Vera M Morsch

Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC), Ruy Barbosa, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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Publications (102)211.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on memory loss and on the alteration of acetylcholinesterase and ectonucleotidases activities in rats exposed chronically to cadmium (Cd). Rats received Cd (1 mg/kg) and curcumin (30, 60, or 90 mg/kg) by oral gavage 5 days a week for 3 months. The animals were divided into eight groups: vehicle (saline/oil), saline/curcumin 30 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 60 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 90 mg/kg, Cd/oil, Cd/curcumin 30 mg/kg, Cd/curcumin 60 mg/kg, and Cd/curcumin 90 mg/kg. Curcumin prevented the decrease in the step-down latency induced by Cd. In cerebral cortex synaptosomes, Cd-exposed rats showed an increase in acetylcholinesterase and NTPDase (ATP and ADP as substrates) activities and a decrease in the 5'-nucleotidase activity. Curcumin was not able to prevent the effect of Cd on acetylcholinesterase activity, but it prevented the effects caused by Cd on NTPDase (ATP and ADP as substrate) and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Increased acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in different brain structures, whole blood and lymphocytes of the Cd-treated group. In addition, Cd increased lipid peroxidation in different brain structures. Higher doses of curcumin were more effective in preventing these effects. These findings show that curcumin prevented the Cd-mediated memory impairment, demonstrating that this compound has a neuroprotective role and is capable of modulating acetylcholinesterase, NTPDase, and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Finally, it highlights the possibility of using curcumin as an adjuvant against toxicological conditions involving Cd exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Environmental Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in total blood and liver tissue; butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in serum and liver tissue; adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum and liver tissue; and pyruvate kinase (PK) in liver tissue of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Animals were divided into two groups with 12 animals each, as follows: group A (uninfected) and group B (infected). Samples were collected at 20 (A1 and B1;n=6 each) and 150 (A2 and B2; n=6 each) days post-infection (PI). Infected animals showed an increase in AChE activity in whole blood and a decrease in AChE activity in liver homogenates (P<0.05) at 20 and 150 days PI. BChE and PK activities were decreased (P<0.05) in serum and liver homogenates of infected animals at 150 days PI. ADA activity was decreased in serum at 20 and 150 days PI, while in liver homogenates it was only decreased at 150 days PI (P<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in serum were increased (P<0.05), while concentrations of total protein and albumin were decreased (P<0.05) when compared to control. The histological analysis revealed fibrous perihepatitis and necrosis. Therefore, we conclude that the liver fluke is associated with cholinergic and purinergic dysfunctions, which in turn may influence the pathogenesis of the disease.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Pathology - Research and Practice
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis. Forty-two serum samples of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis were used, of which 24 were from animals with the acute phase of the disease and 18 with subclinical disease. In addition, sera from 17 healthy dogs were used as negative controls. The hematocrit, BChE activity, hepatic injury (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), nitric oxide, and cytokines levels were evaluated. The BChE activity was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in dogs with the acute phase of the disease when compared to healthy animals. However, there was a reduction on BChE activity on dogs with subclinical disease compared to the other two groups. AST and ALT levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the acute phase, as well as the inflammatory mediators (NOx, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-6) when compared to the control group. On the other hand, IL-10 levels were lower in the acute phase. Based on these results, we are able to conclude that the acute infection caused by E. canis in dogs leads to an increase on seric BChE activity and some inflammatory mediators. Therefore, this enzyme might be used as a marker of acute inflammatory response in dogs naturally infected by this bacterium.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Dogs are the main host of Leishmania infantum, and the clinical presentation may range from asymptomatic to systemic manifestations. The immune mechanisms in infected, but clinically healthy dogs, prevails Th1 response mediated by cytokines. In this sense, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are considered as key enzymes in several physiological processes, including the modulation of inflammatory process. Considering the variable immune response against Leishmania and the known participation of ADA and BChE, the aim of this study was to assess the relation between these two enzymes with the inflammatory response as well as hepatic function in dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. For this purpose, the activity of ADA and BChE was assessed in sera of 24 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum, plus 17 healthy dogs. The naturally infected dogs had clinical signs compatible with leishmaniasis and sera activities of ADA (P<0.01) and BChE (P<0.05) decreased, when compared to the healthy group. The reduction of ADA activity probably represented an effect on inflammatory response, especially due to the decreased hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine, might in order to protect against tissue damage and, also, setting a down-regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines. BChE enzyme had no effect on modulating the immune response in leishmaniasis, but it decreased, a fact may related to deficiency of synthesis in the liver. Therefore, ADA and BChE activities reduced probably in order to protect against extra tissue damage and due failure in synthesis, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis have been reported infecting a variety of Carnivora species worldwide, including domestic dogs and wild canids. Since both diseases can follow their course while the infected animals remain asymptomatic, assessments of different parameters that may help toward reaching a more accurate diagnosis are welcome. In this regard, the aim of the present study was to assess the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum from naturally infected dogs. Forty-nine samples from dogs were used in our study: 15 positive for E. canis (8 asymptomatic and 7 symptomatic animals); 8 positive for H. canis; 14 with mixed infection; and 12 uninfected (used with control). Our results showed that the ADA activity was lower (P < 0.001) in serum from dogs with both infections singly and with mixed infection, in comparison with the uninfected animals (P < 0.001). The symptomatic dogs for E. canis had lower ADA activity when compared with asymptomatic dogs by H. canis (P < 0.01). Therefore, ADA activity reduces in positive dogs for E. canis and H. canis, which can be related to an inflammatory response against infection.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Comparative Clinical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on its free form and complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) when associated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) on cytokines levels of mice (n = 60) experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii. Groups A and E were used as controls (untreated): negative and positive, respectively. The onset of treatment started 20 days post-infection (PI), and it lasted for 10 consecutive days. ST was administered orally in doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) for groups B and F, while 100 mg kg(-1) was the dose for resveratrol in its free form (groups C - G), inclusion complex (groups D and H), and on free and inclusion complex together (groups I - J). On day 31 PI, blood samples were collected in order to evaluate the cytokine profile. The mice that received drug combination (I and J) showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number of cysts in the brain compared to other infected groups (E - H). The results showed that mice from the Group E had increased (P < 0.001) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while IL-10 levels were reduced when compared to the Group A. Additionally, there were increased levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in animals of groups C and D, respectively (P < 0.05). Animals of the Group B showed reduced levels of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ (P < 0.05). Mice infected and treated (groups F - J) showed increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines along with a reduction of IL-10. Treatment with the combination of drugs (the Group J) led to a protective effect, i.e. reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, resveratrol associated with ST was able to modulate seric cytokine profile and moderate the tissue inflammatory process caused by T. gondii infection, as well as to reduce parasite multiplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Microbial Pathogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: Neural stem cells proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells, being responsible for embryonic and postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as for regeneration in the adult brain. These cells also play a key role in maintaining the physiological integrity of the CNS in face of injury or disease. The previous study has demonstrated that bradykinin (BK) treatment simultaneously induces neuronal enrichment (indicating that BK contributes to neurogenesis) and reduced proliferation rates during in vitro differentiation of rat embryonic telencephalon neural precursor cells (NPCs). Here, we provide a mechanism for the unresolved question whether (i) the low rate of proliferation is owed to enhanced neurogenesis or, conversely, (ii) the alteration of the population ratio could result from low proliferation of NPCs and glial cells. In agreement with the previous study, BK promoted neuron-specific β3-tubulin and MAP2 expression in differentiating embryonic mouse neurospheres, whereas glial protein expression and global proliferation rates decreased. Furthermore, BK augmented the global frequency of cells in G0 -phase of cell cycle after differentiation. Heterogeneous cell populations were observed at this stage, including neurons that always remaining a quiescent state (G0 -phase). It is noteworthy that BK did not interfere with proliferation of any particular cell type, evidenced by coimmunostaining for nestin, β3-tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Thus, we conclude that neuronal enrichment is owing only to the fostering of neurogenesis, and that the low proliferation rate on the seventh day of differentiation is a consequence and not the cause of BK-induced neuronal enrichment. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Cytometry Part A
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol (RSV) in its free or complexed (cyclodextrin) forms in association with diminazene aceturate (DA), as an attempt to reduce the toxic effects of this standard chemotherapy on renal and hepatic samples of mice experimentally infected with T. evansi. In this sense, this experiment was designed in order to test the ability of RSV, in its free or complexed forms, on reducing the damage on lipid membrane and protein oxidation, effects usually observed by using DA. Both forms of RSV were used at 100 mg kg−1, during seven consecutive days. As a result, it was observed that, on renal and hepatic samples, RSV in its free form, when combined with DA, was able to inhibit the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels. DA caused a decrease in the hepatic levels of advanced oxidation protein products, suggesting changes in protein synthesis; however, when it was combined with RSV, this deleterious effect was not observed. It demonstrates that RSV was able to provide some grade of protection against protein oxidation. Therefore, RSV may represent an alternative in reducing the toxic effect caused by chemotherapy in treating of T. evansi infection.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Comparative Clinical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer that affects dogs, and in many cases it leads to death. Thus, given the importance of this disease, to clarify its pathogenesis is an important measure. In this sense, the aim of this study was to investigate the levels of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), oxidative and antioxidant status, as well as the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in dogs diagnosed with mammary carcinoma. With this purpose, thirty-three (33) serum samples from female dogs with histopathological diagnosis of mammary carcinoma, without evidence of metastasis, were used (group B). The material was classified based on the degree of malignancy, as follows: subgroup B1 (low-grade malignancy; n=26) and subgroup B2 (high grade of malignancy; n=7). Serum samples from healthy females (group A; n=10) were used as negative control. Our results showed that levels of cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1, and IL-6), NOx (nitrite/nitrate), AOPP (protein oxidation), and FRAP (antioxidant power) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in dogs with mammary carcinoma (group B), when compared with group A. On the other hand, ADA activity was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in both subgroups B1 and B2, when compared with group A. BChE activity, however, was reduced (P<0.05) only in subgroup B2 when compared with group A and subgroup B1. Unlike other variables, NO, AOPP, and IFN-γ were influenced by the degree of tumor malignancy, i.e., their levels were even higher in subgroup B2. Therefore, based on these results, we can conclude that all variables investigated are related to the pathogenesis of this disease, since they were altered in dogs with mammary tumor. Additionally, we suggest that ADA activity had an anti-inflammatory effect on these tumor samples, probably in order to modulate the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pathology - Research and Practice
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) presence and its enzymatic activity in Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) tachyzoites and to test a well-known inhibitor of this enzyme. Tachyzoites were obtained from cell culture (sample 1) and peritoneal fluid of experimentally infected mice (sample 2). The protein concentration was determined for each pellet of tachyzoite. In this study, our hypothesis is that T. gondii has the enzyme AChE just like other parasites, and this knowledge might be helpful to develop new chemotherapy strategies to fight toxoplasmosis. The AChE activity was detected in the parasite using 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 mg mL−1 concentrations of protein from tachyzoites. AChE activity has increased progressively according to protein increase, up to a certain point, when it had reduced activity when higher concentrations of protein were tested. The AChE activity of T. gondii was also inhibited with the use of trichlorfon, similar to what occurs with other parasites. Based on these results, we conclude that the enzyme AChE is present in T. gondii tachyzoites. Trichlorfon is able to inhibit the enzyme detected in this study, which might become an option for chemotherapy.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Comparative Clinical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of the methanolic extract of Condalia buxifolia (MECB) were investigated in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) transported for 6 h in plastic bags at 0, 5 or 10 μL/L MECB. Prior to transport, the fish were sedated with 10 μL/L MECB for 5 min, except the control group. At the end of transport, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, temperature, and un-ionized ammonia levels in the transport water were not different between groups, but the control group presented the highest total ammonia levels. Net Na+, Cl− and K+ effluxes were highest in fish from the control group compared to those transported with MECB. PvO2, PvCO2 and HCO3− were higher after transport in fish transported with 5 μL/L MECB, but no significant difference between groups was found regarding blood pH and plasma cortisol levels. The metabolic parameters (glycogen, lactate, total amino acid, total ammonia and total protein) were lower or no significant difference was found in fish transported with MECB. There was no difference between treatments on the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, 5′-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the whole brain. The activity of all analyzed antioxidants increased in the gills and superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase also increased in the other analyzed tissues. In addition, lipoperoxidation (measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and carbonylation of proteins (measured by protein carbonyl) decreased in most analyzed tissues, indicating lower ROS production. In conclusion, the use of MECB for the transport of silver catfish is advisable because MECB improves antioxidant defenses in several tissues and was effective in reducing waterborne total ammonia levels and ion loss.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Aquaculture
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    ABSTRACT: Haemonchus contortus (order Strongylida) is a common parasitic nematode infecting small ruminants and causing significant economic losses worldwide. It induces innate and adaptive immune responses, which are essential for the clearance of this nematode from the host. Ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) is an enzyme that plays an important role in the immune system, while Zinc (Zn) has been found playing a critical role in E-ADA catalysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of Zn supplementation on E-ADA activity in serum of lambs experimentally infected with H. contortus. To reach this purpose 28 male lambs (in average 25 kg) were used. The animals were divided into four groups: A and B composed of healthy animals (uninfected); C and D, infected with H. contortus. Groups B and D were supplemented with Zn Edetate, subcutaneously with 3 mg kg of live weight, on days 11 and 25 post-infection (PI). Blood and fecal samples were collected on the days 11, 25 and 39 PI, in order to assess hematocrit, seric E-ADA, and eggs per gram (EPG) counting, respectively. The animals of groups C and D showed severe hematocrit reduction (days 25 and 39 PI) and were EPG positive (days 11, 25 and 39 PI). On day 41 PI, three animals each group were subjected to necropsy. This procedure showed that animals of groups A and B did not have helminths in abomasum and intestines, while H. contortus were observed in groups C (5782.5 ± 810.9) and D (6185.0 ± 150.0). Infected and untreated animals (group C) showed a reduction in E-ADA activity, but this was not observed when the animals were supplemented with Zn (Group D). Therefore, based on our results, it was possible to observe that Zn supplementation exercised a positive effect on E-ADA activity in lambs infected with H. contortus, and did not allow a reduction in E-ADA activity, as occurred in the group infected and without supplementation. However, Zn supplementation was not able to prevent the worm burden.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Experimental Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the influence of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) associated with resveratrol on the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii. For that, 60 mice were divided into ten groups with 6 animals each: groups A to D composed by healthy mice and groups E to J consisting of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Animals started treatment 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg-1 of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg-1 of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), as well as with an association of both drugs (groups I and J). The results showed increased (P<0.001) AChE activity on infected animals (groups E-J) when compared to not-infected (A) animals, and also uninfected animals treated with ST (group B) had increased AChE activity. AK activity decreased (P<0.001) in the infected and untreated (group E), differently from the other groups that did not differ. PK activity did not differ between groups (P>0.05). When comparing control groups (uninfected (A) and infected (E)), we verified a significant (P<0.001) increase in CK activity in the brain, and it is noteworthy that the animals treated with resveratrol associated with ST (group I and J) had similar CK activity to those animals from the group A. Treatment with the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to reduce (P<0.05) the number of parasitic cysts in the brain, thus reduced inflammatory infiltrates in the liver, and prevented the occurrence of hepatocytes lesions due to toxoplasmosis in mice. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that increased AChE and CK activities after T. gondii infection did not change with the treatment of ST-resveratrol association. In addition, decreased AK activity caused by T. gondii infection was normalized by ST-resveratrol treatment. T. gondii infection and treatment does not affect PK activity in brain.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Microbial Pathogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. This study aimed to investigate the presence and activity of the ecto adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) enzyme in tachyzoites of Neospora caninum (Nc-1 strain), as well as to assess the activity of a well-known E-ADA inhibitor, the deoxycoformycin. Materials and methods. The parasites were grown in cell culture, being subsequently separated in a pellet of tachyzoites, on which the E-ADA activity was tested using the concentrations 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg mL(-1). Results. The E-ADA showed high activity, progressively increasing its activity according to the enhancement of the protein concentration. The test was carried out with different concentrations of deoxycoformycin, showing that it was able to inhibit the E-ADA present on the free form of the parasite. Conclusions. Based on these results we conclude that the E-ADA is present on tachyzoites of N. caninum, and deoxycoformycin is able to inhibit this enzyme. In this sense, knowing the negative impact of N. caninum on reproductive issue in cattle (mainly abortion), might it is an alternative in order to deal with this parasitic infection.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Revista MVZ Córdoba
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and on the activity of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) in rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. For this purpose, twenty rats were divided into four experimental groups with five animals each as follows: groups A and B were composed by healthy animals, while animals from the groups C and D were infected by T. evansi. Additionally, groups B and D received two subcutaneous doses of iron (60 mg kg(-1)) within an interval of five days. Blood samples were drawn on day 8 post infection in order to assess hematological and biochemical variables. Among the main results are: (1) animals from the group C showed reduced erythrogram (with tendency to anemia); however the same results were not observed for the group D; this might be a direct effect of free iron on trypanosomes which helped to reduce the parasitemia and the damage to erythrocytes caused by the infection; (2) iron supplementation was able to reduce NOx levels by inhibiting iNOS, and thus, providing an antioxidant action and, indirectly, reducing the ALT levels in the groups B and D; (3) increase FRAP levels in the group D; (4) reduce ADA activity in serum and erythrocytes in the group C; however, this supplementation (5) increased the protein oxidation in groups B and D, as well as group C (positive control). Therefore, iron showed antioxidant and oxidant effects on animals that received supplementation; and it maintained the activity of E-ADA stable in infected/supplemented animals.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Experimental Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: Este estudo investigou os efeitos do óleo essencial (OE) de Lippia alba sobre parâmetros bioquímicos relacionados ao estresse oxidativo em cérebro e fígado de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen), após seis horas de transporte. Os peixes foram transportados em sacos plásticos e divididos em três tratamentos: controle, 30 µL L-1 e 40 µL L-1 de OE de L.alba. Antes do transporte, os peixes foram tratados com o OE de L. alba (200 µL L-1 por três minutos), exceto para o grupo controle. Os peixes transportados em sacos contendo o OE não tiveram alterações na atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE), ecto-nucleosídeo trifosfato difosfohidrolase (NTPDase) e 5'nucleotidase, em cérebro ou superóxido dismutase (SOD) no fígado. O tiol não proteico (NPSH), os níveis de ácido ascórbico, catalase (CAT), glutationa-S-transferase (GST) e glutationa-peroxidase (GPx) hepáticos, foram significativamente mais baixos em comparação com o grupo controle. No entanto, as substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), os níveis de oxidação proteica e a taxa de peroxidação lipídica/catalase+glutationa peroxidase (LPO/ CAT+GPx) foram significativamente maiores nos peixes transportados com ambas as concentrações de OE, indicando estresse oxidativo no fígado. Em conclusão, considerando os parâmetros de estresse oxidativo do fígado analisados no presente experimento, o transporte de jundiás previamente sedados em água contendo 30 ou 40 µL L-1 de OE de L.alba é menos efetivo que utilizando concentrações menores.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Neotropical Ichthyology
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on the impairment of memory and anxiogenic - like behavior induced by cadmium (Cd) exposure. We also investigated possible alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and δ - aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities as well as in oxidative stress parameters in the CNS. Rats were exposed to Cd (2.5mg/Kg) and quercetin (5, 25 or 50mg/Kg) by gavage for 45days. Animals were divided into eight groups (n=10-14): saline/control, saline/Querc 5mg/kg, saline/Querc 25mg/kg, saline/Querc 50mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25mg/kg and Cd/Querc 50mg/kg. Results demonstrated that Cd impaired memory and has anxiogenic effect.Quercetin prevented these harmful effects induced by Cd. AChE activity decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and increased in hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity decreased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevented these effects in AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. Reactive oxygen species production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, protein carbonyl content and double - stranded DNA fractions increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevents totally or partially these effects caused by Cd. Total thiols (T-SH), reduced glutathione (GSH), reductase glutathione (GR) activities decreased and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased Cd exposure rats. Co-treatment with quercetin prevented reduction in T-SH, GSH, GR activities and the rise of GST activity. The present findings show that quercetin prevents alterations in oxidative stress parameters as well as AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, consequently preventing memory impairment and anxiogenic-like behavior displayed by Cd exposure. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin, emphasizing the influence of this flavonoid in the diet for human health, possibly preventing brain injury associated with Cd intoxication.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Physiology & Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice (BALB/c) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In experiment I (n=24) the mice were infected with RH strain of T. gondii, while in experiment II (n=36) they were infected with strain ME-49 of T. gondii. Our results showed that, for RH strain (acute phase), an increase in both periods in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine (only on day 6 PI) and uric acid (only on day 6 PI). By the other hand, the RH strain led, on days 4 and 6 PI, to a reduction in the concentration of inosine. ME-49, a cystogenic strain, showed some differences in acute and chronic phase, since on day 6 PI the levels of ATP and ADP were increased, while on day 30 these same nucleotides were reduced. On day 60 PI, ME-49 induced a reduction in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and xanthine, while uric acid was increased. A decrease of E-ADA activity was observed in brain on days 4 and 6 PI (RH), and 30 PI (ME-49); however on day 60 PI E-ADA activity was increased for infection by ME-49 strain. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that infection with T. gondii changes the purine levels and the activity of E-ADA in brain, which may be associated with neurological signs commonly observed in this disease.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Experimental Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes of lambs experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus. A total of 14 healthy lambs were used, divided into two groups of seven animals each. Group A (negative control) represented the uninfected animals, and Group B (positive control) was formed by animals infected with 15,000 larvae of H. contortus. Blood was drawn on the days 15, 45 and 75 post-infection (PI) in order to perform the white blood cells (WBC) count, as well as the evaluation of AChE activity in lymphocytes. Parasitological stool exam (eggs per gram of feces - EPG) was performed on the same days to follow up the evolution of the infection. On day 15 PI it was verified negative EPG; however, on days 45 and 75 PI it was observed positive EPG only in the animals of group B. In the three evaluated periods was observed a lower number of leukocytes, associated with decreased lymphocytes and neutrophils in lambs infected by this gastrointestinal nematodes. Lambs infected with H. contortus showed significant (P<0.01) lower AChE activity in lymphocytes compared uninfected. Statistically, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between AChE activity in lymphocytes and number of lymphocytes (r=0.69). The lymphocytes are cells with direct participation in the cholinergic system; therefore, based on these results, it can be concluded that the experimental infection with H. contortus influences the number of lymphocytes, and consequently the AChE activity in these cells.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Experimental Parasitology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
211.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (UNOESC)
      Ruy Barbosa, Santa Catarina, Brazil
  • 1996-2015
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Microbiology and Parasitology
      • • Centre of Natural and Exact Sciences (CCNE)
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering (DEQ)
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2006-2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Departamento de Bioquímica
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil