Jerome A. Yesavage

VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (351)1375.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: QuantiFERON tuberculosis tests (QFT) reverted in (612) 77% of 1,094 low-risk healthcare workers (HCW) testing less than 1.16 IU/mL. Of HCW testing greater than 1.1 IU/mL, 33 (59%) of 56 with negative tuberculin skin tests (TST) reverted vs 8 (6%) of 125 with positive TSTs. Retesting low-risk QFT-positive and TST-negative HCW is prudent. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;1–5
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Pharmacological treatments for agitation and aggression in patients with Alzheimer's disease have shown limited efficacy. The authors assessed the heterogeneity of response to citalopram in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease (CitAD) study to identify individuals who may be helped or harmed. Method: In this double-blind parallel-group multicenter trial of 186 patients with Alzheimer's disease and clinically significant agitation, participants were randomly assigned to receive citalopram or placebo for 9 weeks, with the dosage titrated to 30 mg/day over the first 3 weeks. Five planned potential predictors of treatment outcome were assessed, along with six additional predictors. The authors then used a two-stage multivariate method to select the most likely predictors; grouped participants into 10 subgroups by their index scores; and estimated the citalopram treatment effect for each. Results: Five covariates were likely predictors, and treatment effect was heterogeneous across the subgroups. Patients for whom citalopram was more effective were more likely to be outpatients, have the least cognitive impairment, have moderate agitation, and be within the middle age range (76-82 years). Patients for whom placebo was more effective were more likely to be in long-term care, have more severe cognitive impairment, have more severe agitation, and be treated with lorazepam. Conclusions: Considering several covariates together allowed the identification of responders. Those with moderate agitation and with lower levels of cognitive impairment were more likely to benefit from citalopram, and those with more severe agitation and greater cognitive impairment were at greater risk for adverse responses. Considering the dosages used and the association of citalopram with cardiac QT prolongation, use of this agent to treat agitation may be limited to a subgroup of people with dementia.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies of 146 plasma protein levels in 818 individuals revealed 56 genome-wide significant associations (28 novel) with 47 analytes. Loci associated with plasma levels of 39 proteins tested have been previously associated with various complex traits such as heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Type 2 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. These data suggest that these plasma protein levels may constitute informative endophenotypes for these complex traits. We found three potential pleiotropic genes: ABO for plasma SELE and ACE levels, FUT2 for CA19-9 and CEA plasma levels, and APOE for ApoE and CRP levels. We also found multiple independent signals in loci associated with plasma levels of ApoH, CA19-9, FetuinA, IL6r, and LPa. Our study highlights the power of biological traits for genetic studies to identify genetic variants influencing clinically relevant traits, potential pleiotropic effects, and complex disease associations in the same locus.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: There is a complex relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. To understand and treat these conditions, it is necessary to apply an integrated physical and mental health care approach to postdeployment care.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Federal practitioner for the health care professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We found a benefit of citalopram for agitation in the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease study (CitAD), and wondered if this was mediated by a sedative effect. CitAD was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial conducted at 8 academic centers in the United States and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. One hundred sixty-two participants with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and clinically significant agitation were analyzed in this study. Participants received a psychosocial intervention and were randomized to receive either citalopram or placebo (approximately half assigned to each group). Participants were rated on the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale Agitation subscale and measures of sedation (i.e., fatigue and somnolence). Methods: Using the MacArthur Foundation procedures for documenting a mediator effect, we performed a secondary analysis examining whether sedation mediates the effect of treatment on agitation outcome. Results: We found a statistically significant mediating effect of sedation on agitation outcomes, but the magnitude of the effect was small, only explaining 11% of the variance in agitation, with a significant, but modest effect size of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.22). Conclusions: The benefit of citalopram was partly due to sedation but largely due to other mechanisms of action.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: The citalopram for Alzheimer's disease trial evaluated citalopram for the management for agitation in Alzheimer's disease patients. Sparse data was available from this elderly patient population. A nonlinear mixed effects population pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used to describe the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-citalopram and their primary metabolite (desmethylcitalopram). A structural model with 4 compartments (one compartment/compound) with linear oral absorption and elimination described the data adequately. Overall, the model showed that clearance of the R-enantiomer was slower than the clearance of the S-enantiomer. Without accounting for any patient-specific covariates, the population estimate of the metabolic clearance of citalopram was 8.6 (R-citalopram) and 14 L/h (S-citalopram). The population estimate of the clearance of desmethylcitalopram was 23.8 (R-Dcit) and 38.5 L/h (S-Dcit). Several patient-specific covariates were found to have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of R,S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram. A significant difference in the metabolic clearance of R-citalopram between males and females (13 vs 9.05 L/h) was identified in this analysis. Both R- and S-citalopram metabolic clearance decreased with age. Additionally, consistent with literature reports S-citalopram metabolic clearance increased with increasing body weight and was significantly influenced by CYPC19 genotype, with a difference of 5.8 L/h between extensive/rapid and intermediate/poor metabolizers. R,S-desmethylcitalopram clearance increased with increasing body weight. This model may allow for the opportunity to delineate the effect of R- and S-citalopram on pharmacodynamics outcomes related to the management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Navneet Iqbal · Lisa M. Kinoshita · Art Noda · Jerome A. Yesavage · Jamie M. Zeitzer
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the point prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in a community-based sample of older male veterans and to determine if common markers of SDB apply to this population. Methods: Two hundred fourteen older male Veterans (age 55-89 years) were recruited for a study on post-traumatic stress disorder and cognitive decline. Questionnaires concerning anthropomorphic and psychological variables were obtained, as was an overnight polysomnographic examination of sleep. Results: Only 13% of the participants lacked clinically meaningful SDB, whereas 33% had moderate SDB and 54% had severe SDB. Being overweight, self-reported snoring, and excessive daytime sleepiness all had good sensitivity (0.86-0.92) but very poor specificity (0.10-0.28) for the prediction of SDB. Conclusions: Undiagnosed SDB was more than threefold higher than expected in these community-dwelling older veterans. Traditional markers of SDB were not specific for predicting clinically relevant SDB.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD). Methods: In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression. Results: Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure. Conclusions: We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International Psychogeriatrics
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    ABSTRACT: To assess potential genetic influences on citalopram treatment efficacy for agitation in individuals with Alzheimer dementia (AD). Six functional genetic variants were studied in the following genes: serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A-T102C), serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C-Cys23Ser), serotonin transporter (5HTT-LPR), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF-Val66Met), apolipoprotein E (ε2, ε3, ε4 variants), and cytochrome P450 (CYP2C19). Treatment response by genotype was measured by (1) the agitation domain of the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, (2) the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change scale (mADCS-CGIC), (3) the agitation domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and (4) the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. We utilized data from the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) database. CitAD was a 9-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial showing significant improvement in agitation and caregiver distress in patients treated with citalopram. Proportional odds logistic regression and mixed effects models were used to examine the above-mentioned outcome measures. Significant interactions were noted on the NPI agitation domain for HTR2A (likelihood ratio [LR] = 6.19, df = 2, P = .04) and the mADCS-CGIC for HTR2C (LR = 4.33, df = 2, P = .02) over 9 weeks. Treatment outcomes in CitAD showed modest, although statistically significant, influence of genetic variation at HTR2A and HTR2C loci. Future studies should continue to examine the interaction of known genetic variants with antidepressant treatment in patients with AD having agitation. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
  • Quinn Kennedy · Joy Taylor · Art Noda · Jerome Yesavage · Laura C Lazzeroni
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Psychology and Aging
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    ABSTRACT: With the influx of veterans entering older adulthood, it is increasingly important to understand risk factors for cognitive decline. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are highly prevalent in older veterans. Although both increase risk for cognitive decline and often co-occur, it is unclear how they may interact to negatively impact cognition. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations among PTSD, MetS, and cognitive function in older veterans. We hypothesized that co-occurring PTSD and MetS would be associated with worse cognitive performance than seen in either illness alone. Participants completed cognitive testing to assess processing speed, verbal memory, and executive function. Data from 204 male veterans aged 55-89 were analyzed with the use of hierarchical multiple regression models. Veterans with MetS demonstrated poorer performance on tasks of executive function (response inhibition and cognitive set shifting) and immediate verbal memory regardless of PTSD status. There was an interaction between MetS and PTSD on delayed verbal memory, suggesting that the negative impact of MetS on verbal memory was only significant for veterans not classified as having PTSD. This is the first study to examine the impact of comorbid PTSD and MetS on cognition. The results suggest that MetS is associated with poorer verbal learning and executive functioning independent of PTSD. We discuss the necessity of monitoring cerebrovascular risk factors and providing early behavioral and/or pharmaceutical interventions to lessen the risk of cognitive decline in older age. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Gerontologist

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Agitation is a common and significant problem in Alzheimer disease (AD). In the recent Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (CitAD) study, citalopram was efficacious for the treatment of AD agitation. Here we examined the time course and predictors of response to treatment. Response in CitAD was defined as a modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) score of 1 or 2 or a Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) score reduction ≥ 50% from baseline. "Stable early response" was defined as meeting the aforementioned criteria at both weeks 3 and 9, "late response" was response at week 9 but not at week 3, and "unstable response" was response at week 3 but not at week 9. In the primary analyses, citalopram was superior to placebo on both the CGIC and the NBRS-A response measures. Little between-group differences were found in response rates in the first 3 weeks of the study (21% versus 19% on the CGIC). Citalopram patients were more likely than placebo patients to be a late responder (18% versus 8% on CGIC, Fisher's exact p = 0.09; 31% versus 15% on NBRS-A, Fisher's exact p = 0.02). Approximately half of citalopram responders (45%-56%) at end of study achieved response later in the study compared with 30%-44% of placebo responders. Treatment with citalopram for agitation in AD needs to be at least 9 weeks in duration to allow sufficient time for full response. Study duration is an important factor to consider in the design of clinical trials for agitation in AD. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Naming or word-finding tasks are a mainstay of the typical neuropsychological evaluation, particularly with older adults. However, many older adults have significant visual impairment and there are currently no such word-finding tasks developed for use with older visually impaired populations. This study presents a verbal, non-visual measure of word-finding for use in the evaluation of older adults with possible dysnomia. Stimuli were chosen based on their frequency of usage in everyday spoken language. A 60-item scale was created and given to 131 older Veterans. Rasch analyses were conducted and differential item functioning assessed to eliminate poorly-performing items. The final 55-item scale had a coefficient alpha of 0.84 and correlated with the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Naming test, r=0.84, p<.01, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Category Fluency, r=0.45, p<.01, and the D-KEFS Letter Fluency, r=0.40, p<.01. ROC analyses found the measure to have sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 85% for detecting dysnomia. Patients with dysnomia performed worse on the measure than patients with intact word-finding, t(84)=8.2, p<.001. Patients with no cognitive impairment performed significantly better than patients with mild cognitive impairment, who performed significantly better than patients with dementia. This new measure shows promise in the neuropsychological evaluation of word-finding ability in older adults with or without visual impairment. Future directions include the development of a shorter version and the generation of additional normative data. (JINS, 2015, 21, 1-10).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether a diagnosis of sleep disturbance is associated with dementia in older veterans. For this retrospective cohort study, we obtained medical record data from the Department of Veterans Affairs National Patient Care Database for 200,000 randomly selected veterans aged 55 years and older. Prevalent cases of dementia from the baseline period (2000-2003) were excluded, leaving an analytic sample of 179,738 male veterans. Follow-up took place from 2004 to 2011. The primary outcome was all-cause dementia, ascertained using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes. Sleep disturbance, the primary predictor, was also ascertained using these codes. After adjusting for potential confounders, those with sleep disturbance had a 27% increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.34). Sleep disturbance was associated with increased risk of dementia among a large cohort of older, primarily male veterans. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: A significant proportion of military personnel deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) were exposed to war-zone events potentially associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression (DEP) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The co-occurrence of TBI, PTSD and DEP in returning Veterans and the symptom overlap between the three disorders has recently increased both research and clinical interest. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that white matter abnormalities are present and are further impacted by depression. We studied ten prominent white matter tracts. Specifically, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), which is a key fronto-temporal tract involved in mood regulation, and the cingulum a tract that connects to the hippocampus and is involved in memory integration. Both the UF and Cingulum tracts are part of the limbic system, involved in emotion processing, attention and memory, and have been previously implicated in clinical depression. We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on 25 patients with a combination of PTSD, TBI and DEP and 20 patients with PTSD and TBI but without DEP. Participants were matched on key variables including age, gender distribution and education. Our results provide evidence of microstructural changes of white matter in the Cingulum and UF. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was lower in Veterans with DEP compared to those without. These findings complement those observed in previous work on depression and support the hypothesis that the disruption of cortical–subcortical circuits may be involved in the etiology of depression. Notably, this is the first study to demonstrate the robustness of white matter abnormalities in DEP even in the presence of co-occurring PTSD and TBI.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Biological Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66) were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land) or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land). Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8) or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12). High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62±2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98±1.04; p<.01). Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97±0.80) compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91±1.16) (p<.05). These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions involved in it.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Previous work has demonstrated the relatively high prevalence of risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obesity, in Vietnam War era veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). No data are currently available on the longitudinal stability of SDB as a risk factor for cognitive decline in that population, which this study now reports. Methods Sample consisted of 48 veterans of the Vietnam War with PTSD who completed longitudinal sleep assessments over a 3-year period. The primary outcome measure, the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) indicator, was determined during standard overnight polysomnography. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using standard measurements. Measures of cognitive function tapped auditory verbal memory as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and executive functioning as measured by the Color-Word Interference Test of the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System battery. Statistical analyses included mixed effects modeling. Results In this sample, AHI increased significantly by 2.19 points per year (β=2.19; P<0.005). AHI worsened over the 3-year period, increasing from a mean of 18.7±15.7 to 24.7±17.4 points. Neither BMI nor cognition showed significant change over the 3-year period. Conclusion SDB worsened in a group of veterans of the Vietnam War with PTSD over a 3-year period. The worsening of SDB over time suggests the need for appropriate countermeasures in populations at risk for progression of the condition.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Nature and Science of Sleep

Publication Stats

16k Citations
1,375.75 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2015
    • VA Palo Alto Health Care System
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1982-2015
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1984-2014
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1993-2002
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992
    • Emory University
      • Department of Neurology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1990
    • California School of Professional Psychology
      Atlantic City, New Jersey, United States
  • 1985
    • Palo Alto Research Center
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1980
    • University of Bordeaux
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France