[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loss of a testicle to cancer involves much emotional impact to young males. Little is known about the number of patients with testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) who would accept a testicular prosthesis. Also, knowledge about the satisfaction of implant recipients with the device is limited.
A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 475 consecutive GCT patients. Prior to orchiectomy, all patients were offered prosthesis insertion. Acceptance of implant was noted along with age, clinical stage, histology and year of surgery. 171 implant recipients were interviewed using an 18 item questionnaire to analyze satisfaction with the prosthesis. Statistical analysis involved calculating proportions and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate analysis was performed to look for interrelations between the various items of satisfaction with the implant.
26.9% of the patients accepted a prosthesis. The acceptance rate was significantly higher in younger men. Over-all satisfaction with the implant was "very high" and "high" in 31.1% and 52.4%, respectively. 86% would decide again to have a prosthesis. Particular items of dis-satisfaction were: implant too firm (52.4%), shape inconvenient (15.4%), implant too small (23.8%), position too high (30.3%). Living with a permanent partner had no influence on patient ratings. Multivariate analysis disclosed numerous inter-relations between the particular items of satisfaction.
More than one quarter of GCT patients wish to have a testicular prosthesis. Over-all satisfaction with implants is high in more than 80% of patients. Thus, all patients undergoing surgery for GCT should be offered a testicular prosthesis. However, surgeons should be aware of specific items of dis-satisfaction, particularly shape, size and consistency of the implant and inconvenient high position of the implant within the scrotum. Appropriate preoperative counselling is paramount.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2006, the German Testicular Cancer Study Group initiated an extensive evidence-based national second-opinion network to improve the care of testicular cancer patients. The primary aims were to reflect the current state of testicular cancer treatment in Germany and to analyze the project's effect on the quality of care delivered to testicular cancer patients. A freely available internet-based platform was developed for the exchange of data between the urologists seeking advice and the 31 second-opinion givers. After providing all data relevant to the primary treatment decision, urologists received a second opinion on their therapy plan within <48 h. Endpoints were congruence between the first and second opinion, conformity of applied therapy with the corresponding recommendation and progression-free survival rate of the introduced patients. Significance was determined by two-sided Pearson's χ2 test. A total of 1,284 second-opinion requests were submitted from November 2006 to October 2011, and 926 of these cases were eligible for further analysis. A discrepancy was found between first and second opinion in 39.5% of the cases. Discrepant second opinions led to less extensive treatment in 28.1% and to more extensive treatment in 15.6%. Patients treated within the framework of the second-opinion project had an overall 2-year progression-free survival rate of 90.4%. Approximately every 6th second opinion led to a relevant change in therapy. Despite the lack of financial incentives, data from every 8th testicular cancer patient in Germany were submitted to second-opinion centers. Second-opinion centers can help to improve the implementation of evidence into clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 3 - 5% of all patients with testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) develop a contralateral cancer, the majority of which arise within 10-15 years. Little is known about the risk of second GCTs after more than two decades. Here we present 3 cases with very late presenting contralateral GCT and provide a summary of similar cases reported previously.Case presentations: (1)This white Caucasian man underwent right-sided orchiectomy for a nonseminomatous GCT at the age of 22 years. Additional treatment consisted of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and chemotherapy with 4 cycles of vinblastin / bleomycin. 36 years later, contralateral seminoma clinical stage 1 developed. Cure was achieved by orchiectomy. Histologically, testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN; intratubular germ cell neoplasia) was detected in the tumour-surrounding tissue.(2)This white Caucasian male had right-sided orchiectomy for nonseminomatous GCT at the age of 29 years. Pathological stage 1 was confirmed by RPLND. 25 years later, he received left sided orchiectomy for seminoma stage 1. Histologically, TIN was found in the tissue adjacent to seminoma. Two brothers had testicular GCT, too, one with bilateral GCT. (3) This 21 year old white Caucasian man underwent left-sided orchiectomy for nonseminomatous GCT. Pathological stage 1 was confirmed by RPLND. 21 years later, he received organ-preserving excision of a right-sided seminoma, followed by BEP chemotherapy for stage 3 disease. Histologically, TIN was found in the surrounding testicular tissue.22 cases of bilateral GCT with intervals of 20 or more years have previously been reported, thereof three with intervals of more than 30 years, the longest interval being 40 years.
Apart from increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and non-testicular malignancies, patients with GCT face the specific probability of a second GCT in the long run. This risk persists life-long and is not eliminated by chemotherapy. Contralateral testicular biopsy can identify patients at risk by revealing precursor cells of GCT though false-negative biopsies may occur sporadically. However, in view of the multi-facetted late hazards of GCT patients, this minor surgical procedure might somewhat simplify the long-time care of these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnostic work-up of testicular masses should begin with a complete patient history and palpation of the testes with both hands. First-line imaging of the scrotum should be performed using multiparametric ultrasonography, that is the sequential use of grey-scale ultrasonography, colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), and, if available, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and real-time elastography (RTE). Increased vascularization-a characteristic of malignancy and inflammation-is visualized on CDUS and CEUS. RTE provides additional information for distinguishing between benign and malignant tissue by measuring tissue elasticity of lesions. MRI is another powerful modality, typically used for second-line imaging of intrascrotal disorders. MRI can provide images with a broad field of view of the scrotal contents. Cancerous lesions are identified on MRI by their signal enhancement after injection of contrast agent. Testicular germ cell tumours require treatment by inguinal orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is advocated for benign tumours and in solitary testicles provided the tumour is <3 cm and the preoperative serum testosterone level is normal. For intraoperative decision-making with regard to testis-sparing surgery, frozen section histological examination can be used, which has a false-negative rate of <10%.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Nature Reviews Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Germ cell tumor (GCT) patients are at risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEEs). A higher incidence of VTEEs has been reported in GCT patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Patients and methods:
A retrospective analysis of the incidence of and risk factors for VTEEs in 193 GCT patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy in Hamburg, Germany, between 2000 and 2009 was performed.
VTEEs occurred in 22 patients (11%). In only 4 patients, the VTEEs occurred during cisplatin-based chemotherapy, while 18 patients (81%) experienced VTEEs prior to initiation of chemotherapy. Pure seminoma, 'intermediate risk' (International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG)), retroperitoneal or supraclavicular lymph node metastases, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, a central venous catheter (CVC), arterial hypertension, application of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and of ≥ 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy could be identified as risk factors. 2 risk groups could be described: (i) VTEEs manifesting before chemotherapy in patients with seminoma, retroperitoneal tumor masses, and elevated LDH levels, and (ii) VTEEs occurring during chemotherapy applied via CVC in patients with supraclavicular lymph node metastases.
The incidence of VTEEs in GCT patients was 11%, but in the majority of patients, the VTEEs occurred before the initiation of platinum-based chemotherapy. Supraclavicular lymph node metastases and use of a CVC are risk factors for VTEEs during chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paratesticular fibrous pseudotumors represent benign new growths confined to intrascrotal structures. Both pathogenesis and clinical management are little understood due to the rarity of the lesion, with less than 200 cases reported to date. Recently, paratesticular fibrous pseudotumors have been postulated to be immunoglobulin G4-related, pathogenetically. Here we report two cases of patients with paratesticular fibrous pseudotumor to highlight the clinical features of this rare disease and we report the immunohistochemical examinations to support the theory of paratesticular fibrous pseudotumor being an immunoglobulin G4-related disease.Case presentationsA 28-year-old white man presented with a painless intrascrotal mass. After a clinical examination, a malignant growth was suspected. His ultrasound results revealed a well-demarcated hypoechoic lesion of 1.5cm in diameter at the spermatic cord. Our patient underwent local excision. His follow-up has been uneventful for 12 years. The second case was an 18-year-old white man who presented with a painless scrotal mass suspicious of testicular tumor. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a 3cm mass at the spermatic cord with very low signal density on T2-weighted imaging and a low and inhomogeneous uptake of gadolinium contrast agent on T1-weighted, fat-suppressed imaging. Following local excision, our patient has been well for 18 months.On histological examination, both of the lesions consisted of collagen-rich hyalinized fibrotic tissue with storiform features. There were lymphofollicular infiltrates and, sporadically, also venulitis. The immunoglobulin G4 staining (in case 2) showed an infiltrate of 10 to 15 positive cells per high-power field on average, corresponding to a proportion of 40% in evaluable hot spots. The two patients with paratesticular fibrous pseudotumor presented within a time span of 15 years. During that time, 400 patients with testicular germ cell tumors had been treated in our institution.Conclusions
The specific histological features documented in our case lend support to the theory of paratesticular fibrous pseudotumor being an immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disorder. paratesticular fibrous pseudotumors usually occur in young adulthood. Clinically, paratesticular fibrous pseudotumor can mimic testicular malignancy. Ultrasonographic findings are largely unspecific, however, scrotal magnetic resonance imaging may aid in discriminating the lesion from malignant tumors. Local excision, whenever technically feasible, is the preferred treatment of paratesticular fibrous pseudotumor.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germ cell cancers (GCC) are the most frequent malignancy in young Caucasian males. GCC can consist of seminomas (SE) and non-seminomas (malignant NS: embryonal carcinoma (EC), yolk sac tumor (YS), choriocarcinoma (CH) and teratoma (TE)). Current serum-markers used for diagnosis and follow-up (AFP, hCG) are predominantly related to YS and CH and marker positivity can vary during disease. Therefore, stable markers consistently identifying more GCC components, specifically the stem cell components SE and EC, are of interest. Expression of the embryonic stem cell miR-371-3 and miR-302/367 clusters in SE/EC/YS suggest possible application of these micro-RNAs as GCC tumor-markers. The TSmiR protocol constitutes a complete, quality-controlled pipeline for the detection of miRs in serum, based on magnetic bead-based purification and qPCR quantification. As a proof of principle, TSmiR was applied to five independent serum sample series including 80 GCCs, 47 controls, 11 matched pre/post orchidectomy samples and 12 no-GCC testicular masses. GCC serum samples showed a consistent, significant (p < 0.0064) increase of miR-371/372/373/367 levels. Analogous, serum levels returned to baseline after orchidectomy (stage-I disease). Moreover, there was a trend toward higher miR levels in patients with metastasis. These results imply suitability for diagnosis and follow-up. TSmiR showed an overall sensitivity of 98%, clearly outperforming the traditional serum markers AFP/hCG (36%/57%, sensitivityAFP = 3%/45%; sensitivityhCG = 62%/66%, SE/NS). TSmiR misclassified one tumor as a control. Serum AFP/hCG and TSmiR combined identified all T samples correctly. In conclusion, TSmiR constitutes a highly sensitive and reproducible serum test for GCC patients, suitable to be prospectively tested for diagnostic and follow-up purposes.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Molecular oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Exposure to radiation resulting from diagnostic imaging procedures probably increases late cancer risk. Patterns of care regarding the application of computed tomography (CT) imaging in testicular cancer patients were investigated.
The database of a large German health insurance company comprising 850,000 insured men was searched for cases of testicular cancer arising in the years 2005 and 2006. The number of CT scans applied during a 3-year period of follow-up was noted for each individual patient and the resulting cumulative radiation dose was estimated. The number of CT scans actually observed was compared to guideline recommendations.
177 patients were identified. Within the 3-year observation period, patients received a mean of 4.4 CT scans (standard error: 0.4) whereas a number of 6.2 would have been expected according to contemporary guidelines. Patients were exposed to an estimated total median diagnostic radiation dose of 30 millisieverts (mSv) (interquartile range: 10-54 mSv).
There is a considerable gap between recommendation and actual performance regarding the number of CT scans applied to testicular cancer patients. Unfamiliarity of clinicians with guidelines as well as poor acceptance of high numbers of CT scans scheduled may have contributed to create this particular pattern of care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) have their incidence peak in the third and fourth decades of life. Histologically, GCTs comprise of seminoma and nonseminoma at almost equal proportions with a slight preponderance of nonseminoma in most of the major series. Since decades, there is a shift toward decreasing age at presentation. Recently, there are suggestions of a reversal of the age trend, and also, the histologic subtype ratio appears to shift toward seminoma. We retrospectively looked to our patient populations to verify these recent trends.
A total of 2,482 patients with histologically proven GCT diagnosed between 1976 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated regarding the year of diagnosis, histology of primary tumor, and age at presentation. Patients were categorized according to the following time periods of treatment: before 1990, 1990 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010. Mean age and relative proportion of seminoma were compared among patient categories by employing the chi-square test and analysis of variance, respectively.
The mean age significantly increased from 28 to 36 years. The age difference between the 2 histologic subtypes remained constant between 6 and 8 years during the entire observation period. The relative proportion of seminoma continuously increased from 30.9% to 56% (P <0.001).
There is evidence of a significant shift toward older age at diagnosis of GCT. In addition, the proportion of seminoma is constantly increasing at the expense of nonseminoma. The reasons for these developments are obscure. However, 2 old theories regarding the pathogenesis of GCT may receive support from our results: first, the theory of divergent pathogenetic pathways of seminoma and nonseminoma and second, the involvement of postnatal environmental factors in the pathogenesis of GCTs.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Urologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute early vascular toxicity of chemotherapy for germ cell tumour (GCT) is poorly understood. To explore the pathogenesis of this complication we evaluated laboratory parameters associated with vascular disease.
In 33 GCT patients the following parameters were investigated with routine laboratory methods before and after chemotherapy: von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:AG), collagen binding capacity (vWF:CB), lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, plasminogen activator inhibitor I, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, troponine I. Statistical evaluation involved descriptive analysis and the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Levels of vWF:AG and vWF:CB increased significantly upon therapy (p=0.002). All other parameters remained unchanged. Upon late measurement, vWF:AG and vWF:CB were normalised.
As von Willebrand factor is released from endothelial cells upon damage, we postulate that early vascular toxicity of chemotherapy is caused by direct damage of the vascular endothelium. Long-term vascular complications of chemotherapy appear to be different, pathogenetically.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Residual tumor resection (RTR) after chemotherapy in patients with advanced germ cell tumors (GCT) is an important part of the multimodal treatment. To provide a complete resection of residual tumor, additional surgical procedures are sometimes necessary. In particular, additional vascular interventions are high-risk procedures that require multidisciplinary planning and adequate resources to optimize outcome.
The aim was to identify parameters that predict additional vascular procedures during RTR in GCT patients.
A retrospective analysis was performed in 402 GCT patients who underwent 414 RTRs in 9 German Testicular Cancer Study Group (GTCSG) centers. Overall, 339 of 414 RTRs were evaluable with complete perioperative data sets.
The RTR database was queried for additional vascular procedures (inferior vena cava [IVC] interventions, aortic prosthesis) and correlated to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification and residual tumor volume.
In 40 RTRs, major vascular procedures (23 IVC resections with or without prosthesis, 11 partial IVC resections, and 6 aortic prostheses) were performed. In univariate analysis, the necessity of IVC intervention was significantly correlated with IGCCCG (14.1% intermediate/poor vs 4.8% good; p=0.0047) and residual tumor size (3.7% size < 5 cm vs 17.9% size ≥ 5 cm; p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, IVC intervention was significantly associated with residual tumor size ≥ 5 cm (odds ratio [OR]: 4.61; p=0.0007). In a predictive model combining residual tumor size and IGCCCG classification, every fifth patient (20.4%) with a residual tumor size ≥ 5 cm and intermediate or poor prognosis needed an IVC intervention during RTR. The need for an aortic prosthesis showed no correlation to either IGCCCG (p=0.1811) or tumor size (p=0.0651).
The necessity for IVC intervention during RTR is correlated to residual tumor size and initial IGCCCG classification. Patients with high-volume residual tumors and intermediate or poor risk features must initially be identified as high-risk patients for vascular procedures and therefore should be referred to specialized surgical centers with the ad hoc possibility of vascular interventions.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · European Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of testicular masses.
A total of 51 consecutive patients with testicular masses detected by clinical examination and gray-scale ultrasound were examined with CEUS (2.4 mL of intravenous Sonovue [Bracco]) before surgery. Characteristics of contrast enhancement were correlated with intraoperative and histologic findings.
In 50/51 patients, bubbles of the contrast media were clearly visualized in the testicles 21 ± 5.5 seconds after injection. Of the patients, 43 had a neoplastic lesion, histologically (29 seminoma, 9 nonseminomatous testicular tumor, 4 Leydig cell tumor, and 1 non-Hodgkin lymphoma). In 39 of 51 patients (76.5%), testicular masses showed a clear early hyperenhancement compared with the surrounding tissue. Of these 39 masses, 38 proved to be neoplastic; 1 patient had focal suppurative epididymo-orchitis. Hyperenhancement of a testicular lesion had a positive predictive value of 97.4% (95% CI = 84.9-99.9%) for neoplasia. Hyperenhancement was not found in 7 of 8 lesions proved to be nonneoplastic (1 epidermoid cyst, 3 necrosis/atrophy, 1 incarcerated inguinal hernia, 1 hematoma, and 1 tubular ectasia of the rete testis).
CEUS allows visualization of testicular microvascularization and may thus aid in the preoperative assessment of testicular lesions with hypervascularization as an important feature in the diagnosis of malignancy. It may be particularly valuable in the assessment of small intratesticular masses where color-coded ultrasound comes to its limits.