[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key Clinical Message
Convulsion in diabetics is often considered as a result from fluctuation of blood glucose level. However, if a diabetic patient also presents abnormal neurological signs, mitochondrial diseases need to be considered in the differential diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of the plasma homocysteine level on the anti-atherosclerotic effects of pitavastatin treatment, we retrospectively examined 59 patients who had a history of stroke and had been prescribed pitavastatin for the treatment of dyslipidemia at the Neurology department of Toho University Ohashi Medical Center Hospital. The patients were classified into two groups according to their homocysteine levels. Carotid artery plaque progression was determined before and after pitavastatin treatment. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, platelet molecular markers, and von Willebrand factor were measured. Pitavastatin treatment had beneficial effects on the lipid profiles of these patients and slowed atherosclerosis progression. These effects were observed in both the high and low homocysteine groups. Proactive lipid intervention using pitavastatin may inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis and contribute to secondary prevention of stroke in high-risk patients. We conclude that this statin could inhibit progression at any stage of disease and should therefore be proactively administered to these patient groups, regardless of disease severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 71-year-old man with legionellosis, who presented with abducens nerve palsy, singultus, confusion, memory impairment, ataxia, and hyporeflexia. Legionella pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of detection of Legionella pneumophila antigen in the urine. The cerebrospinal fluid was negative for the antigen and antibody, but an oligoclonal band was detected, and the IgG index was elevated. It was speculated that an undetermined immune-mediated mechanism had contributed to the development of the neurological manifestations.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Neurological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy are characterized by muscle fiber necrosis caused by a defect in dysferlin and inflammatory changes. SJL/J mice are deficient in dysferlin and display severe inflammatory changes, most notably the presence of cytokines, which may be related to destruction of the sarcolemma. We tested the hypothesis that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) contributes to myofibril necrosis. Administration of etanercept, an agent that blocks TNF, resulted in dose-dependent reductions in inflammatory change, necrosis, and fatty/fibrous change. These findings indicate that TNF does indeed play a role in the damage to muscle in SJL/J mice and that etanercept has the potential to reduce such damage.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Experimental and Molecular Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 48-year-old-man had intense pain in the neck and muscle weakness in the left upper limb after he presented low grade fever and appetite loss for a week. Several days later, he developed intense pain and severe muscle weakness in bilateral upper limbs. Laboratory examination showed elevated liver enzyme levels. His muscle weakness was severe in the right upper limb and was moderate in the left upper limb. Deep tendon reflexes were decreased in the bilateral upper limbs. CSF showed albuminocytologic dissiciation. A diagnosis of neuralgic amyotrophy was made. His liver dysfunction improved gradually. IgM and IgG anti-GT1a antibodies were positive. Future studies are required to elucidate whether anti-GT1a antibody is associated with the primary pathophysiology of neuralgic amyotrophy.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the case of a 32-year-old woman with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with electroencephalogram (EEG) output displaying triphasic waves (TWs). The EEG on day 8 revealed generalized slowing, frontal bilateral TWs, a background of 2Hz delta waves, and no epileptiform activity. The patient's condition improved slowly with antituberculosis chemotherapy treatment. A follow-up EEG on day 34 showed marked improvement, with no TWs, background activity improved to a 12Hz symmetric alpha wave pattern, and no epileptiform activity, as before. To our knowledge, this is the first report of TWs observed in a TBM case.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of the neurological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a rare case of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 initially presenting as Addison disease and autoimmune thyroid disease, with subsequent development of autoimmune hepatitis and myasthenia gravis (MG) crisis in a Japanese woman. MG improved with oral prednisolone followed by plasmapheresis for immunoadsorption; thymectomy was not performed. Conventional treatment for MG was effective and safe in this case, in which there was positivity for human leukocyte antigen A23, B52, B62, DR11, and DR15.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the effectiveness of cyclosporine MEPC (CsA MEPC: Neoral®) therapy in 5 patients with refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: We investigated the effectiveness of cyclosporine MEPC therapy in 5 patients who either had significant clinical manifestations of MG even after extended thymectomy and treatment with glucocorticoid (GC) and other immunosuppressant drugs, or who experienced aggravation of ocular symptoms during GC tapering. Results: Subjective and objective symptoms improved within 1 to 2 weeks of beginning CsA MEPC therapy; activities of daily living score improved within 1 to 3 months. Conclusion: CsA MEPC was effective and safe for treatment of refractory generalized MG when an appropriate blood level was maintained. In all patients, general symptoms improved within several months after improvement of ocular symptoms, which suggests that an early resolution of ocular symptoms with CsA treatment is predictive of further improvement in general symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical features of familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with a codon 200 point mutation [fCJD (E200K)] are similar to those of sporadic CJD (sCJD). MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) has been reported to be useful for the early diagnosis of CJD. We describe a Japanese fCJD (E200K) case in which thalamic symptoms were the initial manifestations. On admission, electroencephalography (ECG) showed no periodic synchronous discharge (PSD), and MRI showed no abnormalities. However, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) revealed hypoperfusion in the right thalamus. We conclude that the thalamic form of CJD tends to show no high-intensity area (HIA) by MRI-DWI, and that SPECT may be more useful for visualizing the affected area responsible for the thalamic symptoms at an early stage.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical features of familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with a codon 200 point mutation [fCJD (E200 K)] are similar to those of sporadic CJD (sCJD). MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) has been reported to be useful for the early diagnosis of CJD. We describe a Japanese fCJD (E200K) case in which thalamic symptoms were the initial manifestations. On admission, electroencephalography (ECG) showed no periodic synchronous discharge (PSD), and MRI showed no abnormalities. However, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) revealed hypoperfusion in the right thalamus. We conclude that the thalamic form of CJD tends to show no high-intensity area (HIA) by MRI-DWI, and that SPECT may be more useful for visualizing the affected area responsible for the thalamic symptoms at an early stage.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SJL/J mice have been studied as the model animals for autoimmunological diseases. Recently it was clarified that SJL/J mice have a defect of dysferlin. Human limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy also have a defect of dysferlin. In this study we present the histological and immunohistological changes in the natural course. Histological study revealed that SJL/J mice had inflammatory, degenerative changes, and neurogenic changes in later ages. As for interstitial inflammatory cells, the macrophages were dominant in any age, and in the T cell subset, the CD4+ T cells were more abundant than the CD8+ T cells, and few B cells were seen. The laboratory data showed a high level of creatine kinase in all ages. It is suspected that the inflammatory changes were induced by the primary immunological abnormality or by the defect of dysferlin in SJL/J mice.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · European Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common treatment of myasthenia gravis is high-dose prednisolone administration and thymectomy. A well-known adverse effect of prednisolone is hyperglycemia, however, to date there is no such detailed report.
We treated 325 myasthenia gravis patients in a recent 35 years period, and found 11 patients with diabetes mellitus. We compared these 11 diabetic patients with previously-reported cases.
These 11 patients did not have any antibody against beta-cells in the pancreas such as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody. In 10 of 11 patients diabetes mellitus was controlled with oral medications.
Myasthenic patients with diabetes mellitus could be classified into 2 groups, one group with positive organ-specific autoantibodies to many organs (with type 1 diabetes mellitus), and the other group with diabetes mellitus onset during prednisolone administration (with type 2 diabetes mellitus).
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of myasthenia gravis (MG) associated with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and after that gastric cancer appeared. A 51-year-old man began to suffer from fluctuated muscle weakness in 1985. Muscle weaknesses became exacerbated, and he was admitted to our hospital in 1989. He was diagnosed as MG associated with AITP. After a thymectomy (hyperplasia), prednisolone therapy was started, subsequently his condition was satisfactory. In March 1995, he developed severe anemia and icterus. He was diagnosed as Evans' syndrome (AIHA and AITP) with MG. High-doses of immunoglobulin administration improved the anemia, but thrombocytopenia continued. In November 2002, he suffered marked petechia; the platelet count decreased to 1000/microl. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and platelet transfusion were started. Gastrofiberscopy was performed and biopsy specimens revealed signet cell-type adenocarcinoma. On December 19, 2002, subtotal gastrectomy and splenectomy were performed. After that, his condition has remained satisfactory, without MG symptoms or thrombocytopenia. This is the first such case report in the literature.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a rare case of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord concomitant with gastric cancer. A 67-year-old man was admitted because of posterior column symptoms, pyramidal tract sign and peripheral neuropathy with severe hyperchromic anemia. He was treated with mecobalamin 1 mg IM, after which his anemia and neurological signs recovered. He was diagnosed as having subacute combined degeneration with pernicious anemia. Subsequent stomach biopsy revealed gastric cancer, and the patient underwent gastrectomy. It is a well known association that chronic atrophic gastritis is associated with gastric cancer or subacute combined degeneration. Our findings suggest that in this case subacute combined degeneration and gastric cancer are independent of each other; rather, both resulted from chronic atrophic gastritis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases are frequently associated with malignant tumor. In addition, prolonged immunosuppression may favor the development of malignancy. While the coincidence of myasthenia gravis and extrathymic tumor has been reported, the risk and features of these tumors are not well understood.
We treated 305 patients with myasthenia gravis from 1968-2003, including 48 thymoma cases. Two hundred twenty-nine patients had undergone thymectomy and 76 had not. We examined cancer risk, tumor characteristics, and associations to medications. We encountered 9 cases of extrathymic tumor. Cancer risk in the thymoma cases was 6.3% and 2.3% in the nonthymoma cases, a statistically insignificant difference. Azathioprine was administered to only 14 in this series of patients; however, 2 patients developed cancer.
Cancer risk in patients with myasthenia gravis is 2.6%, similar to that of the general population in Japan. We neurologists need to be aware that prolonged immunosuppression may favor the development of malignancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to find some appropriate medicine to suppress myotonia without decreasing muscle strength experiments were performed on myotonic (mto) mice whose Cl channel does not develop due to stop codon and serves as an animal model of myotonia. In myotonic dystrophy dehydroepiandrosterone is low in the serum and it has been reported that intravenous injections of DHEAS to human cases improves myotonia and activities of daily living.
Three pairs of heterozygote mto mice, SWR/J-Clcn1(adr-mto/+) and ten Wistar rats were used. We performed intracellular recordings of myotonia from mto mice and the drug effects on insertion myotonia were recorded from the hemidiaphragm preparations of mto mice with different concentrations of DHEAS. Isometric twitch tension was recorded from rat hemidiaphragm preparations in Tyrode's solution and the effect of DHEAS on the muscle twitch tension was measured at different concentrations of DHEAS from 100 mg/l to 300 mg/l. The effect of mexiletine on ITT was also measured.
In mto mice insertion myotonia was recorded as soon as the microelectrode was inserted in the muscle cells. When DHEAS was added to Tyrode's solution, insertion myotonia was suppressed. DHEAS decreased ITT up to 70% of the original value, though mexiletine decreased ITT to 30% of the original value. Therefore, the decrement of the muscle strength in DHEAS solution is much smaller than that of mexiletine.
Since myotonic dystrophy shows progressive muscle weakness in addition to myotonia, medications like DHEAS are more favorable than the typical Na channel blocker.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Chemokines play a pivotal role in the development of various autoimmune diseases of the nervous system. In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is invaded and destroyed by macrophages and lymphocytes. Increased production of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, a chemokine that attracts macrophages and lymphocytes has been observed in the PNS of GBS, though its precise role remains unclear. Material and Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 10 patients with GBS, 8 with non-inflammatory neurological diseases, and 5 healthy controls was studied. All patients were hospitalized at Toho University Medical Center Omori Hospital or Ohashi Hospital. All GBS cases were examined within 14 days after disease onset. Lumbar puncture was used to obtain CSF by conventional technique. MCP-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Clinical severity was assessed using Hughes grades. Results: CSF from GBS patients contained a significantly higher level of MCP-1 than the control groups (non-inflammatory neurological disease group: p<0.05, healthy controls: p<0.0l). MCP-1 level roughly correlated with Hughes grade at the time of sampling. In some cases CSF sampling was repeated and, in these cases, MCP-1 level correlated with disease course. Conclusion: CSF MCP-1 elevated in GBS patients. CSF MCP-1 up-regulation indicates cellular infiltration and destruction of the PNS, and may reflect clinical severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients with variant forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (vGBS) associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies, including Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), sometimes exhibit miniature endplate potential (MEPP) frequency increases (MFI, described as alpha-latrotoxin-like effects in a previous report) and the factor to produce this effect is present in their sera. MFI-positive sera increase the frequency of MEPPs, then block neuromuscular transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction. A connection between this effect at the neuromuscular junction and some vGBS symptoms is suspected. We measured MFI directly at several points during the clinical course of 8 vGBS patients who had various symptoms and courses. Six patients had confirmed MFI and this activity decreased with convalescence. In 3 clinically mild cases, we were able to elicit MFI using normal serum to supply complement after exposure to the patient's serum. The anti-GQ1b/GT1a IgG titer, the extent of ophthalmoplegia and the extent of MFI were significantly correlated. They did not correlate with the severity of limb weakness or the occurrence of respiratory failure. These results support the hypothesis that MFI caused by anti-ganglioside antibodies is the pathogenic mechanism responsible for ophthalmoplegia in vGBS; different mechanisms or antibodies may explain limb weakness and respiratory failure. Furthermore, MFI may be an important indicator of how serum injures the nerve terminals. The symptoms of vGBS may result from multiple pathogenic factors.
No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System