[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)(1, 2). "Trial-and-error system" remains the only way to identify an effectiveness of immunosuppressive drug in the individual patient, and valid biomarkers for cGVHD are eagerly needed to identify the response to the drug(3, 4). Monocyte-derived interleukin-10 (IL-10) spot-forming cells (SFCs) can be used as a biomarker for evaluating the activity of cGVHD(5). Recently, monocytes have been classified into three subpopulations(6). Among them, CD14(++) CD16(+) intermediate monocytes are found at low frequency, but they have unique features and expand with cytokine treatment and in inflammation(7). Now, we have demonstrated that CD29(high) intermediate monocytes increased in cGVHD. These results could be clinically relevant for treatment strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although the National Institute of Health consensus criteria exist for the global assessment of chronic graft-versus-host disease, no validated biomarkers have been established for chronic graft-versus-host disease. Whereas the role of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease has been established, the contribution of monocytes has not been clearly addressed. Design and Methods
Using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay, we measured the spot-forming cells for interferon-γ, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and interleukin-17 in unstimulated peripheral blood of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The other immunological examinations, including skin biopsy, were also done.ResultsFifty-seven patients were enrolled. Interleukin-10 spot-forming cells were evaluable for the therapeutic monitoring in 16 patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. The number of interleukin-10 spot-forming cells in patients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease was significantly higher than in those with no or inactive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Interleukin-10 was predominantly produced by monocytes. The CD29 expression on monocytes in active chronic graft-versus-host disease patients was elevated. The level of plasma fibronectin, a ligand of CD29, correlated with the number of interleukin-10 spot-forming cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the skin in active chronic graft-versus-host disease showed that infiltrating CD29+ monocytes might produce interleukin-10.ConclusionA novel biomarker, interleukin-10 spot-forming cells, shows promise as both a diagnostic and prognostic modality for chronic graft-versus-host disease, and it may allow for early intervention prior to the onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Measurement of interleukin-10 spot-forming cells would be helpful for clinical trials and patient management.(UMIN-CTR UMIN000006733; www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 15 is known as a rare but recurrent chromosomal abnormality in myeloid malignancies. We report a novel case of minimally differentiated hypoplastic acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0) in a patient who initially had a normal karyotype, but clonal interstitial deletion of chromosome 15, del(15)(q11.2q22), coincided with increment of leukemic cells a year later. We also summarize 18 published cases with myeloid malignancies and this chromosomal abnormality.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progenitor cells of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are thought to undergo a multistep process during their transformation into overt acute leukemia. In this study, the role of mutation of the KIT gene in the extracellular membrane, juxtamembrane and tyrosine kinase domains was investigated in 75 patients with MDS or MDS-derived leukemia (MDS-AML). Mutation was detected in 2 of 15 (13.3%) patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts transformation (RAEB-T), in 1 of 15 (6.6%) patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), and in 5 of 26 (19.2%) patients with MDS-AML. However, no mutation was found in any of the nine patients with refractory anemia (RA) or the 10 patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB). Of the mutations, five patients had changes at the same codon in tyrosine kinase domain, Asp816, while the remainder had unique mutations. These observations suggest that KIT gene mutations identified in the advanced stage of MDS, and genetic abnormality in the KIT gene, particularly at codon 816, might be additional events that contribute to the progression of MDS to AML.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Leukemia Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the drug of choice for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In general, ATRA is well tolerated, but it does have side effects, the most severe of which is ATRA syndrome. We report the case of a young patient with APL treated with ATRA for induction and maintenance therapy who then developed avascular necrosis of both femoral heads. We also review cases of APL patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head after ATRA therapy.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · International Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of acute bilineage leukemia is thought to be the malignant transformation of a myeloid or lymphoid leukemic progenitor with the potential to differentiate into the other lineages; however, the mechanisms of this lineage switch are not well understood. Here, we report on the extremely rare case of adult Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute bilineage leukemia, which is characterized by T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Chromosome analysis showed 46,XY,del(7)(p11.2),t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) in all metaphases and a minor BCR/ABL chimeric gene was detected in these leukemic cells by PT-PCR. When the CD5+ and CD5- cells were sorted, a fusion gene of BCR/ABL and the same clonally rearranged band of a T-cell receptor (TCR) gene were detected in both populations. Nucleotide sequencing of the TCR-gamma gene revealed the clonal rearrangement of the V8-JGT2 complex in both populations. Overexpression of PU.1, which plays a fundamental role in myelomonocyte development, was found in the sorted CD34+CD7+ and CD5-, but not CD5+ cells. These results suggest that leukemic progenitor cells in the T-lineage with the del(7) and t(9;22) have the potential to differentiate into myeloid lineage, and that enforced PU.1 expression may contribute in part of this phenomenon.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophilia sometimes occurs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially in core binding factor (CBF) leukemia. However, the pathogenesis of the differentiation from leukemic progenitors to eosinophils is not well understood in this type of leukemia. Recent reports showed that a novel fusion tyrosine kinase, Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1) platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha), is found in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. The involvement of another chimeric gene, PDGFRbeta, was also reported in myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia. These chimeric genes cause constitutive activation of PDGFR tyrosine kinases. On the other hand, a two-hit model for the pathogenesis of AML, which seems to be caused by inactivating mutations in transcription factors and genetic lesions in tyrosine kinase resulting in constitutive activation, has been proposed. On the basis of these findings, we screened for the expression of the FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha fusion gene and for mutations in the juxtamembrane and tyrosine kinase domains of PDGFRalpha/beta genes in 22 cases of CBF leukemia with eosinophilia. Among these cases, no FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha fusion gene was found. Although cDNA sequencing also detected three types of single-nucleotide alterations at kinase domains in PDGFRalpha/beta genes, all of them were silent changes and polymorphisms. Therefore, PDGFRalpha/beta genes do not appear to play a significant pathogenetic role in eosinophilia or leukemogenesis of CBF leukemia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes a patient with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) but bcr/abl fusion gene-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a molecular analysis of the mechanisms behind the Ph status. Spectral karyotyping-fluorescent in situ hybridization (SKY-FISH) analysis showed no abnormal translocation; however, a bcr/abl fusion gene was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. FISH analysis showed that signals from the 9q and 22q subtelomere probes were detected on the der(9) and der(22) chromosomes, respectively. On the other hand, FISH analysis of the abl and bcr genes with dual fusion probes, which can detect the bcr/abl fusion gene on both the der(9) and der(22) chromosomes, showed the signal for bcr/abl fusion on the der(22) chromosome but not on the der(9) chromosome. These results indicate that insertion of the abl gene into the bcr region on the der(22) chromosome or retranslocation between the der(9) chromosome and the der(22) chromosome may have caused the Ph CML in this case.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · International Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally recognized that postmitotic neutrophils give rise to polymorphonuclear neutrophils alone. We obtained evidence for a lineage switch of human postmitotic neutrophils into macrophages in culture. When the CD15+CD14- cell population, which predominantly consists of band neutrophils, was cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4, and subsequently with macrophage colony-stimulating factor alone, the resultant cells had morphologic, cytochemical, and phenotypic features of macrophages. In contrast to the starting population, they were negative for myeloperoxidase, specific esterase, and lactoferrin, and they up-regulated nonspecific esterase activity and the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, mannose receptor, and HLA-DR. CD15+CD14- cells proceeded to macrophages through the CD15-CD14- cell population. Microarray analysis of gene expression also disclosed the lineage conversion from neutrophils to macrophages. Macrophages derived from CD15+CD14- neutrophils had phagocytic function. Data obtained using 3 different techniques, including Ki-67 staining, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and cytoplasmic dye labeling, together with the yield of cells, indicated that the generation of macrophages from CD15+CD14- neutrophils did not result from a contamination of progenitors for macrophages. Our data show that in response to cytokines, postmitotic neutrophils can become macrophages. This may represent another differentiation pathway toward macrophages in human postnatal hematopoiesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 31-year-old female with t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), M2 in the FAB classification. Complete remission was achieved with daunorubicin and cytarabine induction therapy followed by three courses of high-dose cytarabine consolidation. Only 3 months later, the patient relapsed with granulocytic sarcomas (GSs) in her rhinopharynx, external acoustic meatus, and bone marrow. She received focal radiation for the GSs and successfully underwent reinduction chemotherapy. Subsequently, she received a matched related donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation followed by high-dose chemotherapy and is now in a second remission. We summarized 79 reported cases of t(8;21) AML with GS and reviewed the literature to identify differences in the characteristics of t(8;21) AML with GS between adults and children. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pharyngeal GS in t(8;21) AML, and focal irradiation plus more intensive postinduction therapy during first remission, such as allogeneic-SCT, may be effective in adult t(8;21) AML patients with GS.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · The Hematology Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is used as a treatment for multiple myeloma, although its clinical effects remain controversial. Here, we investigated whether IFN-alpha altered the autocrine production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or IL-10, both identified as key cytokines regulating myeloma cell growth/survival, and found that IL-6, but not IL-10, induced by IFN-alpha attenuated IFN-alpha-mediated signaling in myeloma cells via an upregulated SOCS3. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, expression of the IL-6 gene (IL-6) and IL-10 was detected in two and three of eight myeloma cell lines, respectively. When myeloma cells were cultured with IFN-alpha, an increase of IL-6 and IL-10 production was detected in IL-6-expressing and in IL-10-expressing cells, respectively. IFN-alpha inhibited the cell growth of these myeloma lines. Addition of an IL-6-neutralizing antibody prolonged the phosphorylation of STAT1 induced by IFN-alpha and significantly enhanced the cell growth suppression of IFN-alpha on IL-6-expressing cells. However, a similar blocking of IL-10 in the presence of IFN-alpha did not affect the growth/survival of IL-10-expressing cells. Interestingly, exogenous IL-6, but not IL-10, induced high levels of SOCS3 expression. Although upregulation of SOCS3 was also observed in the presence of IFN-alpha alone in IL-6-expressing cells, this expression was completely abrogated by the IL-6-neutralizing antibody. The L929 cell line transfected with SOCS3 showed the protection from the growth suppression of IFN-alpha. These results suggest that IL-6 induced by IFN-alpha plays an important role in the growth/survival of myeloma cells via an autocrine loop, and upregulated SOCS3 by IL-6 may be at least partially responsible for the IL-6-mediated inhibition of IFN-alpha signaling in myeloma cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · The Hematology Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: t(8;21)(q22;q22) is the most frequently observed karyotypic abnormality associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially in FAB M2. Clinically, this type of AML often shows eosinophilia and has a high complete remission rate with conventional chemotherapy. t(8;21) AML is also frequently associated with additional karyotypic aberrations, such as a loss of the sex chromosome; however, it is unclear whether these aberrations change the biological and clinical characteristics of t(8;21) AML. To investigate this issue, 94 patients with t(8;21) AML were categorized according to their additional karyotypic aberrations, which were detected in more than three cases, and then morphologic features, phenotypes, expression of cytokine receptors, and clinical features were compared to t(8;21) AML without other additional aberrant karyotypes. t(8;21) AML with loss of the sex chromosome and abnormality of chromosome 9 were found in 27 cases (29.3%) and 10 cases (10.6%), respectively; however, no differences were observed from the t(8;21) AML without other additional karyotypes in terms of morphological and phenotypic features. There was also no significant difference in the clinical outcome among these three groups. On the other hand, trisomy 4 was found in three cases (3.2%) and these cells showed low expressions of CD19 (P=0.06) and IL-7 receptor (P=0.05), and high expressions of CD33 (P=0.13), CD18 (P=0.03), and CD56 (P=0.03) when compared to t(8;21) AML without additional karyotypes. Moreover, all three t(8;21) AML cases with trisomy 4 did not show eosinophilia in their bone marrow and died within 2.4 years. These observations suggest that additional karyotypic aberration, t(8;21) with trisomy 4 is rare, but it may constitute a distinctive subtype of t(8;21) AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ikaros, a zinc finger transcription factor, is essential for lymphoid development. Mutant mice expressing dominant-negative Ikaros gene (Ikaros) isoforms develop an aggressive form of lymphoid malignancies. We examined the expression of Ikaros isoforms in 11 leukemic cell lines and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from 36 patients with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) and nine with T-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-T ALL), using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. In one pre-B ALL cell line, INC cells, and primary leukemic cells from 16 patients with pre-B ALL, we found the predominant expression of a non-DNA-binding Ikaros isoform, Ik-6. However, Ik-6 was not detected in pre-T ALL cells. All of pre-B ALL cells expressing Ik-6 were CD10(+), whereas CD10(-) pre-B ALL cells did not express Ik-6. The expression of Ik-6 was not related to karyotype abnormalities such as t(9;22) and t(4;11). Proteins from the cells that expressed Ik-6 alone failed to bind to the Ikaros protein-specific binding sequence in DNA. Ikaros proteins lacking the DNA binding sequences were detected in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus of the cells. When INC and primary pre-B ALL cells that express Ik-6 alone were irradiated and cultured in the absence of serum, these cells produced functional Ikaros isoforms, Ik-1 and Ik-2. Purified CD19(+) CD10(-) and CD19(+) CD10(+) cells from normal human bone marrow did not express Ik-6. The predominant expression of Ik-6, which is the result of post-transcription dysregulation, is characteristic of adult pre-B ALL, especially CD10(+) pre-B ALL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chromosome aberration t(7;11)(p15;p15) is uncommon but recurrent in leukemia. We experienced a case of acute leukemia with t(7;11)(p15;p15), the hematological appearance of which mimicked myeloid crisis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This case showed splenomegaly, a decreased neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) score, increased vitamin B12 value, and cells at all stages of neutrophilic maturation in both bone marrow and peripheral blood. We initially had difficulty differentiating acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M2 with marked myeloid differentiation from myeloid crisis of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative CML. Immature myeloid cells in the peripheral blood disappeared and cytogenetic analysis indicated that marrow cells changed to the normal karyotype after remission induction therapy. Therefore, this case was thought not to be myeloid crisis but AML M2 subtype. The NUP98/HOXA9 fusion transcript was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at exon A but not exon B of NUP98.
No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · International Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 52-year-old man was admitted for treatment of hypoplastic leukemia (M 1). After induction chemotherapy with IDR and AraC, the patient developed prolonged febrile neutropenia, and a diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was made. We started administration of AMPH-B and G-CSF, but the patient showed no clinical improvement. M-CSF was added to the regimen, and this led to an increase in the white blood cell count with resolution of pneumonia. It is suggested that administration of M-CSF with antibiotics and G-CSF may be beneficial for treating acute leukemia patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia after intensive chemotherapy.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic approach to hairy-cell leukemia (HCL) is in some instances still debated. Although management with alpha-interferon and purine analogues is well established, there is an alternative role for therapeutic splenectomy in patients with massive splenomegaly who have failed to respond to systemic therapy. Most patients with HCL will not be suitable for treatment with splenectomy as their ages at diagnosis are high. Here, we report an elderly Japanese HCL patient whose refractory massive splenomegaly responded well to low-dose splenic irradiation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe very uncommon phenotypic and cytogenetic findings in a 40-year-old female with blast phase of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive CML. In addition to the t(9;22)(q34;q11) that was detected in all metaphases, a t(11;17)(q23;q21) was identified in 15 of 20 metaphases. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the major and minor bcr/abl fusion transcripts in the cells from a bone marrow (BM) sample. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis also showed that fusion signals of the bcr and abl probes were found in 95% of blastic cells and in 64% of neutrophils. MLL gene rearrangement was also detected in some blastic cells but not in neutrophils by FISH analysis. Phenotypically, blastic cells expressed mixed lineage antigens such as CD34, CD33, CD13, CD19, CD7, and CD41. Immunogenotypically, some population of BM cells showed monoclonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain and T-cell receptor gamma chain genes by Southern blot analysis. Clinical course was aggressive, and therapy was poorly tolerated. Such findings seem to support an association between Ph and an abnormality of 11q23 with poor prognosis, and suggest that the expression of both abnormal genes may be related to this mixed lineage antigen-expressing leukemia.
No preview · Article · May 2001 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics