Yasuo Kagawa

Kagawa Nutrition University, Marukame, Kagawa, Japan

Are you Yasuo Kagawa?

Claim your profile

Publications (222)691.32 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Neurocan-cartilage intermediate layer protein 2 (NCAN-CILP2) region forms a tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and is associated with plasma lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in individuals of European descent but not in the Malay and Japanese ethnic groups. Recent genome-wide resequence studies identified a missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs58542926) of the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) gene in the NCAN-CILP2 region related to hepatic triglyceride content. This study aims to analyze the influences of SNPs in this region on NAFLD and plasma lipid levels in the Asian and Pacific ethnic groups and to reveal the reasons behind positive and negative genetic associations dependent on ethnicity. Samples and characteristic data were collected from 3,013 Japanese, 119 Palauan, 947 Mongolian, 212 Thai and 401 Chinese people. Hepatic sonography data was obtained from the Japanese individuals. Genotyping data of five SNPs, rs58542926, rs735273, rs1009136, rs1858999, and rs16996148, were used to verify the effect on serum lipid levels by multiple linear regression, and the association with NAFLD in the Japanese population was examined by logistic regression analysis. rs58542926 showed significant association with the plasma triglyceride (TG) level in Japanese (P = 0.0009, effect size = 9.5 (±3.25) mg/dl/allele) and Thai (P = 0.0008, effect size = 31.6 (±11.7) mg/dl/allele) study subjects. In Mongolian individuals, there was a significant association of rs58542926 with total cholesterol level (P = 0.0003, 11.7 (±3.2) mg/dl/allele) but not with TG level. In multiple comparisons in Chinese individuals, rs58542926 was weakly (P = 0.022) associated with TG levels, although the threshold for statistical significance was not reached. In Palauan individuals, there was no significant association with the studied SNPs. rs58542926 also showed significant association with Japanese NAFLD. The minor allele (t) increased NAFLD risk (OR 1.682, 95 % CI 1.289–2.196, p value 0.00013). This study confirmed the genetic association of missense SNP of TM6SF2, rs58542926, with plasma lipid levels in multiple East Asian ethnic groups and with NAFLD in Japanese individuals.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Lipids in Health and Disease
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism rs174547 (T/C) of the fatty acid desaturase-1 gene, FADS1, is associated with changes in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipid (PL) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition in elderly Japanese participants (n=124; 65 years or older; self-feeding and oral intake). The rs174547 C-allele carriers had significantly lower arachidonic acid (ARA; n-6 PUFA) and higher linoleic acid (LA, n-6 PUFA precursor) levels in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL (15% and 6% ARA reduction, respectively, per C-allele), suggesting a low LA to ARA conversion rate in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL of C-allele carriers. α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA precursor) levels were higher in the plasma PL of C-allele carriers, whereas levels of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were unchanged in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL. Thus, rs174547 genotypes were significantly associated with different ARA compositions of the blood of elderly Japanese.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Analysis of the placenta can be a useful way to determine the fatty acid (FA) status of pregnant women and neonates since this large organ can be obtained easily and non-invasively. Although several studies have been conducted on using placental tissue for FA analysis, the sampling methods have not been thoroughly examined. The aim of the present study was to determine a suitable method of sampling human placentae by focusing on their heterogeneity. Twenty-four placentae were collected from healthy pregnant Japanese women in the Miyagi Prefecture of Japan. Five of them were used to compare the FA composition between the peripheral area and the central area of the placentae. The other 19 were examined to determine differences in the FA composition between the fetal and maternal side. Placental tissue crude lipid was saponified, and methyl was esterified with 14% sodium boron trifluoride methanol for gas chromatography with flame ionization detector analysis. Fifty-six peaks were detected from the methyl esters of the placental total lipid, and 33 of those were identified as FA methyl esters. There were considerable variations in the FA composition, as the variation was low in the central parts and high in the peripheral parts of the placentae. The 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 levels were higher in the fetal side, whereas the 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6, and 22:6n-3 levels were higher in the maternal side. These findings indicate the presence of heterogeneity in the FA composition of human placenta, and they suggest the necessity for standardizing the sampling method so that the placental tissue can be used to determine the FA status.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of oleo science

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although several studies have reported associations of depressive state with specific nutrients and foods, few have examined the associations with dietary patterns in adults. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects were 166 Japanese patients (104 men and 62 women), aged 22-74 y, who were treated at a hospital psychiatry clinic in Tokyo. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression Scale (H-SDS) and Himorogi Self-rating Anxiety Scale (H-SAS). We categorized depressive symptoms into 3 types: physical, psychiatric, and anxiety symptoms. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 59 food and beverage items, which was assessed by a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "plant foods and fish products," 2) "fish," and 3) "Western/meat." We calculated the correlation coefficients for the relationship between each dietary pattern score and depressive symptom score in unipolar depression vs. bipolar depression and in men vs. women. In bipolar depression, the plant foods and fish products pattern showed an inverse relationship with physical and psychiatric symptoms, and in men, this pattern showed an inverse relationship with psychiatric symptoms. The fish pattern and Western/meat pattern were not significantly associated with the 3 types of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, we identified 3 dietary patterns and found that associations between these patterns and depressive symptoms were observed only in bipolar depression and only in men.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we administered various diets of stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) soybean oil to rats and examined the subsequent blood and organ biochemical parameters. Male Wistar rats (seven rats/group, six groups total) were fed diets supplemented with a test oil for 4 weeks. Diets containing test oils were: FFC diet (fish-oil-free control diet), C diet (control group, assuming a Japanese diet), SDA25 diet (25% 18:4n-3 soybean oil in the C diet), SDA50 (50% 18:4n-3 soybean oil in the C diet), ALA diet (34% flaxseed oil in the C diet), and EPA+DHA diet (34% fish oil in the C diet). The intake of 18:4n-3 showed increased relative efficiency of 20:5n-3 accretions in serum and liver triacylglycerol and significantly decreased the serum triacylglycerol level in rats. The results suggested that the consumption of 18:4n-3 soybean oil may modify the lipid and fatty acid profiles of body fats, even when EPA and DHA derived from fish is consumed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of visceral fat increases cardiovascular mortality in industrialized societies. However, during the evolution of the modern human, visceral fat may have acted as energy storage facility to survive in times of famine. Therefore, past natural selection might contribute to shaping the variation of visceral fat accumulation in present populations. Here, we report that the gene encoding tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) influenced visceral fat accumulation and was operated by recent positive natural selection in East Asians. Our candidate gene association analysis on 11 metabolic traits of 5,810 East Asians revealed that rs1057001, a T/A transversion polymorphism in 3'untranslated region (UTR) of TRIB2, was strongly associated with visceral fat area (VFA) and waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (P = 2.7 × 10(-6) and P = 9.0 × 10(-6), respectively). rs1057001 was in absolute linkage disequilibrium with a conserved insertion-deletion polymorphism in the 3'UTR and was associated with allelic imbalance of TRIB2 transcript levels in adipose tissues. rs1057001 showed high degree of interpopulation variation of the allele frequency; the low-VFA-associated A allele was found with high frequencies in East Asians. Haplotypes containing the rs1057001 A allele exhibited a signature of a selective sweep, which may have occurred 16,546-27,827 years ago in East Asians. Given the predominance of the thrifty gene hypothesis, it is surprising that the apparently non-thrifty allele was selectively favored in the evolution of modern humans. Environmental/physiological factors other than famine would be needed to explain the non-neutral evolution of TRIB2 in East Asians.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Human Genetics
  • Yasuo Kagawa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biological clocks are classified into oscillatory (clock genes) and unidirectional hourglass clocks (telomeres). Clock genes align behavioral and biochemical processes with the day/night cycle. Telomeres, the repeated series of DNA sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes, become shorter during cell division. Shortened telomeres have been documented in various pathological states associated with aging. Human activity is driven by NADH and ATP produced from nutrients, and the resulting NAD and AMP play a predominant role in energy regulation. Caloric restriction increases both AMP and NAD and is known to extend the healthspan (healthy lifespan) of animals. Silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), the NAD-dependent deacetylase, attenuates telomere shortening, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a master modulator of gene expression, is phosphorylated by AMP kinase and deacetylated by SIRT1. Thus, PGC-1α is a key component of the circadian oscillator that integrates the mammalian clock and energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species produced in clock mutants result in telomere shortening. The circadian rhythms produced by clock genes and lifestyle factors are ultimately controlled by the human brain and drive homeostatic and hedonic feeding and daily activity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Nutrition Reviews
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is an animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated whether pharmacologic doses of biotin have the potential to abate insulin resistance in the skeletal muscles of OLETF rats. OLETF rats (34 weeks of age) were divided into 2 groups and given distilled water (OLETF-control group) or distilled water containing 3.3 mg L(-1) of biotin (OLETF-biotin group) for 8 weeks. At the end of experimental period, the OLETF-control rats developed severe hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, whereas the OLETF-biotin rats showed significantly smaller responses to oral glucose tolerance test than the OLETF-control rats. The glucose uptake in the hind limbs of the rats was significantly higher in the OLETF-biotin group than in the OLETF-control group. Biotin administration increased the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) protein content in the total membrane fraction but had little effect on the GLUT4 content in the plasma membrane fraction. These results indicate that administration of a pharmacological dose of biotin prevents the development of insulin resistance in the skeletal muscles of OLETF rats presumably via an increase in GLUT4 protein expression but not via GLUT4 translocation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MLXIPL is a transcription factor integral to the regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis in the liver. Common variants of the MLXIPL gene (MLXIPL) are known to influence plasma triglyceride levels in people of European descent. As MLXIPL has a key role in energy storage, genetic variations of the MLXIPL may be relevant to physiological adaptations to nutritional stresses that have occurred during the evolution of modern humans. In the present study, we assessed the phenotypic consequences of the Q241H variant of MLXIPL in populations of Asian and Oceanian origin and also surveyed the prevalence of Q241H variant in populations worldwide. Multiple linear regression models based on 2373 individuals of Asian origin showed that the H allele was significantly associated with decreased concentrations of plasma triglycerides (P=0.0003). Direct genotyping of 1455 individuals from Africa, Asia and Oceania showed that the triglyceride-lowering H allele was found at quite low frequencies (0.00-0.16) in most of the populations examined. The exceptions were some Central Asian populations, including Mongolians, Tibetans and Uyghurs, which exhibited much higher frequencies of the H allele (0.21-0.26). The high prevalence of the H allele in Central Asia implies that the Q241H variant of MLXIPL might have been significant for utilization of carbohydrates and fats in the common ancestors of these populations, who successfully adapted to the environment of Central Asia by relying on nomadic livestock herding.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Human Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders are prevalent in Mongolia. Our previous studies revealed a significant correlation of these diseases with high oxidative stress due to a high body burden of harmful metals, such as manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. This report describes a 37-year-old male Mongolian patient with multiple sclerosis and essential micronutrient deficiency. This patient demonstrated high oxidative stress, as shown by high urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels of 14.7 and 14.3 ng/mg creatinine (crea), although his hair levels of these toxic metals were markedly lower than other Mongolians. In addition, this patient was deficient not only in various essential minerals, including selenium, magnesium, copper, cobalt, vanadium, and nickel, but also in micronutrients such as vitamin B6, C, E, folic acid, niacin, and β-carotene. Furthermore, after taking 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, a chelating agent, urinary excretion of lead, cadmium, manganese, aluminum, iron, copper, and lithium were increased 156-, 8.4-, 7.6-, 4.3-, 3.3-, 2.1-, and 2.1-fold, respectively. These results suggest that this patient suffered from a deficiency in micronutrients such as essential minerals and vitamins, which resulted in a disturbance in the ability to excrete harmful metals into the urine and hair. It is possible that a deficiency of micronutrients and a high burden of heavy metals play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Nutritional treatment may be an effective approach to this disease.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Current Aging Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It was previously reported that the hair of Mongolian people showed very high accumulation of manganese (Mn), which may increase oxidative stress. This study (2(nd) report), indicated that not only Mn but other minerals had also accumulated at high levels in hair. It describes the influence of these minerals on oxidative stress, Parkinson's disease-like symptom (Parkinsonism) and arthritis, these diseases being prevalent in Mongolia. 299 subjects were enrolled (including 21; Parkinsonism and 25; arthritis) from Ulaanbaatar and 5 other areas in Mongolia. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the level of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The minerals accumulated in scalp hair were measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. As a control, 81 healthy Japanese subjects were enrolled. Mongolian subjects showed high accumulated levels of Mn, iron, lead, cadmium and aluminum accumulations in hair, as compared with Japanese subjects. These levels were correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels. The subjects with Parkinsonism and arthritis demonstrated higher levels in these minerals than healthy subjects. High accumulations of these minerals may increase oxidative stress in Mongolian people, and induce Parkinsonism and arthritis through the high oxidative stress. The high accumulations of these minerals may be induced by eating large amounts of sheep meat. In addition, sandy wind pollution may also contribute to it.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Current Aging Science

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A low-cost and simple on-site technique for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was developed. The technique is based on allele-specific primer PCR and the recently developed bead arrays in a single tip technique. The performance of the method was verified by genotyping four SNPs that correlate with cardiovascular diseases.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
  • Source
    Yasuo Kagawa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ATP synthase (F(o)F(1)) consists of an ATP-driven motor (F(1)) and a H(+)-driven motor (F(o)), which rotate in opposite directions. F(o)F(1) reconstituted into a lipid membrane is capable of ATP synthesis driven by H(+) flux. As the basic structures of F(1) (alpha(3)beta(3)gammadeltaepsilon) and F(o) (ab(2)c(10)) are ubiquitous, stable thermophilic F(o)F(1) (TF(o)F(1)) has been used to elucidate molecular mechanisms, while human F(1)F(o) (HF(1)F(o)) has been used to study biomedical significance. Among F(1)s, only thermophilic F(1) (TF(1)) can be analyzed simultaneously by reconstitution, crystallography, mutagenesis and nanotechnology for torque-driven ATP synthesis using elastic coupling mechanisms. In contrast to the single operon of TF(o)F(1), HF(o)F(1) is encoded by both nuclear DNA with introns and mitochondrial DNA. The regulatory mechanism, tissue specificity and physiopathology of HF(o)F(1) were elucidated by proteomics, RNA interference, cytoplasts and transgenic mice. The ATP synthesized daily by HF(o)F(1) is in the order of tens of kilograms, and is primarily controlled by the brain in response to fluctuations in activity.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Proceedings of the Japan Academy Ser B Physical and Biological Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1/FADS2 were associated with plasma lipid concentrations in populations with European ancestry. We investigated the associations between the SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 and plasma concentrations of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in two Asian groups, i.e., Japanese and Mongolians. The genotype of rs174547 (T/C), found to be associated with triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations in the GWAS, was determined in 21,004 Japanese and 1,203 Mongolian individuals. Genotype-phenotype association was assessed by using multiple linear regression models, assuming an additive model of inheritance. The copy number of the rs174547 C allele was significantly associated with increased triglyceride levels (P = 1.5 x 10(-6)) and decreased HDL-C levels (P = 0.03) in the Japanese population. On the other hand, in the Mongolian population, the rs174547 C allele copy number was strongly associated with decreased LDL-C levels (P = 2.6 x 10(-6)), but was not associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels. The linkage disequilibrium pattern and haplotype structures of SNPs around the FADS1/FADS2 locus showed no marked dissimilarity between Japanese and Mongolian individuals. The present data indicate that the FADS1/FADS2 locus can be added to the growing list of loci involved in polygenic dyslipidemia in Asians. Furthermore, the variable effects of FADS1/FADS2 on plasma lipid profiles in Asians may result from differences in the dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which serve as substrates for enzymes encoded by FADS1/FADS2.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Human Genetics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Republic of Palau belongs to Micronesia, and obese people and lifestyle-related diseases are prevalent there. We investigated the relationship of dietary habits and obesity to oxidative stress in Palauan people, as compared with those of Japanese and Mongolian people. A total of 126 healthy Palauan subjects were enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by serum level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by serum level of biological antioxidant potential (BAP). In Palauan subjects, BMI> or =30 was observed in 45.0% of males and 59.1% of females (Japanese: males 1.3%, females 0.8%, Mongolian: males 6.3%, females 14.7%). Palauan subjects consumed 2553 kcal per day (Japanese 2121 kcal, Mongolians 2534 kcal). The ratios of carbohydrate energy to total energy were 59.8 % (Japanese 54.7 %, Mongolians 50.2%). The ratios of fat energy to total energy were 22.9% (Japanese 26.7%, Mongolians 34.5%). ROM levels in Palauan subjects showed higher than those in Japanese subjects, while BAP levels of Palauan subjects did not decrease compared to those of Japanese. ROM levels correlated with body fat ratio, and showed a reverse correlation with handgrip strength. Handgrip strength decreased in the subjects of more than forty years of age. These findings suggest that the obesity in Palauan people may have a connection with high intake of calories through carbohydrate eating rather than through fat eating. Their high oxidative stress may be induced by obesity, and contribute to an early decline of handgrip strength, ultimately in early aging.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Current Aging Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that was involved in insulin resistance. RBP4 is predominantly expressed from the liver in normal metabolic state to transport retinoids throughout the body, but the exact physiological function and the regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte-derived RBP4 have not been revealed. We conducted the genetic analysis about metabolic parameters in Japanese and Mongolian; the minor allele carriers of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP -803G>A) showed significantly higher BMI in Japanese men (P = 0.009) and women (P = 0.017), and in Mongolian women (P = 0.009). Relative quantification of RBP4 transcripts in -803GA heterozygotes showed that the minor allele-linked haplotype-derived mRNA was significantly more abundant than the transcript from major allele. RBP4 promoter assay in 3T3L1 adipocytes revealed that the minor allele increased the promoter activity double to triple and the administration of 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) and 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) enhanced the activity. Multiple alignment analysis of human, mouse, rat, and cattle RBP4 promoter suggested conserved seven transcription factor binding motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed the -803G>A SNP modulate the affinity against unidentified DNA-binding factor, which was assumed to be a suppressive factor. These results collectively suggested that the minor allele of RBP4 regulatory SNP enhanced the expression in adipocytes, which may be associated with the adipogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Obesity
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress induces several diseases and early aging. Previously, we reported that Mongolians are exposed in high oxidative stress, which may cause their early aging. In this study, to know the reason of high oxidative stress, we measured hair metals. This investigation was performed in Murun city, in the northern area of this country, and 469 healthy subjects, ranging from 10 to 82 years of age, were randomly enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Antioxidant capacity (AOC) was estimated by the levels of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Scalp hair metals were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Murun subjects showed high ROM levels of 394+/-75 Carr U (n=342), compared with Japanese healthy subjects (n=356, 326+/-51 Carr U, p<0.001). MDA-LDL and 8-OHdG levels also showed high levels. While, BAP levels of Murun subjects were 2263+/-203 micromol/L (n=210), Japanese subjects (n=356, 2087+/-215 micromol/L, p<0.001). SOD activities were also high, suggesting that the high oxidative may accelerate the state of AOC. Murun subjects demonstrated high accumulation of several metals in the hairs. In particular, Mn accumulation exhibited from 2 fold to 40 fold increases of Japanese standard. These findings are indicative that the high Mn accumulation may contribute to the high oxidative stress. The mechanism of its high accumulation was not explained by food materials or drinking water. We should further investigate another influence such as sandy wind. In order to suppress the high oxidative stress, elimination of the high Mn accumulation should be urgently studied.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Current Aging Science

Publication Stats

6k Citations
691.32 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2015
    • Kagawa Nutrition University
      Marukame, Kagawa, Japan
  • 1976-2008
    • Jichi Medical University
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 1996-1998
    • University of Tsukuba
      • Institute of Biological Sciences
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1995
    • Osaka University
      • Institute for Protein Research
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1994
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1993
    • The University of Tokyo
      白山, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1992
    • Chiba University
      • Faculty of Horticulture
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
    • Himeji Institute of Technology
      • Faculty of Science
      Himezi, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 1991
    • National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
      Кодаиры, Tōkyō, Japan