Michael J Bamshad

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

Are you Michael J Bamshad?

Claim your profile

Publications (221)2109.16 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Mutations in several genes have been identified that are responsible for approximately 25% of families with familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). However, the causative gene remains unknown in 75% of families. Objective: To identify the causative mutation in families with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD. Methods and results: Exome sequencing was used to identify the mutation responsible for a large family with TAAD. A heterozygous rare variant, c.839G>T (p.Ser280Arg), was identified in LOX, encoding a lysyl oxidase, that segregated with disease in the family. Sanger and exome sequencing was performed to investigate mutations in candidate genes in an additional 410 probands from unrelated families. Additional LOX rare variants that segregated with disease in families were identified, including c.125G>A (p.Trp42*), c.604G>T (p.Gly202*), c.743C>T (p.Thr248Ile), c.800A>C (p.Gln267Pro), and c.1044T>A (p.Ser348Arg). The altered amino acids cause haploinsufficiency for LOX or are located at a highly conserved LOX catalytic domain, which is relatively invariant in the population. Expression of the LOX variants p.Ser280Arg and p.Ser348Arg had significantly lower lysyl oxidase activity when compared with the wild type protein. Individuals with LOX variants had fusiform enlargement of the root and ascending thoracic aorta, leading to ascending aortic dissections. Conclusions: These data, along with previous studies showing the deficiency of LOX in mice or inhibition of lysyl oxidases in turkeys and rats causes aortic dissections, support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in LOX predispose to thoracic aortic disease.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Circulation Research
  • Sarah C Nelson · Julia M Crouch · Michael J Bamshad · Holly K Tabor · Joon-Ho Yu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical and research uses of exome and whole genome sequencing (ES/WGS) are growing rapidly. An enhanced understanding of how individuals conceptualize and communicate about sequencing results is needed to ensure effective, mutual exchange of information between care providers and patients and between researchers and participants. Focus groups and interviews participants were recruited to discuss their attitudes and preferences for receiving hypothetical results from ES/WGS. African Americans were intentionally oversampled. We qualitatively analyzed participants' speech to identify unsolicited metaphorical language pertaining to genes and health, and grouped these occurrences into metaphorical concepts. Participants compared genetic information to physical objects including tools, weapons, contents of boxes, and formal documents or reports. These metaphorical concepts centered on several key themes, including locus of control; containment versus release of information; and desirability, usability, interpretability, and ownership of genetic results. Metaphorical language is often used intentionally or unintentionally in discussions about receiving results from ES/WGS in both clinical and research settings. Awareness of the use of metaphorical language and attention to its varied meanings facilitates effective communication about return of ES/WGS results. In turn, both should foster shared and informed decision-making and improve the translation of genetic information by clinicians and researchers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2(-/-) mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2(-/-) mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 January 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.272.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Genomic regions identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of heritability for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency shows that rare coding variants of large effect also influence COPD susceptibility. We hypothesized that exome sequencing in families identified through a proband with severe, early-onset COPD would identify additional rare genetic determinants of large effect. Objective: To identify rare genetic determinants of severe COPD. Methods: We applied filtering approaches to identify potential causal variants for COPD in whole exomes from 347 subjects in 49 extended pedigrees from the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study. We assessed the power of this approach under different levels of genetic heterogeneity using simulations. We tested genes identified in these families using gene-based association tests in exomes of 204 cases with severe COPD and 195 resistant smokers from the COPDGene study. In addition, we examined previously described loci associated with COPD using these datasets. Results: We identified 69 genes with predicted deleterious non-synonymous, stop, or splice variants that segregated with severe COPD in at least two pedigrees. Four genes (DNAH8, ALCAM, RARS and GBF1) also demonstrated an increase in rare non-synonymous, stop and/or splice mutations in cases compared to resistant smokers from the COPDGene study; however, these results were not statistically significant. We demonstrate the limitations of the power of this approach under genetic heterogeneity through simulation. Conclusions: Rare deleterious coding variants may increase risk for COPD, but multiple genes likely contribute to COPD susceptibility.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) is a very rare disorder. In this study, we report on a consanguineous Pakistani family (AP91) with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, adolescent alopecia and dentogingival abnormalities. Using homozygosity mapping, linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we identified a novel rare missense variant c.898G>A (p.(Glu300Lys)) in ITGB6, which co-segregates with the phenotype within the family and is predicted to be deleterious. Structural modeling shows that Glu300 lies in the β-propeller domain, and is surrounded by several residues that are important for heterodimerization with α integrin. Previous studies showed that ITGB6 variants can cause amelogenesis imperfecta in humans, but patients from family AP91 who are homozygous for the c.898G>A variant present with neurological and dermatological features, indicating a role for ITGB6 beyond enamel formation. Our study demonstrates that a rare deleterious variant within ITGB6 causes not only dentogingival anomalies but also intellectual disability and alopecia.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 December 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.260.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The pace of Mendelian gene discovery is slowed by the "n-of-1 problem"-the difficulty of establishing the causality of a putatively pathogenic variant in a single person or family. Identification of an unrelated person with an overlapping phenotype and suspected pathogenic variant in the same gene can overcome this barrier, but it is often impeded by lack of a convenient or widely available way to share data on candidate variants/genes among families, clinicians, and researchers. Methods: Social networking among families, clinicians, and researchers was used to identify three children with variants of unknown significance in KDM1A and similar phenotypes. Results: De novo variants in KDM1A underlie a new syndrome characterized by developmental delay and distinctive facial features. Conclusion: Social networking is a potentially powerful strategy to discover genes for rare Mendelian conditions, particularly those with nonspecific phenotypic features. To facilitate the efforts of families to share phenotypic and genomic information with each other, clinicians, and researchers, we developed the Repository for Mendelian Genomics Family Portal (RMD-FP; http://uwcmg.org/#/family). Design and development of MyGene2 (http://www.mygene2.org), a Web-based tool that enables families, clinicians, and researchers to search for gene matches based on analysis of phenotype and exome data deposited into the RMD-FP, is under way.Genet Med advance online publication 10 December 2015Genetics in Medicine (2015); doi:10.1038/gim.2015.161.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Genetics in Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Marfan syndrome (MFS) due to mutations in FBN1 is a known cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAAD) associated with pleiotropic manifestations. Genetic predisposition to TAAD can also be inherited in families in the absence of syndromic features, termed familial TAAD (FTAAD), and several causative genes have been identified to date. FBN1 mutations can also be identified in FTAAD families, but the frequency of these mutations has not been established. We performed exome sequencing of 183 FTAAD families and identified pathogenic FBN1 variants in five (2.7%) of these families. We also identified eight additional FBN1 rare variants that could not be unequivocally classified as disease-causing in six families. FBN1 sequencing should be considered in individuals with FTAAD even without significant systemic features of MFS.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinical Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 208 genomes from 53 families affected by simplex autism. For the majority of these families, no copy-number variant (CNV) or candidate de novo gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variant (SNV) had been detected by microarray or whole-exome sequencing (WES). We integrated multiple CNV and SNV analyses and extensive experimental validation to identify additional candidate mutations in eight families. We report that compared to control individuals, probands showed a significant (p = 0.03) enrichment of de novo and private disruptive mutations within fetal CNS DNase I hypersensitive sites (i.e., putative regulatory regions). This effect was only observed within 50 kb of genes that have been previously associated with autism risk, including genes where dosage sensitivity has already been established by recurrent disruptive de novo protein-coding mutations (ARID1B, SCN2A, NR3C2, PRKCA, and DSCAM). In addition, we provide evidence of gene-disruptive CNVs (in DISC1, WNT7A, RBFOX1, and MBD5), as well as smaller de novo CNVs and exon-specific SNVs missed by exome sequencing in neurodevelopmental genes (e.g., CANX, SAE1, and PIK3CA). Our results suggest that the detection of smaller, often multiple CNVs affecting putative regulatory elements might help explain additional risk of simplex autism.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Ichthyoses are clinically characterized by scaling or hyperkeratosis of the skin or both. It can be an isolated condition limited to the skin or appear secondarily with involvement of other cutaneous or systemic abnormalities. Methods: The present study investigated clinical and molecular characterization of three consanguineous families (A, B, C) segregating two different forms of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). Linkage in three consanguineous families (A, B, C) segregating two different forms of ARCI was searched by typing microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism marker analysis. Sequencing of the two genes TGM1 and ALOXE3 was performed by the dideoxy chain termination method. Results: Genome-wide linkage analysis established linkage in family A to TGM1 gene on chromosome 14q11 and in families B and C to ALOXE3 gene on chromosome 17p13. Subsequently, sequencing of these genes using samples from affected family members led to the identification of three novel mutations: a missense variant p.Trp455Arg in TGM1 (family A); a nonsense variant p.Arg140* in ALOXE3 (family B); and a complex rearrangement in ALOXE3 (family C). Conclusion: The present study further extends the spectrum of mutations in the two genes involved in causing ARCI. Characterizing the clinical spectrum resulting from mutations in the TGM1 and ALOXE3 genes will improve diagnosis and may direct clinical care of the family members.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of dermatology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the contribution of rare variants as genetic modifiers of the expressivity, penetrance, and severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods: We performed whole-exome sequencing of 78 European American systemic sclerosis patients, including 35 patients without pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH-) and 43 patients with PAH (SSc-PAH+). Association testing of case-control probability for rare variants was performed using the aSKAT-O method with small sample adjustment by comparing all SSc patients with a reference population of 3,179 controls from the ESP 5,500 exome dataset. Replication genotyping was performed in an independent sample of 3,263 patients (415 SSc and 2,848 controls). We conducted expression profiling of mRNA from 61 SSc patients (19 SSc-PAH- and 42 SSc-PAH+) and 41 corresponding controls. Results: The ATP8B4 gene was associated with a significant increase in the risk of SSc (P = 3.18 × 10(-7) ). Among the 64 ATP8B4 variants tested, a single missense variant, c.1308C>G (F436L, rs55687265), provided the most compelling evidence for association (P = 9.35 × 10(-10) ; OR = 6.11), which was confirmed in the replication cohort (P = 0.012; OR = 1.86) and meta-analysis (P = 1.92 x 10(-7) ; OR = 2.5). Genes involved in E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex (ASB10) and cyclic nucleotide gated channelopathies (CNGB3) as well as HLA-DRB5 and HSPB2 (aka heat shock protein 27) provided additional evidence for association (P < 10(-5) ). Differential ATP8B4 expression was observed among the SSc patients compared to the controls (P = 0.0005). Conclusion: ATP8B4 may represent a putative genetic risk factor for SSc and pulmonary vascular complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Key points: The contractile properties of human fetal cardiac muscle have not been previously studied. Small-scale approaches such as isolated myofibril and isolated contractile protein biomechanical assays allow study of activation and relaxation kinetics of human fetal cardiac muscle under well controlled conditions. We have examined the contractile properties of human fetal cardiac myofibrils and myosin across gestational age 59 days to 134 days. Human fetal cardiac myofibrils have low force and slow kinetics of activation and relaxation that increase during the time period studied, and kinetic changes may result from structural maturation and changes in protein isoform expression. Understanding the time course of human fetal cardiac muscle structure and contractile maturation can provide a framework to study development of contractile dysfunction with disease and evaluate the maturation state of cultured stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Abstract: Little is known about the contractile properties of human fetal cardiac muscle during development. Understanding these contractile properties, and how they change throughout development, can provide valuable insight into human heart development, and provide a framework to study the early stages of cardiac diseases that develop in utero. We characterized the contractile properties of isolated human fetal cardiac myofibrils across 8-19 weeks of gestation. Mechanical measurements revealed that in early stages of gestation there is low specific force and slow rates of force development and relaxation, with increases in force and the rates of activation and relaxation as gestation progresses. The duration and slope of the initial, slow phase of relaxation, related to myosin detachment and thin filament deactivation rates, decreased with gestation age. F-actin sliding on human fetal cardiac myosin coated surfaces slowed significantly from 108 to 130 days gestation. Electron micrographs showed human fetal muscle myofibrils elongate and widen with age, but features such as the M-line and Z-band are apparent even as early as day 52. Protein isoform analysis revealed that β-myosin is predominantly expressed even in the earliest time point studied, but there is a progressive increase in expression of cardiac troponin I (TnI), with a concomitant decrease in slow skeletal TnI. Together, our results suggest that cardiac myofibril force production and kinetics of activation and relaxation change significantly with gestation age and are influenced by the structural maturation of the sarcomere and changes in contractile filament protein isoforms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to explore the diversity and selective signatures of duplication and deletion human copy number variants (CNVs), we sequenced 236 individuals from 125 distinct human populations. We observed that duplications exhibit fundamentally different population genetic and selective signatures than deletions and are more likely to be stratified between human populations. Through reconstruction of the ancestral human genome, we identify megabases of DNA lost in different human lineages and pinpoint large duplications that introgressed from the extinct Denisova lineage now found at high frequency exclusively in Oceanic populations. We find that the proportion of CNV base pairs to single nucleotide variant base pairs is greater among non-Africans than it is among African populations, but we conclude that this difference is likely due to unique aspects of non-African population history as opposed to differences in CNV load. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of mostly autosomal recessive disorders primarily characterized by neurological abnormalities. Recently, we described a single CDG patient with a de novo mutation in the X-linked gene, Signal Sequence Receptor 4 (SSR4). We performed whole exome sequencing to identify causal variants in several affected individuals who had either an undifferentiated neurological disorder or unsolved CDG of unknown etiology based on abnormal transferrin glycosylation. We now report, eight affected males with either de novo (4) or inherited (4) loss of function mutations in SSR4. Western blot analysis revealed that the mutations caused a complete loss of SSR4 protein. In nearly all cases, the abnormal glycosylation of serum transferrin was only slightly above the accepted normal cutoff range. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Human Mutation
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Woolly hair (WH) is a hair abnormality that is primarily characterised by tightly curled hair with abnormal growth. In two unrelated consanguineous Pakistani families with non-syndromic autosomal recessive (AR) WH, homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis identified a locus within 17q21.1-q22, which contains the type I keratin gene cluster. A DNA sample from an affected individual from each family underwent exome sequencing. A homozygous missense variant c.950T>C (p.(Leu317Pro)) within KRT25 segregated with ARWH in both families, and has a combined maximum two-point LOD score of 7.9 at ϴ=0. The KRT25 variant is predicted to result in disruption of the second α-helical rod domain and the entire protein structure, thus possibly interfering with heterodimerisation of K25 with type II keratins within the inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle and the medulla of the hair shaft. Our findings implicate a novel gene involved in human hair abnormality, and are consistent with the curled, fragile hair found in mice with Krt25 mutations, and further support the role of IRS-specific type I keratins in hair follicle development and maintenance of hair texture. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Medical Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Discovering the genetic basis of a Mendelian phenotype establishes a causal link between genotype and phenotype, making possible carrier and population screening and direct diagnosis. Such discoveries also contribute to our knowledge of gene function, gene regulation, development, and biological mechanisms that can be used for developing new therapeutics. As of February 2015, 2,937 genes underlying 4,163 Mendelian phenotypes have been discovered, but the genes underlying ∼50% (i.e., 3,152) of all known Mendelian phenotypes are still unknown, and many more Mendelian conditions have yet to be recognized. This is a formidable gap in biomedical knowledge. Accordingly, in December 2011, the NIH established the Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) to provide the collaborative framework and infrastructure necessary for undertaking large-scale whole-exome sequencing and discovery of the genetic variants responsible for Mendelian phenotypes. In partnership with 529 investigators from 261 institutions in 36 countries, the CMGs assessed 18,863 samples from 8,838 families representing 579 known and 470 novel Mendelian phenotypes as of January 2015. This collaborative effort has identified 956 genes, including 375 not previously associated with human health, that underlie a Mendelian phenotype. These results provide insight into study design and analytical strategies, identify novel mechanisms of disease, and reveal the extensive clinical variability of Mendelian phenotypes. Discovering the gene underlying every Mendelian phenotype will require tackling challenges such as worldwide ascertainment and phenotypic characterization of families affected by Mendelian conditions, improvement in sequencing and analytical techniques, and pervasive sharing of phenotypic and genomic data among researchers, clinicians, and families. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A duplication variant within the middle ear-specific gene A2ML1 cosegregates with otitis media in an indigenous Filipino pedigree (LOD score = 7.5 at reduced penetrance) and lies within a founder haplotype that is also shared by 3 otitis-prone European-American and Hispanic-American children but is absent in non-otitis-prone children and >62,000 next-generation sequences. We identified seven additional A2ML1 variants in six otitis-prone children. Collectively, our studies support a role for A2ML1 in the pathophysiology of otitis media.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Nature Genetics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Achromatopsia (ACHM) is an early-onset retinal dystrophy characterized by photophobia, nystagmus, color blindness and severely reduced visual acuity. Currently mutations in five genes CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, PDE6C and PDE6H have been implicated in ACHM. We performed homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis in a consanguineous Pakistani ACHM family and mapped the locus to a 15.12-Mb region on chromosome 1q23.1–q24.3 with a maximum LOD score of 3.6. A DNA sample from an affected family member underwent exome sequencing. Within the ATF6 gene, a single-base insertion variant c.355_356dupG (p.Glu119Glyfs*8) was identified, which completely segregates with the ACHM phenotype within the family. The frameshift variant was absent in public variant databases, in 130 exomes from unrelated Pakistani individuals, and in 235 ethnically matched controls. The variant is predicted to result in a truncated protein that lacks the DNA binding and transmembrane domains and therefore affects the function of ATF6 as a transcription factor that initiates the unfolded protein response during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Immunolabeling with anti-ATF6 antibodies showed localization throughout the mouse neuronal retina, including retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptor cells, inner nuclear layer, inner and outer plexiform layers, with a more prominent signal in retinal ganglion cells. In contrast to cytoplasmic expression of wild-type protein, in heterologous cells ATF6 protein with the p.Glu119Glyfs*8 variant is mainly confined to the nucleus. Our results imply that response to ER stress as mediated by the ATF6 pathway is essential for color vision in humans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-015-1571-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Human Genetics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Discovery of rare or low frequency variants in exome or genome data that are associated with complex traits often will require use of very large sample sizes to achieve adequate statistical power. For a fixed sample size, sequencing of individuals sampled from the tails of a phenotype distribution (i.e., extreme phenotypes design) maximizes power and this approach was recently validated empirically with the discovery of variants in DCTN4 that influence the natural history of P. aeruginosa airway infection in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF; MIM219700). The increasing availability of large exome/genome sequence datasets that serve as proxies for population-based controls affords the opportunity to test an alternative, potentially more powerful and generalizable strategy, in which the frequency of rare variants in a single extreme phenotypic group is compared to a control group (i.e., extreme phenotype vs. control population design). As proof-of-principle, we applied this approach to search for variants associated with risk for age-of-onset of chronic P. aeruginosa airway infection among individuals with CF and identified variants in CAV2 and TMC6 that were significantly associated with group status. These results were validated using a large, prospective, longitudinal CF cohort and confirmed a significant association of a variant in CAV2 with increased age-of-onset of P. aeruginosa airway infection (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% CI=[0.32, 0.88]) and variants in TMC6 with diminished age-of-onset of P. aeruginosa airway infection (HR = 5.4, 95% CI=[2.2, 13.5]) A strong interaction between CAV2 and TMC6 variants was observed (HR=12.1, 95% CI=[3.8, 39]) for children with the deleterious TMC6 variant and without the CAV2 protective variant. Neither gene showed a significant association using an extreme phenotypes design, and conditions for which the power of an extreme phenotype vs. control population design was greater than that for the extreme phenotypes design were explored.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS Genetics

Publication Stats

16k Citations
2,109.16 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2016
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Genome Sciences
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2015
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Molecular & Human Genetics
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2010-2015
    • Seattle Children's Hospital
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1995-2006
    • University of Utah
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Pediatric Genetics
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Anthropology
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • Salt Lake City Community College
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 1998-2002
    • Shriners Hospitals for Children
      Tampa, Florida, United States
    • Maine Institute for Human Genetics and Health
      Бангор, Maine, United States
  • 2001
    • Andhra University
      • Department of Anthropology
      Vizag, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • 1999
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland