[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza viruses have periodically caused pandemic due to frequent mutation of viral proteins. Influenza viruses have two major membrane glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hemagglutinin plays a crucial role in viral entry, while NA is involved in the process of a viral escape. In terms of developing antiviral drugs, HA is a more important target than NA in the prevention of pandemic, since HA is likely to change the host specificity of a virus by acquiring mutations, thereby to increase the risk of pandemic. To characterize mutated HA functions, current approaches require immobilization of purified HA on plastic wells and carriers. These troublesome methods make it difficult to respond to emerging mutations. In order to address this problem, a yeast cell surface engineering approach was investigated. Using this technology, human HAs derived from various H1N1 subtypes were successfully and rapidly displayed on the yeast cell surface. The yeast-displayed HAs exhibited similar abilities to native influenza virus HAs. Using this system, human HAs with 190E and 225G mutations were shown to exhibit altered recognition specificities from human to avian erythrocytes. This system furthermore allowed direct measurement of HA binding abilities without protein purification and immobilization. Coupled with the ease of genetic manipulation, this system allows the simple and comprehensive construction of mutant protein libraries on yeast cell surface, thereby contributing to influenza virus pandemic prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Butanol is an attractive alternative energy fuel owing to several advantages over ethanol. Among the microbial hosts for biobutanol production, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a great potential as a microbial host due to its powerful genetic tools, a history of successful industrial use, and its inherent tolerance to higher alcohols. Butanol production by S. cerevisiae was first attempted by transferring the 1-butanol-producing metabolic pathway from native microorganisms or using the endogenous Ehrlich pathway for isobutanol synthesis. Utilizing alternative enzymes with higher activity, eliminating competitive pathways, and maintaining co-factor balance achieved significant improvements in butanol production. Meeting future challenges, such as enhancing butanol tolerance and implementing a comprehensive strategy by high-throughput screening, would further elevate the biobutanol-producing ability of S. cerevisiae toward an ideal microbial cell factory exhibiting high productivity of biobutanol.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · FEMS Microbiology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida albicans, a causative agent of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, uses ten secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs) to deregulate the homeostasis of the host organism on many levels. One of these deregulation mechanisms involves a SAP-dependent disturbance of the control over proteolytic enzymes of the host by a system of dedicated proteinase inhibitors, with one important example being the neutrophil elastase and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI). In this study, we found that soluble SAPs 1-4 and the cell membrane-anchored SAP9 efficiently cleaved A1PI, with the major cleavage points located at the C-terminal part of A1PI in a close vicinity to the reactive-site loop that plays a critical role in the inhibition mechanism. Elastase is released by neutrophils to the environment during fungal infection through two major processes, a degranulation or formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Both, free and NET-embedded elastase forms, were found to be controlled by A1PI. A local acidosis, resulting from the neutrophil activity at the infection sites, favors A1PI degradation by SAPs. The deregulation of NET-connected elastase affected a NET-dependent damage of epithelial and endothelial cells, resulting in the increased susceptibility of these host cells to candidal colonization. Moreover, the SAP-catalyzed cleavage of A1PI was found to decrease its binding affinity to a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8. The findings presented here suggest a novel strategy used by C. albicans for the colonization of host tissues and overcoming the host defense.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Acta biochimica Polonica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium cellulovorans is an anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium, capable of effectively degrading various types of soft biomass. Its excellent capacity for degradation results from optimization of the composition of the protein complex (cellulosome) and production of non-cellulosomal proteins according to the type of substrates. In this study, we performed a quantitative proteome analysis to determine changes in the extracellular proteins produced by C. cellulovorans for degradation of several types of natural soft biomass. C. cellulovorans was cultured in media containing bagasse, corn germ, rice straw (natural soft biomass), or cellobiose (control). Using an isobaric tag method and a liquid chromatograph equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column/mass spectrometer, we identified 372 proteins in the culture supernatant. Of these, we focused on 77 saccharification-related proteins of both cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal origins. Statistical analysis showed that 18 of the proteins were specifically produced during degradation of types of natural soft biomass. Interestingly, the protein Clocel_3197 was found and commonly involved in the degradation of every natural soft biomass studied. This protein may perform functions, in addition to its known metabolic functions, that contribute to effective degradation of natural soft biomass.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13568-014-0089-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium cellulovorans is an anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium, capable of effectively degrading and metabolizing various types of substrates, including cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan and galactomannan), and pectin. Among Clostridia, this ability to degrade and metabolize a wide range of hemicellulose and pectin substrates is a unique feature; however, the mechanisms are currently unknown. To clarify the mechanisms of hemicelluloses and pectin recognition and metabolism, we carried out a quantitative proteome analysis of C. cellulovorans cultured with these substrates. C. cellulovorans was cultured in the medium of glucose (control), xylan, galactomannan (Locus bean gum, LBG), or pectin for 36 h. Xylan and galactomannan were used to search for the common recognition mechanisms of hemicellulose, and pectin was used to search for unique recognition systems in C. cellulovorans. Using an isobaric tag method and liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column, we identified 734 intracellular proteins from all substrates. We performed KEGG analyses and cluster analyses of the resulting proteins. In the KEGG analyses, we found common degradation mechanisms for hemicellulose and pectin. In the cluster analysis corresponding to the genome analysis, we detected substrate-specific clusters that include genes involved in substrate recognition, substrate degradation, and metabolism. Combining the results of the KEGG analyses and cluster analyses, we propose the mechanisms involved in the recognition and metabolism of hemicellulose and pectin in C. cellulovorans.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13568-015-0115-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida albicans yeast produces 10 distinct secreted aspartic proteases (Saps), which are some of the most important virulence factors of this pathogenic fungus. One of the suggested roles of Saps is their deregulating effect on various proteolytic cascades that constitute the major homeostatic systems in human hosts, including blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kallikrein-kinin systems. This study compared the characteristics of the action of all 10 Saps on human kininogens, which results in generating proinflammatory bradykinin-related peptides (kinins).
Recombinant forms of Saps, heterologously overexpressed in Pichia pastoris were applied. Except for Sap7 and Sap10, all Saps effectively cleaved the kininogens, with the highest hydrolytic activity toward the low-molecular-mass form (LK). Sap1-6 and 8 produced a biologically active kinin-Met-Lys-bradykinin-and Sap3 was exceptional in terms of the kinin-releasing yield (>60% LK at pH 5.0 after 24 hours). Des-Arg(1)-bradykinin was released from LK by Sap9 at a comparably high yield, but this peptide was assumed to be biologically inactive because it was unable to interact with cellular B2-type kinin receptors. However, the collaborative actions of Sap9 and Sap1, -2, -4-6, and -8 on LK rerouted kininogen cleavage toward the high-yield release of the biologically active Met-Lys-bradykinin.
Our present results, together with the available data on the expression of individual SAP genes in candidal infection models, suggest a biological potential of Saps to produce kinins at the infection foci. The kinin release during candidiasis can involve predominant and complementary contributions of two different Sap3- and Sap9-dependent mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes fatal diseases in immunocompromised hosts. Host resistance against C. albicans relies on ingestion of the pathogen by macrophages. Analysis of the escaping behavior of C. albicans from macrophages is required to understand the onset of systemic candidiasis. In this study, native interactions of C. albicans with macrophages were investigated by proteome analysis using high efficiency of long monolithic silica capillary column. Using this system, we developed a method of “mixed and quantitative proteome analysis” in which C. albicans and macrophages were simultaneously analyzed by nanoLC–MS/MS without the need to isolate the two individual living cells. Two hundred twenty-seven proteins from C. albicans and five proteins from macrophages were identified as candidate interaction-specific molecules. C. albicans seemed to produce glucose through a β-oxidation pathway, a glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis for escape from macrophages. Up-regulation of stress-related and candidate pathogenic proteins in C. albicans indicated how C. albicans endured the harsh environment inside the macrophages. Down-regulation of apoptosis-associated protein NOA1- and chaperone HSPA1A-syntheses in macrophage indicated that C. albicans was able to escape from macrophages in part by suppressing the production of these macrophage proteins.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13568-015-0127-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established a novel functional screening system for peptides acting on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Peptides are a promising drug scaffold because of their intermediate molecular size between that of therapeutic small molecules and antibodies. They also offer potential advantages of targeting not only membrane proteins but also intracellular protein-protein interactions. Phage display technology has been used for exploring novel peptides acting on GPCRs, but it is unclear whether the identified peptides functionally modulate targets because the technology selects peptides based on binding ability but not functional activity to targets. In a novel screening system that we established, yeast cells were utilized as a peptide producer while mammalian cells stably producing the receptor for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1R) were used as a biosensor for receptor activation. Three kinds of GLP1R agonists secreted by yeasts were successfully detected for their functional activities without any purification and condensation of those peptides. By applying the functional screening system, we were able to identify GLP1R agonist-secreting yeasts based on GLP1R activation from the cell mixture containing a number of background yeasts that produced non-active control peptides. Further applications of this system would include not only activity evaluation of bioactive peptides without chemical synthesis but also discovery of novel peptides activating druggable GPCRs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alginate is a major component of brown macroalgae. In macroalgae, an endolytic alginate lyase first degrades alginate into oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides are further broken down into monosaccharides by an exolytic alginate lyase. In this study, genes encoding various alginate lyases derived from alginate-assimilating marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans were isolated, and their enzymes were displayed using the yeast cell surface display system. Alg7A-, Alg7D-, and Alg18J-displaying yeasts showed endolytic alginate lyase activity. On the other hand, Alg7K-displaying yeast showed exolytic alginate lyase activity. Alg7A, Alg7D, Alg7K, and Alg18J, when displayed on yeast cell surface, demonstrated both polyguluronate lyase and polymannuronate lyase activities. Additionally, polyguluronic acid could be much easily degraded by Alg7A, Alg7K, and Alg7D than polymannuronic acid. In contrast, polymannuronic acid could be much easily degraded by Alg18J than polyguluronic acid. We further constructed yeasts co-displaying endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases. Degradation efficiency by the co-displaying yeasts were significantly higher than single alginate lyase-displaying yeasts. Alg7A/Alg7K co-displaying yeast had maximum alginate-degrading activity, with production of 1.98 g/L of reducing sugars in a 60-min reaction. This system developed, along with our findings, will contribute to the efficient utilization and production of useful and non-commercialized monosaccharides from alginate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted to assess the assimilation processes of Saccharophagus degradans cultured with glucose, pectin, and alginate as carbon sources. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was used, employing our unique, long monolithic silica capillary column. In an attempt to select candidate proteins that correlated to alginate assimilation, the production of 23 alginate-specific proteins was identified by statistical analyses of the quantitative proteomic data. Based on the analysis, we propose that S. degradans has an alginate-specific gene cluster for efficient alginate utilization. The alginate-specific proteins of S. degradans were comprised of alginate lyases, enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism, membrane transporters, and transcription factors. Among them, the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase Sde_3281 annotated in the alginate-specific cluster showed 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid reductase (DehR) activity. Furthermore, we found two different genes (Sde_3280 and Sde_0939) encoding 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconic acid (KDG) kinases (KdgK) that metabolize the KDG derived from alginate and pectin in S. degradans. S. degradans used Sde_3280 to phosphorylate the KDG derived from alginate and Sde_0939 to phosphorylate the KDG derived from pectin. The distinct selection of KdgKs provides an important clue toward the elucidation of how S. degradans recognizes and processes polysaccharides.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Marine Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four brown alga-degrading, Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, gliding and rod-shaped bacteria, designated LMG 28520T, LMG 28521, LMG 28522 and LMG 28523 were isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis gigantea obtained in Japan. The four isolates had identical RAPD patterns and grew optimally at 25 °C, pH 6.0-9.0 and in the presence of 1.0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolates in the genus Formosa with Formosa algae and Formosa arctica as closest neighbours. The isolates LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 showed 100 % DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness among each other, 16 to 17 % towards F. algae LMG 28216T and 17 to 20 % towards F. arctica LMG 28318T; and could be differentiated phenotypically from these established species. The predominant fatty acids of isolates LMG 28520T and LMG 28522 were summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 ω7c, 20.3-21.3 %), iso-C15:1 G (11.6 %) and iso-C15:0 (10.9-11.3 %). The isolate LMG 28520T contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the major respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol % for LMG 28520T and 35.5 mol % for LMG 28522. On the basis of their phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, and differential phenotypic properties, four isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Formosa, for which the name Formosa haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 28520T (= NBRC 111189T).
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) of Candida albicans cleave numerous peptides and proteins in the host organism and deregulate its homeostasis. Human kininogens contain two internal antimicrobial peptide sequences, designated NAT26 and HKH20. In our current study, we characterized a Sap-catalyzed cleavage of kininogen-derived antimicrobial peptides that results in the loss of the anticandidal activity of these peptides. The NAT26 peptide was effectively inactivated by all Saps, except Sap10, whereas HKH20 was completely degraded only by Sap9. Proteolytic deactivation of the antifungal potential of human kininogens can help the pathogens to modulate or evade the innate immunity of the host.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artificial evolution of proteins with the aim of acquiring novel or improved functionality is important for practical applications of the proteins. We have developed yeast cell surface engineering methods (or arming technology) for evolving enzymes. Here, we have described yeast cell surface engineering coupled with in vivo homologous recombination and library screening as a method for the artificial evolution of enzymes such as firefly luciferases. Using this method, novel luciferases with improved substrate specificity and substrate reactivity were engineered.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a symbiotic relationship with leguminous plants. To understand the mechanism by which rhizobia alter their metabolism to establish successful nitrogen-fixing symbiotic relationship with hosts, Lotus japonicus were inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti. Bacteroids were isolated from nodules harvested at 2 weeks (the early stage of nodule development), and at 3 and 4 weeks (the intermediate stage of nodule development) post-inoculation. Using a quantitative time-course proteome analysis, we quantified the variations in the expression of 537 proteins in M. loti bacteroids during the course of nodule maturation. The results revealed significant changes in the carbon and amino acid metabolisms by M. loti upon differentiating into bacteroids. Furthermore, our findings suggested that M. loti enters a nitrogen-deficient condition during the early stages of nodule development, and then a nitrogen-rich condition during the intermediate stages of nodule development. In addition, our data indicated that M. loti assimilated ammonia during the intermediate stages of nodule development. Our results provide new insights into course of physiological transitions undergone by M. loti during nodule maturation.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) has a propeptide at its N-terminus that functions as an intramolecular chaperone and facilitates the folding of mature ROL (mROL). In this study, we successfully generated a functionally distinct imprinted mROL (mROLimp) through protein folding memory using a mutated propeptide. The mutated propeptide left its structural memory on mROL and produced mROLimp that exhibited different substrate specificities compared with mROLWT (prepared from the wild type propeptide), although the amino acid sequences of both mROLs were the same. mROLimp showed a preference for substrates with medium chain-length acyl groups and, noticeably, recognized a peptidase-specific substrate. In addition, ROLimp was more stable than mROLWT. These results strongly suggest that proteins with identical amino acid sequences can fold into different conformations and that mutations in intramolecular chaperones can dynamically induce changes in enzymatic activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified and enumerated alginate-degrading bacteria in the gut of abalone over 1-year period. From a total of 360 colonies growing on agar medium enriched with alginate, 251 isolates (70%) had the ability to degrade alginate. In addition, a high number of viable alginate-degrading bacteria were detected throughout the survey period. Alginate-degrading bacteria were more abundant in the cold season relative to the summer season (107 vs. 104 CFU g−1, respectively). Strong positive correlation was also observed between the number of alginate-degrading bacteria and feed intake (R = 0.854; P < 0.01). The identified alginate-degrading bacteria comprised of 35 species grouped into 11 genera including Algibacter, Formosa, Polarybacter, Tamlana, Tenacibaculum (CFB group), Roseobacter, Ruegeria, Silicibacter (α-proteobacteria), Agarivorans, Shewanella and Vibrio (γ-proteobacteria) respectively. More than 80% of the isolated alginate-degrading bacteria belonged to the genus Vibrio, showing high homology to Vibrio cyclotorophicus, Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio halioticoli and Vibrio neonatus. Based on the results, it was suggested that algal-polysaccharide (alginate) degrading bacteria (mainly Vibrio) commonly exist in the gut of abalone and may play an important role in the degradation and digestion of the host's feed.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Aquaculture Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent development of large-scale analyses such as the secretome analysis has enabled the discovery of a vast number of intracellular proteins that are secreted outside the cell. Often, these proteins do not contain any known signal sequence required for conventional protein secretion. In order to avoid misidentification of such "leaked" proteins as "secreted" proteins, reconstructing the process of protein secretion is essential. Here, we describe methods for the detection of reconstructed unconventional protein secretion and determination of regulatory proteins of secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that conjugating target proteins with a tag-sequence and utilizing various reagents and tools can facilitate quantitative detection of the secretion of target proteins. We expect that these methods will reveal novel unconventional secretion pathways of proteins.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)