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Publications (70)

  • J. Steffann · S. Monnot · N. Brahimi · [...] · N. Frydman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Le diagnostic préimplantatoire repose sur l’analyse génétique d’une à deux cellules (blastomères) prélevées sur des embryons issus de la fécondation in vitro et âgés de trois à cinq jours de vie. Cette procédure offre une alternative aux techniques conventionnelles de diagnostic prénatal à des couples à risque de transmettre à leur descendance une affection génétique d’une particulière gravité. Le diagnostic préimplantatoire permet d’éviter le risque d’interruption médicale de grossesse puisque seuls les embryons indemnes sont transférés dans l’utérus de la patiente. La technique n’a été autorisée en France qu’en 1999, et aujourd’hui quatre centres sont agréés, à Paris, Strasbourg, Montpellier et Nantes. Dans le cas de maladies génétiques hématologiques ou de déficits immunitaires, lorsque l’enfant atteint du couple est en attente d’une greffe de moelle, se pose naturellement la question de réaliser un double DPI, qui associe au diagnostic génétique de la maladie, un « génotypage » des embryons au locus du système d’histocompatibilité leucocytaire, afin de déterminer parmi les embryons sains d’une cohorte, le ou lesquels sont « compatibles » avec lui. Cette compatibilité est recherchée afin que l’enfant, une fois né, puisse être un donneur éventuel de sang de cordon à son aîné malade. Cependant la lourdeur de la procédure de double diagnostic préimplantatoire, ses très faibles chances de succès, et un cadre législatif français qui restreint encore le possible bénéfice attendu par le couple, nous a amené à ne plus poursuivre cette prise en charge dans notre centre.
    Article · Feb 2016
  • Article · Dec 2015 · The American Journal of Bioethics
  • Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Xq25 duplications syndrome has recently emerged as a distinct clinical entity. We report here on six new patients belonging to two unrelated families and harbouring an Xq25 microduplication detected by array CGH. Similarly to previously reported cases, the phenotype of our patients is characterised by delayed milestones, speech disturbance, intellectual disability, abnormal behaviours and a characteristic facial dysmorphism. The common duplicated interval allowed further refinement of the shortest region of overlap to 173 kb, including only one gene, STAG2, which encodes a component of the cohesin complex. We suggest that increased STAG2 gene copy number and dysregulation of its downstream target genes may be responsible for the specific clinical findings of this syndrome. Therefore, the Xq25 microduplication could be considered as a novel cohesinopathy, thus increasing the group of these disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Article · Feb 2015 · Clinical Genetics
  • Julie Steffann · Sophie Monnot · Jean‐Paul Bonnefont
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are the largest generator of ATP in the cell. It is therefore expected that energy-requiring processes such as oocyte maturation, early embryonic or fetal development, would be adversely impacted in case of mitochondrial deficiency. Human mtDNA mutations constitute a spontaneous model of mitochondrial failure and offer the opportunity to study the consequences of energetic defects over fertility and embryofetal development. This review provides an update on the mtDNA metabolism in the early preimplantation embryo, and compiles data showing the impact of mtDNA mutations over mtDNA segregation. Despite convincing evidences about the essential role of mitochondria in oogenesis and preimplantation development, no correlation between the presence of a mtDNA mutation and fertilization failure, impaired oocyte quality, or embryofetal development arrest was found. In some cases, mutant cells might upregulate their mitochondrial content to overcome the bioenergetic defects induced by mtDNA mutations, and might escape negative selection. Finally we discuss some of the clinical consequences of these observations.
    Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical Genetics
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    Julie Steffann · Nadine Gigarel · David C Samuels · [...] · Jean-Paul Bonnefont
    Full-text Article · May 2014 · Cell Reports
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked-dominant Mendelian disorder caused by mutation in the IKBKG/NEMO gene, encoding for NEMO/IKKgamma, a regulatory protein of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kB) signaling. In more than 80% of cases, IP is due to recurrent or nonrecurrent deletions causing loss-of-function (LoF) of NEMO/IKKgamma. We review how the local architecture of the IKBKG/NEMO locus with segmental duplication and a high frequency of repetitive elements favor de novo aberrant recombination through different mechanisms producing genomic microdeletion. We report here a new microindel (c.436_471delinsT, p.Val146X) arising through a DNA-replication-repair fork-stalling-and-template-switching and microhomology-mediated-end-joining mechanism in a sporadic IP case. The LoF mutations of IKBKG/NEMO leading to IP include small insertions/deletions (indel) causing frameshift and premature stop codons, which account for 10% of cases. We here present 21 point mutations previously unreported, which further extend the spectrum of pathologic variants: 14/21 predict LoF because of premature stop codon (6/14) or frameshift (8/14), whereas 7/21 predict a partial loss of NEMO/IKKgamma activity (two splicing and five missense). We review how the analysis of IP-associated IKBKG/NEMO hypomorphic mutants has contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of IP disease and has provided important information on affected NF-kB signaling. We built a locus-specific database listing all IKBKG/NEMO variants, accessible at http://IKBKG.lovd.nl.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2014 · Human Mutation
  • Julie Steffann · Caroline Michot · Roxana Borghese · [...] · Arnold Munnich
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PCR amplification on single cells is prone to allele drop-out (PCR failure of one allele), a cause of misdiagnosis in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Owing to this error risk, PGD usually relies on both direct and indirect genetic analyses. When the affected partner is the sporadic case of a dominant disorder, building haplotypes require spermatozoon or polar body testing prior to PGD, but these procedures are cost and time-consuming. A couple requested PGD because the male partner suffered from a dominant Cowden syndrome (CS). He was a sporadic case, but the couple had a first unaffected child and the non-mutated paternal haplotype was tentatively deduced. The couple had a second spontaneous pregnancy and the fetus was found to carry the at-risk haplotype but not the PTEN mutation. The mutation was present in blood from the affected father, but at low level, confirming the somatic mosaicism. Ignoring the possibility of mosaicism in the CS patient would have potentially led to selection of affected embryos. This observation emphasizes the risk of PGD in families at risk to transmit autosomal-dominant disorder when the affected partner is a sporadic case.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 September 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.164.
    Article · Sep 2013 · European Journal of Human Genetics
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    Nelly Frydman · Julie Steffann · Barbara Girerd · [...] · Marc Humbert
    Full-text Dataset · Apr 2013
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The high frequency of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation p.Arg117His in patients with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and in newborns screened for CF has created a dilemma. Methods Phenotypic and genotypic data were retrospectively collected in 179 non-newborn French individuals carrying p.Arg117His and a second CFTR mutation referred for symptoms or family history, by all French molecular genetics laboratories, referring physicians, CF care centres and infertility clinics. Results 97% of the patients had the intronic T7 normal variant in cis with p.Arg117His. 89% patients were male, with CBAVD being the reason for referral in 76%. In 166/179 patients with available detailed clinical features, final diagnoses were: four late-onset marked pulmonary disease, 83 isolated CBAVD, 67 other CFTR-related phenotypes, including 44 CBAVD with pulmonary and/or pancreatic symptoms and 12 asymptomatic cases. Respiratory symptoms were observed in 30% of the patients, but the overall phenotype was mild. No correlation was observed between sweat chloride concentrations and disease severity. Five couples at risk of CF offspring were identified and four benefited from prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnoses (PND or PGD). Eight children were born, including four who were compound heterozygous for p.Arg117His and one with a severe CF mutation. Conclusions Patients with CBAVD carrying p.Arg117His and a severe CF mutation should benefit from a clinical evaluation and follow-up. Depending on the CBAVD patients’ genotype, a CFTR analysis should be considered in their partners in order to identify CF carrier couples and offer PND or PGD.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Medical Genetics
  • Sophie Monnot · David C Samuels · Laetitia Hesters · [...] · Julie Steffann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is thought to remain stable over the preimplantation period of human embryogenesis that is, therefore, suggested to be entirely dependent on ooplasm mtDNA capital. We have explored the impact of two disease-causing mutations [m.3243A>G myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like syndrome (MELAS) and m.8344A>G myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF)] on mtDNA amounts in human oocytes and day 4–5 preimplantation embryos. The mtDNA amount was stable in MERRF and control materials, whereas gradually increasing from the germinal vesicle of oogenesis to the blastocyst stage of embryogenesis in MELAS cells, MELAS embryos carrying ∼3-fold higher mtDNA amount than control embryos (P = 0.0003). A correlation between mtDNA copy numbers and mutant loads was observed in MELAS embryos (R2 = 0.42, P < 0.0013), suggestive of a compensation for the respiratory chain defect resulting from high mutation levels. These results suggest that mtDNA can replicate in early embryos and emphasize the need for sufficient amount of wild-type mtDNA to sustain embryonic development in humans.
    Article · Feb 2013 · Human Molecular Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The high frequency of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation p.Arg117His in patients with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and in newborns screened for CF has created a dilemma. METHODS: Phenotypic and genotypic data were retrospectively collected in 179 non-newborn French individuals carrying p.Arg117His and a second CFTR mutation referred for symptoms or family history, by all French molecular genetics laboratories, referring physicians, CF care centres and infertility clinics. RESULTS: 97% of the patients had the intronic T7 normal variant in cis with p.Arg117His. 89% patients were male, with CBAVD being the reason for referral in 76%. In 166/179 patients with available detailed clinical features, final diagnoses were: four late-onset marked pulmonary disease, 83 isolated CBAVD, 67 other CFTR-related phenotypes, including 44 CBAVD with pulmonary and/or pancreatic symptoms and 12 asymptomatic cases. Respiratory symptoms were observed in 30% of the patients, but the overall phenotype was mild. No correlation was observed between sweat chloride concentrations and disease severity. Five couples at risk of CF offspring were identified and four benefited from prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnoses (PND or PGD). Eight children were born, including four who were compound heterozygous for p.Arg117His and one with a severe CF mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CBAVD carrying p.Arg117His and a severe CF mutation should benefit from a clinical evaluation and follow-up. Depending on the CBAVD patients' genotype, a CFTR analysis should be considered in their partners in order to identify CF carrier couples and offer PND or PGD.
    Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Journal of Human Genetics is the official Journal of the European Society of Human Genetics, publishing high-quality, original research papers, short reports, News and Commentary articles and reviews in the rapidly expanding field of human genetics and genomics.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2012 · European Journal of Human Genetics
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    Nelly Frydman · Julie Steffann · Barbara Girerd · [...] · Marc Humbert
    Full-text Article · Jun 2012 · European Respiratory Journal
  • Z Assouline · M Jambou · M Rio · [...] · A S Lebre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated complex I deficiency is a frequent cause of respiratory chain defects in childhood. In this study, we report our systematic approach with blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE) to study mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly in skin fibroblasts from patients with Leigh syndrome and CI deficiency. We describe five new NDUFS4 patients with a similar and constant abnormal BN-PAGE profile and present a meta-analysis of the literature. All NDUFS4 mutations that have been tested with BN-PAGE result in a constant and similar abnormal assembly profile with a complete loss of the fully assembled complex I usually due to a truncated protein and the loss of its canonical cAMP dependent protein kinase phosphorylation consensus site. We also report the association of abnormal brain MRI images with this characteristic BN-PAGE profile as the hallmarks of NDUFS4 mutations and the first founder NDUFS4 mutations in the North-African population.
    Article · Feb 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • P Burlet · C Steichen · L Hesters · [...] · J Steffann
    Article · Oct 2011 · Clinical Genetics
  • F Lamazou · J Steffann · N Frydman · [...] · R Frydman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is authorized in France since 1999. After 10 years, technical results are encouraging. With the development of new technologies, our team is able to diagnosis the large majority of chromosome translocations and 75 monogenic diseases. However, PGD remains limited because of the growing augmentation of demands causing an increasing delay for the first procedure of more than 18 months. Since 2006, 19 couples asked for a PGD with HLA typing. In January 2011, 11 couples have already been included in our PGD program. The birth of the first child after PGD with HLA typing offers new perspectives of treatment for these couples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Article · Sep 2011 · Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
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    Nadine Gigarel · Laetitia Hesters · David C Samuels · [...] · Julie Steffann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the mtDNA amount remains stable in the early embryo until uterine implantation, early human development is completely dependent on the mtDNA pool of the mature oocyte. Both quantitative and qualitative mtDNA defects therefore may negatively impact oocyte competence or early embryonic development. However, nothing is known about segregation of mutant and wild-type mtDNA molecules during human meiosis. To investigate this point, we compared the mutant levels in 51 first polar bodies (PBs) and their counterpart (oocytes, blastomeres, or whole embryos), at risk of having (1) the "MELAS" m.3243A>G mutation in MT-TL1 (n = 30), (2) the "MERRF" m.8344A>G mutation in MT-TK (n = 15), and (3) the m.9185T>G mutation located in MT-ATP6 (n = 6). Seven out of 51 of the PBs were mutation free and had homoplasmic wild-type counterparts. In the heteroplasmic PBs, measurement of the mutant load was a rough estimate of the counterpart mutation level (R(2) = 0.52), and high mutant-load differentials between the two populations were occasionally observed (ranging from -34% to +34%). The mutant-load differentials between the PB and its counterpart were higher in highly mutated PBs, suggestive of a selection process acting against highly mutated cells during gametogenesis or early embryonic development. Finally, individual discrepancies in mutant loads between PBs and their counterparts make PB-based preconception diagnosis unreliable for the prevention of mtDNA disorder transmission. Such differences were not observed in animal models, and they emphasize the need to conduct thorough studies on mtDNA segregation in humans.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2011 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
  • René Frydman · Nelly Achour-Frydman · Julie Steffann · [...] · Michel Vekemans
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been authorized in France since 1999. Encouraging results have been obtained during the past 10 years in our Paris center, where 832 patients have undergone 1056 IVF-PGD procedures. With the advent of new techniques for the identification of genetic disease markers, our center can now offer PGD procedures for aneuploidy and 75 single-gene diseases. New indications for PGD have also been developed, such as mitochondrial DNA diseases, amyloid neuropathy, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and HLA typing The implantation rate is currently 29,6% and, by 31 December 2009, 151 healthy babies had been born. Unfortunately, demand for PGD procedures far outstrips available technical capacity, and the waiting period is longer than 18 months. Increased funding is urgently needed
    Article · Apr 2011 · Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • Julie Steffann · Nelly Frydman · Philippe Burlet · [...] · René Frydman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umut-Talha, a "sibling savior", was born on 26 January 2011 at Beclère Hospital after embryo selection at the Paris preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) center. His birth revived the controversy over "double PGD". This procedure, authorized in France since 2006, allows couples who already have a child with a serious, incurable genetic disease, to opt for PGD in order to select a healthy embryo that is HLA-matched to the affected sibling and who may thus serve as an ombilical cord blood donor. The procedure is particularly complex and the baby take-home rate is still very low. Double PGD is strictly regulated in France, and candidate couples must first receive individual authorization from the Biomedicine Agency. In our experience, these couples have a strong desire to have children, as reflected by the large number of prior spontaneous pregnancies (25% of couples). Likewise, most of these couples request embryo transfer even when there is no HLA-matched embryo, which accounts for more than half of embryo transfers. The controversy surrounding this practice has flared up again in recent weeks, over the concepts of "designer babies" and "double savior siblings" (the baby is selected to be free of the hereditary disease, and may also serve as a stem cell donor for the affected sibling).
    Article · Apr 2011 · Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine