Philipp Neudecker

Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (41)268.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The four WW domains of human Nedd4-1 (Neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4-1) interact with the poly-proline (PY) motifs of the human epithelial Na+ channel (hENaC) subunits, with the third WW domain (WW3*) showing the highest affinity. We have shown previously that the α-hENaC PY motif binding interface of WW3* undergoes conformational exchange on the millisecond time-scale, indicating that conformational sampling plays a role in peptide recognition. To further understand this role, the structure and dynamics of hNedd4-1 WW3* were investigated. The NOE-derived structure of the apo-WW3* resembles the domain in complex with the α-hENaC peptide, although (3)JNβ and (3)Jαβ coupling analysis revealed side-chain χ1 rotameric averaging for several residues in the apo-WW3* domain, which was further investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Modelfree analysis of the (15)N NMR spin relaxation data showed that the apo- and peptide-bound states of WW3* have similar backbone ps-ns time-scale dynamics. However, apo-WW3* exhibits pronounced chemical exchange on the millisecond time-scale that is quenched upon peptide binding. (1)HN and (15)N CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments at various temperatures revealed that apo-WW3* exists in an equilibrium between the natively folded peptide binding-competent state and a random coil-like denatured state. The thermodynamics of the folding equilibrium was determined by fitting a thermal denaturation profile monitored by CD spectroscopy in combination with the CPMG data, concluding that the unfolded state is populated to ~20% at 37 °C. These results show that the binding of hNedd4-1 WW3* domain to α-hENaC follows a coupled folding-binding equilibrium.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: A hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in the brains of patients. N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate-modified Aβ (pEAβ) has been described as a major compound of Aβ species in senile plaques. pEAβ is more resistant to degradation, shows higher toxicity and has increased aggregation propensity and β-sheet stabilization compared to non-modified Aβ. Here we characterized recombinant pEAβ(3–40) in aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE) solution regarding its aggregation propensity and structural changes in comparison to its non-pyroglutamate-modified variant Aβ(1–40). Secondary structure analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy suggests that pEAβ(3–40) shows an increased tendency to form β-sheet-rich structures in 20% TFE containing solutions where Aβ(1–40) forms α-helices. Aggregation kinetics of pEAβ(3–40) in the presence of 20% TFE monitored by thioflavin-T (ThT) assay showed a typical sigmoidal aggregation in contrast to Aβ(1–40), which lacks ThT positive structures under the same conditions. Transmission electron microscopy confirms that pEAβ(3–40) aggregated to large fibrils and high molecular weight aggregates in spite of the presence of the helix stabilizing co-solvent TFE. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of recombinantly produced and uniformly isotope labeled [U-15N]-pEAβ(3–40) in TFE containing solutions indicates that the pyroglutamate formation affects significantly the N-terminal region, which in turn leads to decreased monomer stability and increased aggregation propensity.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Pathological hallmark of AD brains are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid plaques. The major component of these plaques is the highly heterogeneous amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, varying in length and modification. In recent years pyroglutamate-modified amyloid-β (pEAβ) peptides have increasingly moved into the focus since they have been described to be the predominant species of all N-terminally truncated Aβ. Compared to unmodified Aβ, pEAβ is known to show increased hydrophobicity, higher toxicity, faster aggregation and β-sheet stabilization and is more resistant to degradation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful method to investigate the conformations of pEAβ isoforms in solution and to study peptide/ligand interactions for drug development. However, biophysical characterization of pEAβ and comparison to its non-modified variant has so far been seriously hampered by the lack of highly pure recombinant and isotope-enriched protein. Here we present, to our knowledge, for the first time a reproducible protocol for the production of pEAβ from a recombinant precursor expressed in E. coli in natural isotope abundance as well as in uniformly [U-15N]- or [U-13C, 15N]-labeled form, with yields of up to 15 mg/l E. coli culture broth. The chemical state of the purified protein was evaluated by RP-HPLC and formation of pyroglutamate was verified by mass spectroscopy. The recombinant pyroglutamate-modified Aβ peptides showed characteristic sigmoidal aggregation kinetics as monitored by thioflavin-T assays. The quality and quantity of produced pEAβ40 and pEAβ42 allowed us to perform heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy in solution and to sequence-specifically assign the backbone resonances under near-physiological conditions. Our results suggest that the presented method will be useful in obtaining cost-effective high-quality recombinant pEAβ40 and pEAβ42 for further physiological and biochemical studies.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a versatile catabolic pathway for lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic material. While the phenomenological and molecular characteristics of autophagic non-selective (bulk) decomposition have been investigated for decades, the focus of interest is increasingly shifting towards the selective mechanisms of autophagy. Both, selective as well as bulk autophagy critically depend on ubiquitin-like modifiers belonging to the Atg8 (autophagy-related 8) protein family. During evolution, Atg8 has diversified into eight different human genes. While all human homologues participate in the formation of autophagosomal membrane compartments, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3C (LC3C) additionally plays a unique role in selective autophagic clearance of intracellular pathogens (xenophagy), which relies on specific protein-protein recognition events mediated by conserved motifs. The sequence-specific (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C resonance assignments presented here form the stepping stone to investigate the high-resolution structure and dynamics of LC3C and to delineate LC3C's complex network of molecular interactions with the autophagic machinery by NMR spectroscopy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Biomolecular NMR Assignments
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    ABSTRACT: Nedd4-1 (neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with and negatively regulates the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The WW domains of Nedd4-1 bind to the ENaC subunits via recognition of PY motifs. Human Nedd4-1 (hNedd4-1) contains four WW domains with the third domain (WW3*) showing the strongest affinity to the PY motif. To understand the mechanism underlying this binding affinity, we have carried out NMR structural and dynamics analyses of the hNedd4-1 WW3* domain in complex with a peptide comprising the C-terminal tail of the human ENaC α-subunit. The structure reveals that the peptide interacts in a similar manner to other WW domain-ENaC peptide structures. Crucial interactions that likely provide binding affinity are the broad XP groove facilitating additional contacts between the WW3* domain and the peptide, compared to similar complexes, and the large surface area buried (83 Å(2)) between R430 (WW3*) and L647' (αENaC). This corroborates the model-free analysis of the (15)N backbone relaxation data, which showed that R430 is the most rigid residue in the domain (S(2) = 0.90 ± 0.01). Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion analysis identified two different conformational exchange processes on the μs-ms time-scale. One of these processes involves residues located at the peptide binding interface, suggesting conformational exchange may play a role in peptide recognition. Thus, both structural and dynamic features of the complex appear to define the high binding affinity. The results should aid interpretation of biochemical data and modeling interfaces between Nedd4-1 and other interacting proteins.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-folding intermediates have been implicated in amyloid fibril formation involved in neurodegenerative disorders. However, the structural mechanisms by which intermediates initiate fibrillar aggregation have remained largely elusive. To gain insight, we used relaxation dispersion nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the structure of a low-populated, on-pathway folding intermediate of the A39V/N53P/V55L (A, Ala; V, Val; N, Asn; P, Pro; L, Leu) Fyn SH3 domain. The carboxyl terminus remains disordered in this intermediate, thereby exposing the aggregation-prone amino-terminal β strand. Accordingly, mutants lacking the carboxyl terminus and thus mimicking the intermediate fail to safeguard the folding route and spontaneously form fibrillar aggregates. The structure provides a detailed characterization of the non-native interactions stabilizing an aggregation-prone intermediate under native conditions and insight into how such an intermediate can derail folding and initiate fibrillation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains are found frequently on the surface of tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, yet their functional role remains obscure. Here, we have investigated the structure and function of the C-terminal Ig-like domain of gpV (gpV(C)), the tail tube protein of phage λ. This domain has been predicted through sequence similarity to be a member of the bacterial Ig-like domain 2 (Big_2) family, which is composed of more than 1300 phage and bacterial sequences. Using trypsin proteolysis, we have delineated the boundaries of gpV(C) and have shown that its removal reduces the biological activity of gpV by 100-fold; thus providing a definitive demonstration of a functional role for this domain. Determination of the solution structure of gpV(C) by NMR spectroscopy showed that it adopts a canonical Ig-like fold of the I-set class. This represents the first structure of a phage-encoded Ig-like domain and only the second structure of a Big_2 domain. Structural and sequence comparisons indicate that the gpV(C) structure is more representative of both the phage-encoded Big_2 domains and Big_2 domains in general than the other available Big_2 structure. Bioinformatics analyses have identified two conserved clusters of residues on the surface of gpV(C) that may be important in mediating the function of this domain.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Evolutionary relationships may exist among very diverse groups of proteins even though they perform different functions and display little sequence similarity. The tailed bacteriophages present a uniquely amenable system for identifying such groups because of their huge diversity yet conserved genome structures. In this work, we used structural, functional, and genomic context comparisons to conclude that the head-tail connector protein and tail tube protein of bacteriophage lambda diverged from a common ancestral protein. Further comparisons of tertiary and quaternary structures indicate that the baseplate hub and tail terminator proteins of bacteriophage may also be part of this same family. We propose that all of these proteins evolved from a single ancestral tail tube protein fold, and that gene duplication followed by differentiation led to the specialized roles of these proteins seen in bacteriophages today. Although this type of evolutionary mechanism has been proposed for other systems, our work provides an evolutionary mechanism for a group of proteins with different functions that bear no sequence similarity. Our data also indicate that the addition of a structural element at the N terminus of the lambda head-tail connector protein endows it with a distinctive protein interaction capability compared with many of its putative homologues.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • D Flemming Hansen · Philipp Neudecker · Lewis E Kay
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    ABSTRACT: A simple method is presented for quantifying Ile chi(2) rotamer distributions in proteins based on the measurement of Ile (13)C(delta1) chemical shifts. The methodology is well suited for applications involving very high molecular weight protein complexes, where other NMR parameters such as side-chain scalar coupling constants that report on dihedral angles cannot be measured or for studies of invisible, excited protein states, where chemical shifts are obtained from analysis of CPMG relaxation dispersion profiles. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by an application to the folding reaction of a mutant Fyn SH3 domain, where Ile side-chain structure and dynamics of an on-folding pathway intermediate state are studied.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • Patrick Walsh · Philipp Neudecker · Simon Sharpe
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of nonfibrillar oligomers has been proposed as a common element of the aggregation pathway of proteins and peptides associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. While fibrillar structures have long been considered indicators of diseases linked with the accumulation of amyloid plaques, it has more recently been proposed that amyloid oligomers are in fact the cytotoxic form. Here we describe the local structure and dynamics of stable oligomers formed by a peptide comprising residues 106-126 of the human prion protein (PrP). Structural constraints from solid-state NMR reveal quaternary packing interactions within the hydrophobic core, similar to those previously reported for amyloid fibrils formed by this peptide, and consistent with structural studies of oligomers formed by the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide. However, a hydration-dependent increase in disorder is observed for nonfibrillar oligomers of PrP(106-126). In solution NMR spectra we observe narrow (1)H and (13)C resonances corresponding to a monomer in exchange with the approximately 30 nm diameter nonfibrillar oligomers, giving additional information on the molecular structure of these species. Taken together, our data support a model in which the local structure of the oligomers contains the basic elements of amyloid fibrils, but with long-range disorder and local mobility that distinguishes these assemblies from the fibrillar form of PrP(106-126). These characteristics may provide a basis for the differing biological activities of amyloid fibrils and oligomers.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
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    ABSTRACT: NMR relaxation dispersion spectroscopy is a powerful method for studying protein conformational dynamics whereby visible, ground and invisible, excited conformers interconvert on the millisecond time-scale. In addition to providing kinetics and thermodynamics parameters of the exchange process, the CPMG dispersion experiment also allows extraction of the absolute values of the chemical shift differences between interconverting states, /Delta(omega)/, opening the way for structure determination of excited state conformers. Central to the goal of structural analysis is the availability of the chemical shifts of the excited state that can only be obtained once the signs of Delta(omega) are known. Herein we describe a very simple method for determining the signs of (1)H(N) Delta(omega) values based on a comparison of peak positions in the directly detected dimensions of a pair of (1)H(N)-(15)N correlation maps recorded at different static magnetic fields. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for three proteins that undergo millisecond time-scale conformational rearrangements. Although the method provides fewer signs than previously published techniques it does have a number of strengths: (1) Data sets needed for analysis are typically available from other experiments, such as those required for measuring signs of (15)N Delta(omega) values, thus requiring no additional experimental time, (2) acquisition times in the critical detection dimension can be as long as necessary and (3) the signs obtained can be used to cross-validate those from other approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Biomolecular NMR
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    Arash Zarrine-Afsar · Sung Lun Lin · Philipp Neudecker
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding how proteins adopt their unique native structures requires a complete structural characterization of the rate-limiting transition state(s) along the folding pathway. By definition, transition states are not significantly populated and are only accessible via folding kinetics studies. In this respect, interpreting the kinetic effects of amino acid substitutions (especially to Ala) via Phi-value analysis is the most common method to probe the structure of these transient, yet important states. A critical review of the key assumptions required for rigorous interpretation of Phi values reveals that a multiple substitution strategy in which a position of interest is mutated to a variety of amino acids, and not exclusively to Ala, provides the best means to characterize folding transition states. This approach has proven useful in revealing non-native interactions and (or) conformations in folding transition states. Moreover, by simultaneously examining the folding kinetics of multiple substitutions made at a single surface-exposed position using the Brønsted analysis the backbone conformation in a folding transition state can be investigated. For folding equilibria with exchange rates on the order of milliseconds, the kinetic parameters for Phi-value analysis can be obtained from NMR relaxation dispersion experiments, under fully native conditions, along with a wealth of high-resolution structural information about the states in exchange (native, denatured, and intermediate states that populate the pathway). This additional structural information, which is not readily obtained through stopped-flow based methods, can significantly facilitate the interpretation of Phi values because it often reports on the validity of the assumptions required for a rigorous interpretation of Phi values.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Biochemistry and Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for quantifying the kinetics and thermodynamics of millisecond exchange processes between a major, populated ground state and one or more minor, low populated and often invisible ‘excited’ conformers. Analysis of CPMG data-sets also provides the magnitudes of the chemical shift difference(s) between exchanging states (|Δϖ|), that inform on the structural properties of the excited state(s). The sign of Δϖ is, however, not available from CPMG data. Here we present one-dimensional NMR experiments for measuring the signs of 1HN and 13Cα Δϖ values using weak off-resonance R 1ρ relaxation measurements, extending the spin-lock approach beyond previous applications focusing on the signs of 15N and 1Hα shift differences. The accuracy of the method is established by using an exchanging system where the invisible, excited state can be converted to the visible, ground state by altering conditions so that the signs of Δϖ values obtained from the spin-lock approach can be validated with those measured directly. Further, the spin-lock experiments are compared with the established H(S/M)QC approach for measuring the signs of chemical shift differences. For the Abp1p and Fyn SH3 domains considered here it is found that while H(S/M)QC measurements provide signs for more residues than the spin-lock data, the two different methodologies are complementary, so that combining both approaches frequently produces signs for more residues than when the H(S/M)QC method is used alone.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Biomolecular NMR
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    ABSTRACT: Fits of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion profiles allow extraction of the kinetics and thermodynamics of exchange reactions that interconvert highly populated, ground state and low populated, excited state conformers. Structural information is also available in the form of chemical shift differences between the interconverting protein states. Here we present a very simple method for extracting chi(2) rotamer distributions of Leu side chains in 'invisible' excited protein states based on measurement of their (13)C(delta1)/(13)C(delta2) chemical shifts using methyl CPMG dispersion experiments. The methodology is applied to study the protein folding reaction of the Fyn SH3 domain. A uniform chi(2) rotamer distribution is obtained for Leu residues of the unfolded state, with each Leu occupying the trans and gauche+ conformations in a 2:1 ratio. By contrast, leucines of an 'invisible' Fyn SH3 domain folding intermediate show a much more heterogeneous distribution of chi(2) rotamer populations. The experiment provides an important tool toward the quantitative characterization of both the structural and dynamics properties of states that cannot be studied by other biophysical tools.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion NMR profiles provides the kinetics and thermodynamics of millisecond-time-scale exchange processes involving the interconversion of populated ground and invisible excited states. In addition, the absolute values of chemical shift differences between NMR probes in the exchanging states, |Delta omega|, are also extracted. Herein, we present a simple experiment for obtaining the sign of (1)H(alpha) Delta omega values by measuring off-resonance (1)H(alpha) decay rates, R(1rho), using weak proton spin-lock fields. A pair of R(1rho) values is measured with a spin-lock field applied |Delta omega| downfield and upfield of the major-state peak. In many cases, these two relaxation rates differ substantially, with the larger one corresponding to the case where the spin-lock field coincides with the resonance frequency of the probe in the minor state. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated first on a system involving protein ligand exchange and subsequently on an SH3 domain exchanging between a folded state and its on-pathway folding intermediate. With this experiment, it thus becomes possible to determine (1)H(alpha) chemical shifts of the invisible excited state, which can be used as powerful restraints in defining the structural properties of these elusive conformers.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
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    Philipp Neudecker · Patrik Lundström · Lewis E Kay
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of the mechanisms by which proteins fold into their native conformations is important not only for protein structure prediction and design but also because protein misfolding intermediates may play critical roles in fibril formation that are commonplace in neurodegenerative disorders. In practice, the study of folding pathways is complicated by the fact that for the most part intermediates are low-populated and short-lived so that biophysical studies are difficult. Due to recent methodological advances, relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a particularly powerful tool to obtain high-resolution structural information about protein folding events on the millisecond timescale. Applications of the methodology to study the folding of SH3 domains have shown that folding proceeds via previously undetected on-pathway intermediates, sometimes stabilized by nonnative long-range interactions. The relaxation dispersion approach provides a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic description of the folding process as well as the promise of obtaining an atomic level structural description of intermediate states. We review the concerted application of a variety of recently developed NMR relaxation dispersion experiments to obtain a "high-resolution" picture of the folding pathway of the A39V/N53P/V55L Fyn SH3 domain.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Biophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In many cases, patients allergic to birch pollen also show allergic reactions after ingestion of certain fruits or vegetables. This observation is explained at the molecular level by cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies induced by sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 with homologous food allergens. As IgE antibodies recognize conformational epitopes, a precise structural characterization of the allergens involved is necessary to understand cross-reactivity and thus to develop new methods of allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic patients. Here, we report the three-dimensional solution structure of the soybean allergen Gly m 4, a member of the superfamily of Bet v 1 homologous proteins and a cross-reactant with IgE antibodies originally raised against Bet v 1 as shown by immunoblot inhibition and histamine release assays. Although the overall fold of Gly m 4 is very similar to that of Bet v 1, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins differ in detail. The Gly m 4 local structures that display those differences are also found in proteins from yellow lupine with known physiological function. The three-dimensional structure of Gly m 4 may thus shed some light on the physiological function of this subgroup of PR10 proteins (class 10 of pathogenesis-related proteins) and, in combination with immunological data, allow us to propose surface patches that might represent cross-reactive epitopes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Bioscience Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The SH2 domain of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases can enhance catalytic activity and substrate recognition, but the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. We have solved the structure of the prototypic SH2-kinase unit of the human Fes tyrosine kinase, which appears specialized for positive signaling. In its active conformation, the SH2 domain tightly interacts with the kinase N-terminal lobe and positions the kinase alphaC helix in an active configuration through essential packing and electrostatic interactions. This interaction is stabilized by ligand binding to the SH2 domain. Our data indicate that Fes kinase activation is closely coupled to substrate recognition through cooperative SH2-kinase-substrate interactions. Similarly, we find that the SH2 domain of the active Abl kinase stimulates catalytic activity and substrate phosphorylation through a distinct SH2-kinase interface. Thus, the SH2 and catalytic domains of active Fes and Abl pro-oncogenic kinases form integrated structures essential for effective tyrosine kinase signaling.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Many experimental and theoretical studies have suggested a significant role for nonnative interactions in protein folding pathways, but the energetic contributions of these interactions are not well understood. We have addressed the energetics and the position specificity of nonnative hydrophobic interactions by developing a continuum coarse-grained chain model with a native-centric potential augmented by sequence-dependent hydrophobic interactions. By modeling the effect of different hydrophobicity values at various positions in the Fyn SH3 domain, we predicted energetically significant nonnative interactions that led to acceleration or deceleration of the folding rate depending on whether they were more populated in the transition state or unfolded state. These nonnative contacts were centered on position 53 in the Fyn SH3 domain, which lies in an exposed position in a 3(10)-helix. The energetic importance of the predicted nonnative interactions was confirmed experimentally by folding kinetics studies combined with double mutant thermodynamic cycles. By attaining agreement of theoretical and experimental investigations, this study provides a compelling demonstration that specific nonnative interactions can significantly influence folding energetics. Moreover, we show that a coarse-grained model with a simple consideration of hydrophobicity is sufficient for the accurate prediction of kinetically important nonnative interactions.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Acta Crystallographica Section A Foundations of Crystallography

Publication Stats

1k Citations
268.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Forschungszentrum Jülich
      Jülich, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012-2015
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Institute of Physical Biology
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005-2010
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000-2008
    • University of Bayreuth
      • Chair of Biopolymers
      Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany