants especially sheep and cattle and is occasionally found in humans. Fasciolosis has a worldwide distribution including Turkey and causes major economic losses in agricultural industry. Cathepsin L1 is one of the major molecules in the excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica and is involved in tissue penetration, immune evasion and feeding and therefore may be used in vaccination and serological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate cloning and expression of the cathepsin L1 gene of F. hepatica eucaryotic cells. For this purpose, total RNA was extracted from adult F. hepatica. Cathepsin L1 DNA amplicons were obtained with the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The 981 base-coding gene region of cathepsin L1 was amplified using specific primers to the cathepsin L1 gene. Then, the cathepsin L1 gene was cloned into the pCI-neo mammalian expression vector. The presence of the cathepsin L1 gene was confirmed by PCR screening and enzyme digestion assays. So, the resulting recombinant plasmid was named pFhCL1. Afterwards, the pFhCL1 vector was transiently transfected into Vero cells. The presence of the cathepsin L1 proteins was shown by Western immunoblotting.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Turkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Turkiye Parazitoloji Dernegi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring of HBV replication level is very useful for the management of patients with chronic HBV. However, the use of the correct tools to quantify HBV-DNA levels in serum and monitor the replication of HBV is of paramount importance in terms of diagnosis, and antiviral treatment of patients with chronic HBV infection. The aim of this study was to combine the bDNA assay and HBV PCR to improve detection of viremia the patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infection.
In this study, 67 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients were analyzed to determine viremia level using bDNA and HBV PCR assays.
Sixty-four patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B showed positivity by conventional HBV PCR, whereas 56 subjects with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B showed HBV-DNA levels by bDNA.
The results indicated that it is reasonable to use the bDNA assay to determine HBV replicative activity first, and use conventional HBV-PCR for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patient samples that are negative in bDNA assay.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Hepato-gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was planned to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronic hospitalized psychiatric patients who have excitated behaviors and are under exposure to frequent parenteral procedures and badly hygiene conditions. The study consisted of 255 patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and admitted in a large institutionalized Mental Hospital in Eastern Turkey. The presence of antigen of hepatitis B virus (HbsAg), surface antibody of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs), total core antibody of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBc total), and antibody of hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. There was no statistically significant difference concerning gender, age, or duration of illness for HbsAg, HBV marker and anti-HCV seropositivity. When evaluating most observed risk factors, there was no relationship between HbsAg and HBV marker seropositivity and violent behavior, the history of trauma and repeated admissions to hospital. However, a significant influence of minor surgical and dental interventions was observed on HBV marker seropositivity. The determined values of 10.1% HBsAg seropositivity, 51% HBV seropositivity, and 2.7% anti-HCV seropositivity were found to be within the values of Turkey's normal population. In conclusion, the psychiatric patients cannot be considered as a high-risk group with respect to hepatitis B and C. However, a more comprehensive investigation of this patient group seems to be required for more accurate conclusions.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Neurology Psychiatry and Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of lipid peroxidation, indicated by plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), with consideration of clinical status and treatment outcomes in patients with acute brucellosis. Plasma MDA levels were measured in patients with acute brucellosis and healthy subjects. Significantly higher MDA levels were detected in plasma of patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (P<0.01). Plasma levels of MDA were significantly decreased after the brucellosis treatment (P<0.01). The results of the present study indicate for the first time that a considerable level of lipid peroxidation is involved in acute brucellosis cases and this may be of importance with respect to the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may serve as a target for treatment regime.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Clinical and Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence and genotypic distribution of GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) and TT virus (TTV) in blood donors, mentally retarded children and four groups of patients living in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The prevalence and genetic analysis of TTV were determined by using the primers of the UTR and ORF1 regions of TTV, respectively. Reverse transcription nested (RT-n)-PCR was used to amplify 5' UTR of GBV-C/HGV. Genotyping of HGV was carried out by PCR-based genotyping assay while RFLP was conducted to determine the genotypes of TTV. TTV DNA was detected in 118 of 410 sera tested, giving an overall prevalence of 28.7%; GBV-C/HGV-RNA was detected in only 17 cases, giving an overall prevalence of 4.1%. No significant differences were observed in the number of positive or negative tests for GBV-C/HGV and TTV according to duration of illness or mean duration of institutionalization in any of the groups studied. Although all samples from the study population belonged to genotypes 1 and 4, the most common TTV genotype is G2. In conclusion, our results indicate a low endemicity of GBV-C/HGV and TTV infection in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The presence of G2 strains reveals the limited genetic diversity of the GBV-C/HGV circulating in Turkey. We suggest that TTV infection of genotypes 1 and 4 is prevalent in the same region.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · Japanese journal of infectious diseases