- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the protective effect of quercetin (Querc) on memory, anxiety-like behavior and impairment of ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetes). The type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 70 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ), diluted in 0.1 M sodium-citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Querc was dissolved in 25% ethanol and administered by gavage at the doses of 5, 25 and 50 mg/kg once a day during 40 days. The animals were distributed in eight groups of ten animals as follows: vehicle, Querc 5 mg/kg, Querc 25 mg/kg, Querc 50 mg/kg, diabetes, diabetes plus Querc 5 mg/kg, diabetes plus Querc 25 mg/kg and diabetes plus Querc 50 mg/kg. Querc was able to prevent the impairment of memory and the anxiogenic-like behavior induced by STZ-diabetes. In addition, Querc prevents the decrease in the NTPDase and increase in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in SN from cerebral cortex of STZ-diabetes. STZ-diabetes increased the AChE activity in SN from cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Querc 50 mg/kg was more effective to prevent the increase in AChE activity in the brain of STZ-diabetes. Querc also prevented an increase in the malondialdehyde levels in all the brain structures. In conclusion, the present findings showed that Querc could prevent the impairment of the enzymes that regulate the purinergic and cholinergic extracellular signaling and improve the memory and anxiety-like behavior induced by STZ-diabetes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High levels of methionine (Met) and methionine sulfoxide (MetO) are found in several genetic abnormalities. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many inborn errors of metabolism. However, little is known about the role of oxidative damage in hepatic and renal changes in hypermethioninemia. We investigated the effect of chronic treatment with Met and/or MetO on oxidative stress parameters in liver and kidney, as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total sulfhydryl content (SH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enzymes activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and delta aminolevulinic dehydratase (ALA-D). Serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Wistar rats were treated daily with two subcutaneous injections of saline (control), Met (0.2–0.4 g/kg), MetO (0.05–0.1 g/kg) and the association between these (Met plus MetO) from the 6th to the 28th day of life. Our data demonstrated an increase of glucose and urea levels in all experimental groups. Cholesterol (MetO and Met plus MetO) were decreased and triglycerides (MetO) were increased. SOD (MetO and Met plus MetO) and CAT (Met, MetO and Met plus MetO) activities were decreased, while GPx was enhanced by MetO and Met plus MetO treatment in liver. In kidney, we observed a reduction of SH levels, SOD and CAT activities and an increase of TBARS levels in all experimental groups. ROS levels in kidney were increased in MetO and Met plus MetO groups. ALA-D activity was enhanced in liver (MetO and Met plus MetO) and kidney (Met plus MetO). These findings help to understand the pathophysiology of hepatic and renal alterations present in hypermethioninemia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of chlorogenic acid (CGA), caffeine (CA) and coffee (CF) on components of the purinergic system from the cerebral cortex and platelets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups: control animals treated with (I) water (WT), (II) CGA (5 mg/kg), (III) CA (15 mg/kg) and (IV) CF (0.5 g/kg), and diabetic animals treated with (V) WT, (VI) CGA (5 mg/kg), (VII) CA (15 mg/kg) and (VIII) CF (0.5 g/kg). Our results showed an increase (173%) in adenosine monophosphate (AMP) hydrolysis in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats. In addition, CF treatment increased adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and AMP hydrolysis in group VIII synaptosomes. Platelets showed an increase in ectonucleotidase activity in group V, and all treatments reduced the increase in adenosine triphosphate and ADP hydrolysis. Furthermore, there was an increase in platelet aggregation of 72% in the diabetic rats, and CGA and CF treatment reduced platelet aggregation by nearly 60% when compared to diabetic rats. In this context, we can suggest that CGA and CF treatment should be considered a therapeutic and scientific target to be investigated in diseases associated with hyperglycemia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular risk factors as well as ectonucleotidase activities in lymphocytes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients before and after an exercise intervention. 20 MetS patients, who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks, 3 times/week, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and hepatic parameters and hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and nucleoside in lymphocytes were collected from patients before and after 15 and 30 weeks of the exercise intervention as well as from participants of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP, and a decrease in adenosine deamination in lymphocytes of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (P<0.001). However, these alterations were reversed by exercise training after 30 weeks of intervention. Additionally, exercise training reduced the inflammatory and hepatic markers to baseline levels after 30 weeks of exercise. Our results clearly indicated alteration in ectonucleotidase enzymes in lymphocytes in the MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on the enzymatic alterations and on inflammatory and hepatic parameters, especially if it is performed regularly and for a long period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transition period is marked by intense metabolic changes that defy calcium homeostasis, and compromise the immune capacity of dairy cows, what denotes interaction between metabolic status and immune activity. The adenosine deaminase (ADA) regulates adenosine levels; a molecule with anti-inflammatory properties that can act in reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in exacerbated production is harmful to health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between seric levels of calcium levels and ADA in prepartum and postpartum of dairy cows. To evaluate these variables, Holstein cows were subjected to blood collection in the transition period (days 20, 10, and 5 prepartum; and days 3, 7, 12, and 20 postpartum) and where we evaluated the serum levels of calcium and the ADA activity. An increase in the ADA activity was observed mean day 20 to day 10 postpartum (P < 0.001). Numerically, in other periods evaluated, ADA activity was higher when compared to day 20 prepartum. The serum calcium significantly reduced from 5 days prepartum, keeping smaller the day 20 prepartum until day 12 postpartum (P < 0.02). There was a negative correlation between serum calcium levels and ADA activity. The increase of ADA can be related to modulation of the inflammatory response that occurs during the transition period for cows.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) (Ut), also known as cat's claw, is a woody liana widely spread throughout the Amazon rainforest of Central and South America, containing many chemical constituents such as oxindole alkaloids, which are responsible for various biological activities. Since ancient times, the indigenous people of Peru have used it as a bark infusion for the treatment of a wide range of health problems gastric ulcers, arthritis and rheumatism. Recently, Ut is distributed worldwide and used as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy. Additionally, U. tomentosa also has antitumural activity. However, little is known about the action of U. tomentosa on the purinergic system mechanisms, which is involved in tumor progression.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyse the oxidative and anti-oxidant status in serum samples from dairy cows naturally infected by Dictyocaulus viviparus and its relation with pathological analyses. The diagnosis of the disease was confirmed by necropsy of one dairy cow with heavy infection by the parasite in the lungs and bronchi. Later, blood and faeces were collected from another 22 cows from the same farm to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities on day 0 (pre-treatment) and day 10 (post-treatment with eprinomectin). Faecal examination confirmed the infection in all lactating cows. However, the number of D. viviparus larvae per gram of faeces varied between animals. Cows showed different degrees of severity according to respiratory clinical signs of the disease (cough and nasal secretion). Further, they were classified and divided into two groups: those with mild (n = 10) and severe disease (n = 12). Increased levels of TBARS (P < 0.001), ROS (P = 0.002) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), as well as reduced CAT activity (P < 0.001) were observed in cows with severe clinical signs of the disease compared to those with mild clinical signs. Eprinomectin treatment (day 10) caused a reduction of ROS levels (P = 0.006) and SOD activity (P < 0.001), and an increase of CAT activity (P = 0.05) compared to day 0 (pre-treatment). TBARS levels did not differ with treatment (P = 0.11). In summary, increased ROS production and lipid peroxidation altered CAT and SOD activities, as an adaptive response against D. viviparus infection, contributing to the occurrence of oxidative stress and severity of the disease. Treatment with eprinomectin eliminated the infection, and thus minimized oxidative stress in dairy cows.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may cause foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and animals consisting of over 2000 serovars. The serovar Salmonella Gallinarum is an important worldwide pathogen of poultry. However, little is known on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella in chickens. The aim of this study was to evaluate cholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities in hepatic tissue of laying hens naturally infected by S. Gallinarum. Twenty positive liver samples for S. Gallinarum were collected, in addition to seven liver samples from healthy uninfected laying hens (control group). The right liver lobe was homogenized for analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the left lobe was divided into two fragments, one for histopathology and the other for Salmonella isolation. The results showed changes in AChE and BchE activity in the liver of infected laying hens compared to the control group (P < 0.05), i.e. reduced AChE and increased BCHE activities in liver samples. Infected animals showed increased MPO activity compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the histopathological findings showed fibrinoid necrosis associated to the infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and mild inflammatory infiltrate in the liver of infected hens. These findings suggest that the inflammatory process was attenuated providing a pro-inflammatory action of both enzyme analyzed in order to reduce the free ACh, a molecule which has an anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, our results lead to the hypothesis that cholinesterase plays an important role on the modulation of immune response against S. Gallinarum with an inflammatory effect, contributing to the response against this bacterium. This study should contribute to a better understanding on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in laying hens infected by S. Gallinarum.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The effects of chlorogenic acid (one of the major phenolic acid found in human diets) were investigated on the adenine nucleotides hydrolyzing enzymes; ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phophodiesterase (E-NPP), ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), E-5'- nucleotidase and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activities and expression in platelets of rats experimentally demyelinated with ethidium bromide. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Group I rats were control rats; injected with saline (CT), group II rats were injected with saline and treated with chlorogenic acid (AC), group III rats were injected with 0.1% ethidium bromide (EB) and group IV rats were injected with 0.1% EB and treated with chlorogenic acid (EB+AC). The activities of the enzymes were analyzed using colorimetric methods, and the gene expression of NTPDase 1, 2 and 3 were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The results revealed that there was a significant (P<0.01) reduction in E-NPP activity in EB group (1.63±0.10nmol p-nitrophenol released/min/mg protein) when compared to CT group (2.33±0.14nmol p-nitrophenol released/min/mg protein). However, treatment with chlorogenic acid significantly (P<0.05) increased E-NPP activity in EB group. Furthermore, no significant (P>0.05) change was observed in the E-NPP activity of EB+AC group (2.19±0.08nmol p-nitrophenol released/min/mg protein) when compared to CT group (2.33±0.14nmol p-nitrophenol released/min/mg protein). In addition, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in AMP hydrolysis in EB rat group when compared to CT group. No significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in AMP hydrolysis between AC, AC+EB and CT groups. Conversely, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in ATP and ADP hydrolyses between all the groups (AC, EB, AC+EB and CT groups). Likewise, there were no significant (P>0.05) changes in E-ADA activity and percentage platelet aggregation among all groups studied. Similarly, no significant (P>0.05) change was observed in the expression of E-NTPDase 1, 2 and 3 in all the groups tested. Conclusions: Our study revealed that chlorogenic acid may modulate the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets of rats demyelinated and treated with chlorogenic acid via alteration of E-NPP and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous administration of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 on animal behavior and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenylate kinase (AK), and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of mice infected by T. gondii. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels and glutathione (GR, GPx and GST) activity were also evaluated. For the study, 40 female mice were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: group A (uninfected and untreated), group B (uninfected and treated with (PhSe)2), group C (infected and untreated) and group D (infected and treated with (PhSe)2). The mice were inoculated with 50 cysts of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. After infection the animals of the groups B and D were treated on days 1 and 20 post-infection (PI) with 5.0 μmol/kg of (PhSe)2 subcutaneously. Behavioral tests were conducted on days 29 PI to assess memory loss (object recognition), anxiety (elevated plus maze), locomotor and exploratory activity (Open Field) and it was found out that infected and untreated animals (group C) had developed anxiety and memory impairment, and the (PhSe)2 treatment did not reverse these behavioral changes on infected animals treated with (PhSe)2 (group D). The results showed an increase on AChE activity (P < 0.01) in the brain of infected and untreated animals (group C) compared to the uninfected and untreated animals (group A). The AK and CK activities decreased in infected and untreated animals (group C) compared to the uninfected and untreated animals (group A) (P < 0.01), however the (PhSe)2 treatment did not reverse these alterations. Infected and untreated animals (group C) showed increased TBARS levels and GR activity, and decreased GPx and GST activities when compared to uninfected and untreated animals (group A). Infected animals treated with (PhSe)2 (group D) decreased TBARS levels and GR activity, while increased GST activity when compared to infected and untreated animals (group C). It was concluded that (PhSe)2 showed antioxidant activity, but the dose used had no anti-inflammatory effect and failed to reverse the behavioral changes caused by the parasite.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplasmosis is a worldwide hemolytic disease in cattle caused by a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium, characterized by anemia and jaundice. Among the treatments used for anaplasmosis is a drug called imidocarb dipropionate, also indicated as an immunomodulator agent. However, it causes side effects associated with increased levels of acetylcholine. In view of this, the effects of imidocarb dipropionate on the purinergic system, and antioxidant enzymes in animals naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale were evaluated. Young cattle (n = 22) infected by A. marginale were divided into two groups: the Group A consisted of 11 animals used as controls; and the Group B composed of 11 animals. Imidocarb dipropionate (5 mg/kg) was used subcutaneously to treat both groups (the Group A on day 6 and the Group B on day 0). The treatment reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and increased the dismutase superoxide and catalase activities. No changes on lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) and BChE activities were noticed. These results suggest that imidocarb dipropionate used to treat A. marginale infection in cattle has effect on antioxidant enzymes, and significantly inhibits the enzymatic activities of ADA and AChE.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p < 0·05) increased in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with the CG, while the addition of 10 µM of the same agonist caused significant (p < 0·05) elevations in HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. Furthermore, ADA activity was significantly (p < 0·05) enhanced in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. In this study, the increased platelet aggregation and ADA activity in pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Eurytrema coelomaticum is considered a parasite with low pathogenicity, it may be associated with mortality and loss of productive performance in animals due to chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oxidative stress caused by E. coelomaticum in naturally infected cattle, correlating the biochemical findings with the parasite load and histopathological changes. For this study, blood and pancreas samples from 51 cattle were collected, and levels of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in the serum and pancreas, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured in total blood. Parasite burden was determined opening the pancreatic ducts, and then fragments of pancreas were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and routinely processed for histopathology. From the 51 collected pancreas, 33 (63.5%) were parasitized. The average parasite burden per pancreas was 532 (12-2,578). TBARS and FRAP showed higher levels in serum and pancreas of infected animals (p < 0.05), with a positive correlation between the histopathological changes and the number of parasites. SOD level in blood was 42% higher in parasitized group compared with control group (p < 0.05), as well as AOPP in serum. Based on these results, we concluded that in natural infection by E. coelomaticum in cattle, oxidative stress occurs, characterized by the occurrence of protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and activation of antioxidant system.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P <0.01) in birds infected by S. Gallinarum when compared with uninfected birds. There was a positive correlation (P <0.001) between serum iron concentration, haematocrit (r2 = 0.82) and δ-ALA-D activity (r2 = 0.75). A positive correlation was also observed between δ-ALA-D activity and haematocrit (r2 = 0.78; P <0.01). Liver samples showed moderate focal coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells, macrophages and heterophils. The anaemia in the infected hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension is associated with platelet alterations that could contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications. Several studies have reported antiplatelet aggregation properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) with limited scientific basis. Hence, this study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of these rhizomes on platelet ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Animals were divided into seven groups (n = 10): normotensive control rats; induced (l-NAME hypertensive) rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10 mg/kg/day); normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day). The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in platelet ADA activity and ATP hydrolysis with a concomitant decrease in ADP and AMP hydrolysis of l-NAME hypertensive rats when compared with the control. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations by modulating the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP and AMP with a concomitant decrease in ADA activity. Thus, these activities could suggest some possible mechanism of the rhizomes against hypertension-derived complications associated to platelet hyperactivity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milk feeding using milk replacer (MR) or natural ewe's milk (NEM) for Lacaune lambs on performance, protein and lipid metabolism and oxidative/antioxidant status. These parameters were evaluated during the period of feeding adaptation, which corresponded to 12 days after ewe's separation. Fifteen lambs were selected and divided into two groups: Group A (n = 7) with lambs receiving natural milk; Group B (n = 8) with lambs receiving a milk replacer. Liquid food supply, for both groups, was set according to their body weight, given in two daily periods. Feed intake was also obtained by individual body weight and adjusted according leftovers. Blood samples were collected on three different days (0, 6 and 12) to perform the serum analysis of total protein, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urea. Additionally, the oxidative profile was analysed in sera samples through the assessment of TBARS (reactive substances thiobarbituric acid) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) which aims to identify lipid peroxidation and free radical levels, respectively, as well as the antioxidant profile evaluating glutathione S-transferase (GST). There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between groups on levels of total protein, albumin and globulin. However, cholesterol (day 6), triglycerides (days 6 and 12), urea (day 6) and ALT (day 12) levels differed (p < 0.05) between groups. Values of total protein, globulin, ALT and TBARS differed (p < 0.05) along the time. The average weight gain and body weight differed (p < 0.05) only on day 12, showing that weight gain was higher for lambs fed with NEM. The performance of lambs fed with MR was impaired. Biochemical parameters had a slight variation between groups and along the time, as well as oxidative/antioxidant status did not change in the different liquid diets.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to induce lactation in Lacaune sheep and to verify its influence on milk production and composition, oxidative/antioxidant profile, and biochemical variables in serum and milk. A group of ewes (group A, n = 7) was induced with estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)) and progesterone (1.25 mg/kg BW) on days 1 to 7, bovine somatotropin (BST; 250 mg/animal) on days 11 and 40, as well as dexamethasone (16 mg/day) on days 19, 20, and 21. For comparison, another group of pregnant ewes was used as control (group B, n = 5). Blood and milk samples were collected for biochemical analysis, oxidative/antioxidant profile analysis, and determination of individual volume and chemical composition. The hormonal protocol was effective to induce lactation; however, milk production was 79 % lower than the control group. Milk fat, protein, and total solids were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in group A when compared to group B. Hormonal induction caused changes in blood components such as increased amounts of albumin, ALT, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and decreased urea compared to the control group. Seric antioxidant levels (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), group A) were significantly increased, and reactive species of oxygen decreased dramatically compared to group B. Milk FRAP levels were lower in group A, and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels were higher compared to group B. Therefore, it was concluded that the protocol for lactation induction of Lacaune ewes was not effective in the biochemical change in blood and milk.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical profile of the Lacaune ewes naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites in the pre- and post-partum period. Ewes with similar age and weight, primiparas in the final stage of gestation, totaling 24 animals were selected. Sampling days were 10 and 2 for pre-partum and 2, 6, and 12 days for post-partum to evaluate total proteins, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea levels, in addition to thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Fecal examination by McMaster method was performed during bleeding, and based on the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG), the animals were divided into two groups: A (sheep with EPG <1000) and B (sheep with EPG >1000) to evaluate the effect of the parasitic load. Statistical analyses of biochemical parameters and EPG were performed taking into account groups, evaluated each time of sampling and over time, as well as without considering the groups, comparing pre- and post-partum and over time. It was possible to verify that the influence of time had a significant (P < 0.01) impact on cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, albumin, globulin, TBARS, and GST specifically among sampling time. When time of collection was considered, there were some differences between groups A and B for the variables: triglycerides (day 6 post-partum) and globulin (day 2 pre-partum). It is concluded that the parasitic load did influence seric levels of the urea, triglycerides, and globulins on a determined time.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: This study aims to explore the potential of new inflammatory markers for improving the challenging diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA). Methods: Levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CRP, INF-γ, and TNF-α in serum were measured in 73 patients with AA. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes were analyzed. Results: Serum levels of interleukins, TNF-α, and INF-γ were significantly elevated in patients with appendicitis (p < 0.0001), except for IL-10, which presented decreased levels. There were no significant differences in SOD (p = 0.29), CAT (p = 0.19), or TBARS levels (p = 0.18), whereas protein carbonyls presented significant increase (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Evaluating these biomarkers could aid in diagnosing AA.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of resveratrol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) on the treatment of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii during the chronic phase of the disease considering infection, behavior, and oxidative/antioxidants profile aspects. For the study, 60 mice were initially divided into two groups: uninfected (n=24) and infected by T. gondii (n=36). These two groups were later subdivided into other groups and treated with resveratrol (free and inclusion complex containing resveratrol) alone and co-administered with ST: groups A to D were composed by healthy mice and groups E to J were consisted of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Treatments began 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg(-1) of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), and lastly an co-administration of both drugs (groups I and J). Behavioral tests (memory, anxiety and locomotion) were performed after treatment. Liver and brain fragments were collected to evaluate pathological changes, brain cysts counts, as well as oxidant and antioxidant levels. A reduction on the number of cysts in the brain of animals treated with both drugs combined was observed; there was also reduced number of lesions on both organs. This drug combined effect was also able to reduce oxidative and increase antioxidant levels in infected mice, which might be interpreted as a resveratrol protective effect. In addition, the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to prevent behavioral changes in infected mice. Therefore, the use of co-administration drugs enhances the therapeutic effect acting on a synergic way, reducing the oxidizing effects of the chemical treatment for toxoplasmosis. In addition, resveratrol in inclusion complex when co-administered with ST showed an improved therapeutic effect of ST reducing oxidative damage, liver damage and the number of cysts in the brain of T. gondii infected mice.
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
- • Department of Chemistry
- • Centre of Natural and Exact Sciences (CCNE)