[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. To investigate the efficacy and morbidity of limb-sparing surgery with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for patients with locally recurrent extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS). Methods and Materials. Twenty-six consecutively treated patients were identified in a single institution retrospective analysis of patients with locally recurrent ESTS treated with IORT following salvage limb-sparing resection from May 2000 to July 2011. Fifteen (58%) patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) prior to recurrence (median dose 63 Gy), while 11 (42%) patients received EBRT following IORT (median dose 52 Gy). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to estimate disease control and survival and subsets were compared using a log rank statistic, Cox's regression model was used to determine independent predictors of disease outcome, and toxicity was reported according to CTCAE v4.0 guidelines. Results. With a median duration of follow-up from surgery and IORT of 34.9 months (range: 4 to 139 mos.), 10 patients developed a local recurrence with 4 subsequently undergoing amputation. The 5-year estimate for local control (LC) was 58% (95% CI: 36-75%), for amputation-free was 81% (95% CI: 57-93%), for metastasis-free control (MFC) was 56% (95% CI: 31-75%), for disease-free survival (DFS) was 35% (95% CI: 17-54%), and for overall survival (OS) was 50% (95% CI: 24-71%). Prior EBRT did not appear to influence disease control (LC, p = 0.74; MFC, p = 0.66) or survival (DFS, p = 0.16; OS, p = 0.58). Grade 3 or higher acute and late toxicities were reported for 6 (23%) and 8 (31%) patients, respectively. The frequency of both acute and late grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred equally between patients who received EBRT prior to or after IORT. Conclusions. IORT in combination with oncologic resection of recurrent ESTS yields good rates of local control and limb-salvage with acceptable morbidity. Within the limitations of small subsets, these data suggest that prior EBRT does not significantly influence disease control or toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting most commonly from KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα)-activating mutations. These NCCN Guideline Insights highlight the important updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Soft Tissue Sarcoma specific to the management of patients with GIST experiencing disease progression while on imatinib and/or sunitinib.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) specific to the role of radiation therapy in the management of patients with retroperitoneal/intra-abdominal STS. The guidelines have also included recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for patients with a clinical and/or family history of genetic cancer syndromes associated with a predisposition for the development of STS.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major changes to the 2012 and 2011 NCCN Guidelines for Soft Tissue Sarcoma pertain to the management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and desmoid tumors (aggressive fibromatosis). Postoperative imatinib following complete resection for primary GIST with no preoperative imatinib is now included as a category 1 recommendation for patients with intermediate or high risk of recurrence. The panel also reaffirmed the recommendation for preoperative use of imatinib in patients with GISTs that are resectable with negative margins but associated with significant surgical morbidity. Observation was included as an option for patients with resectable desmoid tumors that are small and asymptomatic, not causing morbidity, pain, or functional limitation. Sorafenib is included as an option for systemic therapy for patients with desmoid tumors.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecules Indian hedgehog (IHH), SP7 (also known as osterix), sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and TWIST1 regulate the normal differentiation of osteo- and chondrogenic cells from precursors during skeletal development and remodeling. The aberrant function of the same molecules has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone tumors. Preliminary studies suggest that antibodies against these molecules have practical, diagnostic or prognostic utility in tumors. However, a comprehensive analysis of the expression of these molecules in a large, diverse set of bone tumors has yet to be reported. The goals of this study were to compare the immunohistochemical profiles of IHH, SP7, SOX9, RUNX2 and TWIST1 among bone tumors and to determine the optimum panel for diagnostic utility. Tissue microarrays prepared from 206 undecalcified tumors (71 osteosarcomas, 26 osteoblastomas/osteoid osteomas, 50 giant cell tumors, 5 chondromyxoid fibromas and 54 chondroblastomas) were stained with antibodies to IHH, SP7, SOX9, RUNX2 and TWIST1. The stains were scored for intensity (0−3+) and distribution. The results were analyzed by cluster analysis. Optimum antibody panels for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Analysis revealed six main clusters that corresponded well to tumor types and suggested a close relationship between the stromal cells of giant cell tumor and the osteoblasts of osteosarcoma. The expression profile of chondromyxoid fibroma and chondroblastoma also suggested related differentiation. The distribution of osteoblastomas and osteoid osteomas was more heterogeneous. RUNX2, SOX9 and TWIST1 represented the most sensitive and specific immunohistochemical panel to distinguish among these diagnoses with the limitation that no result could discriminate between chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. IHH and SP7 did not yield additional utility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Failure of endoprosthetic reconstruction with conventional stems due to aseptic loosening remains a challenge for maintenance of limb integrity and function. The Compress(®) implant (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) attempts to avoid aseptic failure by means of a unique technologic innovation. Though the existing literature suggests survivorship of Compress(®) and stemmed implants is similar in the short term, studies are limited by population size and followup duration.
We therefore compared (1) the rate of aseptic failure between Compress(®) and cemented intramedullary stems and (2) evaluated the overall intermediate-term implant survivorship.
We reviewed 26 patients with Compress(®) implants and 26 matched patients with cemented intramedullary stems. The patients were operated on over a 3-year period. Analysis focused on factors related to implant survival, including age, sex, diagnosis, infection, aseptic loosening, local recurrence, and fracture. Minimum followup was 0.32 years (average, 6.2 years; range, 0.32-9.2 years).
Aseptic failure occurred in one (3.8%) patient with a Compress(®) implant and three (11.5%) patients with cemented intramedullary stems. The 5-year implant survival rate was 83.5% in the Compress(®) group and 66.6% in the cemented intramedullary stem group.
The Compress(®) implant continues to be a reliable option for distal femoral limb salvage surgery. Data regarding aseptic failure is encouraging, with equivalent survivorship against cemented endoprosthetic replacement at intermediate-term followup.
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of on-site immediate cytologic assessment (ICA) on the diagnostic success rate of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) of musculoskeletal lesions and the long-term outcome in inconclusive PNB findings.
A total of 299 CT-guided PNBs of musculoskeletal lesions performed between January 1997 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The lesions were categorized by their morphology, location, and size, and by biopsy type. The diagnostic success rates, impact of ICA, and outcome in inconclusive PNBs were studied, with final histopathologic findings and/or clinical follow-up as a reference.
The overall diagnostic success rate of PNBs was 72.9% (218 of 299). The success rate increased with larger lesions (> 2 cm to 4 cm; P = .009). Biopsies performed with ICA had a higher success rate (77.0% vs 63.3%; P = .015). PNBs had inconclusive results in 109 of 299 cases (36.5%). In 66 of these, repeat open biopsy or clinical follow-up demonstrated 19 malignant/aggressive lesions (28.8%) and 47 benign/nonaggressive lesions (71.2%).
CT-guided PNB had a satisfactory success rate, which significantly increased when performed with ICA. Inconclusive results in PNB were most frequently associated with benign findings during further workup.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of melanoma in US adults is approximately 1.5 per million, with 2% to 5% of patients developing metastatic disease. In children, melanoma is distinctly uncommon, and metastatic disease occurs even more seldom. This case report, the first of a patellar lesion as the initial presentation of metastatic melanoma in a pediatric patient, highlights use of patellectomy and intraoperative radiation therapy in obtaining palliative local control while avoiding periarticular functional morbidity.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoid osteoma occurs most commonly in children, adolescents, and young adults between the ages of 5 and 30 years. In the preschool age group, it is quite uncommon, accounting for only 3-8% of all osteoid osteoma cases. We report a case of osteoid osteoma in a 7-month-old infant, who presented with decreased use of the right lower extremity due to pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an atypical appearance. A biopsy of the lesion, with histopathological examination, confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the nidus under computed tomography (CT) guidance was performed. The patient developed a recurrence after 3 months, which was treated with a second RFA. On subsequent follow-up, the infant did not show signs of pain after 1 month. In summary, this case report shows that osteoid osteoma can present in early infancy and can be successfully treated with RFA at this age, however, recurrence after the procedure can occur and close follow-up is recommended.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Skeletal Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary bone cancers are extremely rare neoplasms, accounting for fewer than 0.2% of all cancers. The evaluation and treatment of patients with bone cancers requires a multidisciplinary team of physicians, including musculoskeletal, medical, and radiation oncologists, and surgeons and radiologists with demonstrated expertise in the management of these tumors. Long-term surveillance and follow-up are necessary for the management of treatment late effects related to surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. These guidelines discuss the management of chordoma, giant cell tumor of the bone, and osteosarcoma.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare, malignant, soft tissue neoplasm that can be classified into proximal, distal and fibroma-like subtypes. Regardless of subtype, epithelioid sarcoma often shows morphologic and immunophenotypic evidence of epithelial differentiation. Current therapeutic strategies include surgical resection, amputation, radiation or chemotherapy, although the overall prognosis remains poor. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a novel therapeutic target in carcinomas. In some carcinomas, EGFR kinase domain mutations or gene amplification may correlate with response to specific inhibitors. EGFR expression has been reported in some sarcoma types, but expression, amplification and mutations have not been studied in epithelioid sarcoma. We evaluated 15 cases of epithelioid sarcoma from 14 patients for EGFR expression using immunohistochemistry, EGFR copy number aberration using fluorescence in situ hybridization and screened for mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene using direct sequencing. In all, 14 of the 15 epithelioid sarcomas (93%) showed expression of EGFR by immunohistochemistry. A majority of the cases (n=11, 73%) showed strong (2+ to 3+) and homogeneous (>75% of cells) membrane staining. No amplification or polysomy of the EGFR gene or mutations of the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR (exons 18-21) were detected. These results imply that although EGFR is expressed in most epithelioid sarcomas regardless of subtype, gene amplification and activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain appear to be rare or absent. Thus, the benefit of targeted therapy against EGFR in patients with epithelioid sarcoma remains to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma represents a unique model insofar as some well-differentiated liposarcomas progress to non-lipogenic, so-called 'dedifferentiated,' forms. The well-differentiated and dedifferentiated family of liposarcomas demonstrates amplification of the chromosome subregion 12q13-q15 with resultant amplification of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes. However, the specific genetic changes that distinguish between well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas are less well understood. To study the genetic changes in dedifferentiated liposarcomas, paired well-differentiated and dedifferentiated components of 29 tumors were analyzed separately by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. A bacterial artificial chromosome array at approximately 1-Mb resolution was used. The genetic changes were compared with clinical presentation, grade of the dedifferentiated component and overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4. Most tumors (n=21, 72%) were retroperitoneal, with both components present at initial diagnosis (n=25, 86%). Eight tumors (28%) were classified as low-grade dedifferentiation. In four cases (14%), a well-differentiated liposarcoma preceded the presentation of the dedifferentiated tumor by 1-5 years. 12q13-q15 was amplified in all tumors. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering of copy-number changes, all but two tumors showed close similarities between well-differentiated and dedifferentiated components, and segregated as pairs. Dedifferentiated components had more total amplifications (P=0.008) and a trend for gain at 19q13.2, but no genetic changes were significant in distinguishing between the two components. High-level amplifications of 1p21-32 (n=7, 24%), 1q21-23 (n=9, 31%), 6q23-24 (n=6, 21%) and 12q24 (n=3, 10%) were common, but none significantly correlated with differentiation. Presentation and grade correlated with the frequency of changes at a number of genetic loci (P<0.001), whereas CDK4 immunostaining showed negative correlation with 12q13.13 amplification. The genotypic similarity, at the limit of the array's resolution, between components implies that most genetic changes precede phenotypic 'progression,' early in tumorigenesis. The relationship between genetic changes and presentation or grade may reflect differences in factors that control genomic instability or the background genotype of the tumor.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Modern Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compressive osseointegration technology, which provides immediate, mechanically compliant endoprosthetic fixation, has been adapted for massive proximal tibial reconstructions in an attempt to avoid aseptic failure encountered with conventional stems. A retrospective review of 16 patients with resected tumors was undertaken to determine whether compressive osseointegration can provide durable anchorage of tibial implants. Medical records, radiographs, and clinical examinations were reviewed to assess surgical, local disease control, and prosthetic outcomes. The average age was 18 years (range, 12–42 years). Diagnoses included osteosarcoma (12), Ewing sarcoma (two), chondrosarcoma (one), and undifferentiated sarcoma (one). Minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4.5 years; range, 2–10.3 years); no patient was lost to followup. There were no local recurrences. Four patients developed metastatic disease; one patient died of his primary tumor, and another died from a chemotherapy-related malignancy. Complications included one early deep infection that ultimately resulted in prosthetic loosening and the need for an above-knee amputation. There were two late deep infections; prosthetic retention was achieved with débridement and antibiotics. One patient developed aseptic loosening and underwent revision; the other 15 implants provided stable osseointegration at last followup. Compressive osseointegration technology can thus achieve acceptable short-term endoprosthetic fixation results and may reduce the risk of aseptic loosening reported with conventional tibial stems.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periprosthetic fractures after massive endoprosthetic reconstructions pose a reconstructive challenge and jeopardize limb preservation. Compressive osseointegration technology offers the promise of relative ease of prosthetic revision, since fixation is achieved by means of a short intramedullary device. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 221 patients who had Compress® devices implanted in two centers between December, 1996 and December, 2008. The mean followup was 50 months (range, 1–123 months). Six patients (2.7%) sustained periprosthetic fractures and eight (3.6%) had nonperiprosthetic ipsilateral limb fractures occurring from 4 to 79 months postoperatively. All periprosthetic fractures occurred in patients with distal femoral implants (6/154, 3.9%). Surgery was performed in all six patients with periprosthetic femur fractures and for one with a nonperiprosthetic patellar fracture. The osseointegrated interface was radiographically stable in all 14 cases. All six patients with periprosthetic fracture underwent limb salvage procedures. Five patients had prosthetic revision; one patient who had internal fixation of the fracture ultimately underwent amputation for persistent infection. Periprosthetic fractures involving Compress® fixation occur infrequently and most can be treated successfully with further surgery. When implant revision is needed, the bone preserved by virtue of using a shorter intramedullary Compress® device as compared to conventional stems, allows for less complex surgery, making limb preservation more likely.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm of intermediate malignancy. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma often presents a difficult diagnostic problem, especially in bone, because the epithelioid morphology and radiographic features raise the possibility of metastatic carcinoma. The current trend of small biopsies obtained with computed tomography-guided techniques exacerbates the problem. The markedly different treatment for EHE and metastatic carcinoma underscores the need for specific markers that can differentiate between these 2 entities.
To determine the relative utility of endothelial markers in differentiating EHE from metastatic carcinoma, with emphasis on bone biopsies.
We used immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to compare the utility of Fli-1, CD34, CD31, podoplanin, and keratin cocktail in 13 EHEs and 13 morphologically similar carcinomas metastatic to bone. Immunohistochemical data were evaluated using Fisher exact test, and specificity and sensitivity were calculated.
Significant proportions of EHEs were positive for Fli-1 (100%), CD34 (85%), and CD31 (100%) compared with metastatic carcinoma (Fli-1, 15%; CD34, 15%; CD31, 38%) (P < .001, P = .005, and P = .01, respectively). However, these markers were not 100% specific for EHE. Cytokeratin cocktail stained significantly more metastatic carcinomas (100%) than EHEs (38%) (P = .01) but was not 100% specific. No significant difference was observed regarding immunostaining for podoplanin between the tumor types.
Fli-1 is most helpful in distinguishing EHE from metastatic carcinoma. However, the absence of complete specificity of any of the endothelial markers for EHE, or of keratin cocktail for carcinoma, suggests that these markers are best used in combination.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine