[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The aim of this study was to analyse factors associated with progression to AIDS/death in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected patients receiving ART.
This study included naive patients from the PISCIS Cohort with CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) at enrolment and who initiated ART consisting of two nucleoside analogues plus either a PI or an NNRTI between 1998 and 2011. The PISCIS Cohort is a multicentre, observational study of HIV-infected individuals aged >18 years followed at 14 participating hospitals in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands (Spain). Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed every 3-4 months during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to assess the effect of CD4 and viral load on the risk of progression to AIDS/death, adjusting for baseline variables and confounders.
2295 patients were included and, after 5 years, 69.9% reached CD4 ≥200 cells/mm(3), 64.4% had an undetectable viral load and 482 (21%) progressed to AIDS/death. The lowest rate of disease progression was found in patients who reached both immunological and viral responses during follow-up, regardless of their baseline situation (1.9% in baseline CD4 >100 cells/mm(3) and viral load <5 log copies/mL; 2.3% in baseline CD4 ≤100 cells/mm(3) and/or viral load >5 log copies/mL). Achieving a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm(3) was the main predictor of decreased progression to AIDS/death. In those not reaching this CD4 threshold, virological response reduced disease progression by half.
Even in the worse baseline scenario of CD4 ≤100 cells/mm(3) and high baseline viral loads, positive virological and immunological responses were associated with dramatic decreases in progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate long-term outcomes in patients maintaining a nevirapine (NVP)-based regimen.
Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study including patients currently receiving an NVP regimen that had been started at least 5 years previously. Demographic, clinical, and analytical variables were recorded.
Median follow-up was 8.9 (5.7-11.3) years. Baseline characteristics: 74% men, 47 years old, 36% drug users, 40% AIDS, 40% HCV+, 51.4% detectable HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count 395 (4-1,421)/μL, 19% CD4 < 200/μL, 27% ALT grade 1-2, 36% AST grade 1-2. Thirty percent ART-naive, 83%received NVP associated with 2 nucleoside analogues during the study period, and 17% a protease inhibitor. A significant improvement was observed in general health status markers, including hemoglobin, platelets, and albumin, regardless of HCV coinfection. CD4 cell gain was +218 and +322/μL after 6 and 9 years, respectively (+321 and +391 in naive patients). Triglycerides significantly decreased in pretreated patients, whereas the percentage of patients with HDLc < 1.03 mmol/L and LDL-c > 3.37 mmol/L significantly decreased in a subsample with available values. A significant decrease in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and Fib4 score was observed, mainly in HCV+ and ARV-naive patients.
In patients who tolerate NVP therapy, (even those with HCV coinfection), long term benefits may be significant in terms of a progressive improvement in general health status markers and CD4 response, a favorable lipid profile, and good liver tolerability.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Current HIV research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Quantification and description of patients recently infected by HIV can provide an accurate estimate of the dynamics of HIV transmission. Between 2006 and 2008 in Catalonia, we estimated the prevalence of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases, described the epidemiological characteristics of the infection according to whether it was recent, long-standing or advanced, and identified factors associated with recent infection. METHODS: A Test for Recent Infection (TRI) was performed in serum samples from patients newly diagnosed with HIV. Two different TRI were used: the Vironostika-LS assay (January 2006-May 2007) and the BED-CEIA CEIA (June 2007 onwards). Samples were obtained within the first 6 months of diagnosis. Patients whose samples tested positive in the TRI were considered recently infected. RESULTS: Of 1125 newly diagnosed patients, 79.9% were men (median age, 35.4 years), 38.7% were born outside Spain, 48.9% were men who have sex with men (MSM) and 10.6% presented other sexually transmitted infections. The overall percentage of recent infection was 23.0%, which increased significantly, from 18.1% in 2006 to 26.2% in 2008. This percentage was higher for patients from South America (27.6%). Factors associated with recent infection were acquiring infection through sexual contact between MSM [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-3.9], compared with acquiring infection through heterosexual relations and being under 30 years of age (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.9-17.4), compared with being over 50 years of age. CONCLUSION: The highest percentage of recent infection was identified in MSM, suggesting either a higher incidence or a greater frequency of HIV testing. Information regarding testing patterns is necessary to correctly interpret data from recently infected individuals. Systems to monitor the HIV epidemic should include both parameters.
Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The European Journal of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistances (TDR) and HIV-1 subtypes in recently infected patients in Catalonia between 2003 and 2005 and to describe the characteristics of these patients according to the presence or absence of TDR and HIV-1 subtype.
After application of the Serological Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS), residual aliquots of serum samples from recently infected antiretroviral-naïve individuals were genotyped. FASTA sequences were analyzed using the HIVDB Program. The World Health Organization 2009 List of Mutations for Surveillance of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistant HIV Strains was used to estimate the prevalence of TDR.
Of 182 recently infected patients, 14 (7.7%) presented TDR. Seven (3.8%) had genotypic evidence of TDR against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 6 (3.3%) against nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 3 (1.6%) against protease inhibitors (PIs), and only 2 individuals (1.1%) presented TDR against more than one class of drugs. Thirty-five (19.2%) patients were infected with a non-B HIV-1 subtype.
This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of TDR in recently infected patients in Catalonia. The results are similar to those of studies performed in other Spanish regions. Correct monitoring of these parameters requires systematic epidemiologic surveillance of transmitted resistance.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate.
To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated.
Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States.
20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis.
Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.
Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Limitations: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.
Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-related mitochondrial toxicity has been suggested as a key factor in the induction of antiretroviral-related lipoatrophy. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo the effects of NRTI withdrawal on mitochondrial parameters and body fat distribution.
A multicenter, prospective, randomized trial assessed the efficacy and tolerability of switching to lopinavir-ritonavir plus nevirapine (nevirapine group; n = 34), compared with lopinavir-ritonavir plus 2 NRTIs (control group; n = 33) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with virological suppression. A subset of 35 individuals (20 from the nevirapine group and 15 from the control group) were evaluated for changes in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA ratio and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity after NRTI withdrawal. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were used to objectively quantify fat redistribution over time.
The nevirapine group experienced a progressive increase in mtDNA content (a 40% increase at week 48; P = .039 for comparison between groups) and in the COX activity (26% and 32% at weeks 24 and 48, respectively; P = .01 and P = .09 for comparison between groups, respectively). There were no statistically significant between-group differences in DEXA scans at week 48, although a higher fat increase in extremities was observed in the nevirapine group. No virologic failures occurred in either treatment arm.
Switching to a nucleoside-sparing regimen of nevirapine and lopinavir-ritonavir maintained full antiviral efficacy and led to an improvement in mitochondrial parameters, which suggests a reversion of nucleoside-associated mitochondrial toxicity. Although DEXA scans performed during the study only revealed slight changes in fat redistribution, a longer follow-up period may show a positive correlation between reduced mitochondrial toxicity and a clinical improvement of lipodystrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate how much limb fat is needed to be lost for lipoatrophy to become clinically evident. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients from a randomized trial comparing stavudine or abacavir plus lamivudine and efavirenz, who had subjective assessment to detect clinically evident lipoatrophy (standardized questionnaire) and objective measurements of limb fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry) at baseline, 48 weeks, and 96 weeks were included. ROC curves were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of several cut-off values of absolute and percent limb fat loss for diagnosing lipoatrophy. Of 54 patients included, 13 (24%) had subjective lipoatrophy at 96 weeks. After 96 weeks, median limb fat change was -2.3 kg (interquartile range: -5.2, +0.2) and 0.4 kg (interquartile range: -7.2, +3.4) in patients with and without lipoatrophy, respectively. Median percent limb fat change was -45.5% (interquartile range: -78.0, +3.7) and 5.5% (interquartile range: -62.8, +95.6), respectively. The cut-off values of absolute and percent limb fat loss showing the best sensitivity and specificity values were -1.5 kg (sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 76%) and -30% (sensitivity, 85%; specificity, 73%). At least 30% limb fat is needed to be lost in HIV-infected patients for lipoatrophy to become clinically evident.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · AIDS research and human retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data comparing abacavir/lamivudine versus tenofovir/emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive patients are controversial. We compared 48-week efficacy and safety of these combinations as substitutes of nucleosides in patients with virological suppression.
We randomly assigned 333 HIV-1-infected patients on lamivudine-containing triple regimens with <200 copies per milliliter for at least 6 months to switch their nucleosides to either abacavir/lamivudine (n = 167) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (n = 166). The primary outcome was treatment failure ["switching = failure" intention to treat (ITT) analysis, noninferiority margin 12.5%]. Secondary outcomes were time to treatment failure, virological failure, adverse events, and changes in CD4 count, fasting plasma lipids, lipodystrophy, body fat, bone mineral density, and renal function.
Treatment failure occurred in 32 patients (19%) on abacavir/lamivudine and 22 patients (13%) on tenofovir/emtricitabine [difference 5.9%; (95% confidence interval -2.1% to 14.0%), P = 0.06]. Four patients in the abacavir/lamivudine group versus none in the tenofovir/emtricitabine group developed virological failure [difference 2.4; (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 6.0), P = 0.04]. Twenty-three patients (14%) assigned to abacavir/lamivudine and 10 (6%) to tenofovir/lamivudine experienced grade 3 or 4 adverse effects (P = 0.03). CD4 counts and plasma lipids showed higher increments in the abacavir/lamivudine group than in the tenofovir/emtricitabine group.
In HIV-1-infected patients with virological suppression, abacavir/lamivudine did not meet the noninferiority outcome for treatment efficacy compared with tenofovir/emtricitabine.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction-maintenance strategies were associated with a low response rate. We compared the virological response with two different induction regimens with trizivir plus efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir.
A randomized, multicentre, open-label clinical trial with 209 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients assigned to trizivir plus either efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir during 24-36 weeks. Patients reaching undetectable plasma viral loads during induction entered a 48-week maintenance on trizivir alone. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients without treatment failure at 72 weeks using an intent to treat (ITT) analysis (switching equals failure).
Patients were randomly assigned (efavirenz 104; lopinavir/ritonavir 105), and 114 (55%) entered the maintenance phase (efavirenz 54; lopinavir/ritonavir 60). Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. The response rate at 72 weeks was 31 and 43% (ITT analysis, P = 0.076) and 63 and 75% (on-treatment analysis, P = 0.172) in the efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir arms, respectively. Virological failure occurred in 27 patients: six during induction (efavirenz, three; lopinavir/ritonavir, three; P = 1.0) and 21 during maintenance (efavirenz, 14; lopinavir/ritonavir, seven; P = 0.057). Thirty-four patients in the efavirenz arm switched treatment because of adverse events compared with 25 in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm (P = 0.17).
Trizivir plus either efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir followed by maintenance with trizivir achieved a low but similar response at 72 weeks, with a high incidence of adverse events leading to drug discontinuation during the induction phase in both arms. The study showed a trend towards an increased virological failure rate in the efavirenz arm during the maintenance phase.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess lipoatrophy, other toxicities, and efficacy associated with abacavir as compared with stavudine in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive patients.
This was a prospective, randomized, open trial, stratified by viral load and CD4 cell count, conducted January 2001 to July 2004. Two hundred thirty-seven adult patients with HIV infection initiating antiretroviral therapy were assigned to receive abacavir (n = 115) or stavudine (n = 122), both combined with lamivudine and efavirenz. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with lipoatrophy as assessed by physician and patient observation at 96 weeks.
A lower proportion of patients assigned to abacavir developed clinical signs of lipoatrophy (4.8% vs. 38.3%; P < 0.001). These observations were confirmed by anthropometric data. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans performed in 57 patients showed significantly greater total limb fat loss in the stavudine arm (-1579 vs. 913 g; P < 0.001). The lipid profile in abacavir patients presented more favorable changes in the levels of triglycerides (P = 0.03), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc; P < 0.001), and apolipoprotein A1 (P < 0.001) as well as in the ratio between total cholesterol and HDLc (P = 0.005). Throughout the study, a higher proportion of patients in the stavudine group received lipid-lowering agents as compared to the abacavir group (17% vs. 4%; P = 0.002). Similar virologic and immunologic responses were observed.
Assuming the limitations inherent to clinical assessment, this study shows a notably weaker association of abacavir with lipoatrophy than stavudine. DEXA scans and anthropometric measurements supported the clinical findings. In addition, the lipid changes that occurred were more favorable in patients receiving abacavir.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study compares the risk factors, presentation and outcome of community-acquired Legionella pneumophila pneumonia in 138 sporadic-case patients (1994-2004) and 113 outbreak-case patients (2002) treated in two hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) since urinary antigen assays were adopted. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to compare epidemiological and clinical features, blood chemistry values, radiological findings and outcome of sporadic and epidemic legionnaires' disease. Univariate analysis showed that male sex, chronic lung disease, HIV infection and immunosuppressive therapy prevailed in sporadic cases. Presentation with respiratory symptoms, confusion and blood chemistry alterations, such as hyponatraemia, aspartate aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen elevation, and partial pressure of oxygen P(O)(2) <7.98 KPa (60 mmHg) were also more frequent in sporadic cases, while headache prevailed in outbreak cases. Sporadic cases had a greater delay in treatment, were more severe and had a worse outcome than epidemic cases. Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in sex, chronic lung disease, HIV infection and headache. The clinical and outcome differences between the two groups may be explained by the detection of milder forms of legionnaires' disease, the earlier treatment and the lower severity of underlying disease in the outbreak cases.
Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degree of adherence to anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients is not known. A prospective cohort study was performed in two groups of patients: 79 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (group 1) and 78-HCV-monoinfected patients (group 2). Patients were treated with interferon alpha-2a (3 million international units [MIU], three times per week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) for 48 weeks. Adherence to therapy was defined as having received +/-80% of both drug dosages for +/-80% of the expected duration of therapy. The degree of adherence to treatment was similar for patients with or without HIV coinfection (72.2 versus 80.8%). The overall sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with adherence to therapy was 41.7% as compared with only 8.1% (p = 0.0001) in patients without adherence. The difference in SVR rate according to adherence to treatment was also evident in patients of group 1 (29.8% versus 9.1%; p = 0.05) as well as in those of group 2 (52.4 versus 6.7%; p = 0.001). Adherence to anti-HCV therapy, which can be similar in mono- and coinfected patients, enhances the likelihood of achieving an increase in SVR rate. In addition to improved adherence, in coinfected patients more aggressive therapeutic strategies may be necessary to achieve SVR.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in HIV-infected naive patients treated with two HAART regimens at 12 months.
The MOS-HIV questionnaire was used to measure HRQoL in a subgroup of 127 patients included in the COMBINE study, which was an open-label, randomized, multicenter study comparing zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) plus nelfinavir (NFV) or nevirapine (NVP) regimens in HIV-infected naive patients. 63 patients were included in the ZDV/3TC/NFV arm and 64 in the ZDV/3TC/NVP arm.
No statistically significant differences were observed at baseline in demographic and clinical variables and HRQoL scores between treatment groups, except that the proportion of homosexual men was higher in the ZDV/3TC/NVP arm. There were no statistically significant differences in HRQoL scores between arms at 12 months and over time; only ZDV/3TC/NVP patients showed statistically significant improvement in Physical Health Summary score (p <.01) and a trend toward a better profile in Mental Health Summary score (p =.07). Overall, patients who were treated with ZDV/3TC/NVP showed greater changes in physical dimensions and patients who were treated with ZDV/3TC/NFV showed greater changes in mental health.
Differences in HRQoL between study groups at 1 year follow-up were not detected. Nevertheless, a trend toward improvement was observed in summary health scores in ZDV/3TC/NVP-treated patients.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · HIV Clinical Trials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimens may be a valid alternative to protease inhibitor-containing regimens for initial antiretroviral therapy, but to date few studies comparing these two strategies have been performed.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nelfinavir or nevirapine associated to zidovudine/lamivudine in HIV-infected naive patients.
Randomized, open-label, multicentre trial.
Twelve centres in Spain (9) and Argentina (3).
One hundred and forty-two HIV-infected naive patients without AIDS.
Patients received combivir (zidovudine 300 mg/lamivudine 150 mg, twice-daily) plus either nelfinavir (1250 mg) twice-daily (zidovudine/lamivudine/nelfinavir, n=70) or nevirapine (200 mg) twice-daily (zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine, n=72), and were followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-1 RNA (pVL) of less than 200 copies/ml by PCR at 12 months. pVL of less than 20 copies/ml (PCR), changes in CD4 counts, clinical progression and adverse events were also evaluated. Efficacy was assessed using intent-to-treat (ITT) (missing=failure) and on-treatment analysis.
At 12 months in the ITT analysis the proportion of patients with pVL below 200 copies/ml was 60% (95% CI 48.5-71.5) in the zidovudine/lamivudine/nelfinavir arm and 75% (95% CI 65-85) in the zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine arm (P=0.06), and the proportion below 20 copies/ml was 50% (95% CI 38.3-61.7) and 65% (95% CI 54.2-76.2), respectively (P=0.06). No differences were found when comparing the subgroup of patients with baseline pVL of more than 100,000 copies/ml. A gain of +173 and +162 CD4 cells/mm3, respectively, was observed. Zidovudine/lamivudine/nelfinavir was discontinued in 21% of patients, and zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine in 25%, due to toxicity (P>0.2).
Our results suggest that zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine is at least as effective as zidovudine/lamivudine/nelfinavir as first-line therapy for HIV disease.