[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid (ARA) to oysters Crassostrea gigas increased haemocyte numbers, phagocytosis, and production of reactive oxygen species level (ROS) by haemocytes (Delaporte et al., 2006). To assess if the observed stimulation of these cellular responses resulted from changes of ARA-related prostaglandin (PG) production, we analysed prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGEM) content on the same oysters fed three levels of ARA. Dietary supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could also induce an oxidative stress that could similarly increase cellular responses; therefore, two indicators of oxidative stress were analysed: peroxidation level and antioxidant defence status. Together the observed positive correlation between ARA and PGEM levels and the absence of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity changes supports the hypothesis of an immune stimulation via PG synthesis. Although ARA proportion in oyster tissues increased by up to 7-fold in response to ARA dietary supplementation, peroxidation index did not change because of a compensatory decrease in n-3 fatty acid proportion, mainly 22:6n-3. To further confirm the involvement of PG in the changes of haemocyte count, phagocytosis and ROS production upon ARA supplementation, it would be interesting to test cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase inhibitors in similar experiments.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Langerhans cells (LCs) and interstitial dendritic cells (IDCs) may be among the first human immunodeficiency virus type 1
(HIV-1) targets after sexual transmission. We generated cells of these types by differentiation of purified CD34+ cord blood cells. After in vitro infection with R5-tropic strains, we obtained similar percentages of infected cells for both dendritic cell (DC) subsets.
Moreover, LC infection was not increased by blockage of langerin by antilangerin. These results indicate that, under our experimental
conditions, there was no evidence of any preference of HIV replication in LCs versus IDCs. The inhibitory activity of HIV-1-specific
IgAs and IgGs against HIV-1 replication in LCs and IDCs was analyzed. We found that neutralizing antibodies inhibit HIV-1
infection of both DC subsets. Interestingly, HIV-1 was inhibited more efficiently by the IgGs than the corresponding IgA,
due to an Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nonneutralizing inhibitory IgGs were able to inhibit infection of both
LCs and IDCs. These results underline the importance of HIV-1 inhibition by the binding of the Fc part of IgGs to Fcγ receptors
and suggest that the induction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing inhibitory IgGs in addition to neutralizing IgAs at mucosal
sites may contribute to protection against sexual transmission of HIV-1.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sexual transmission is the major route of HIV-1 infection worldwide. Dendritic cells (DCs) from the mucosal layers are considered to be the initial targets of HIV-1 and probably play a crucial role in HIV-1 transmission. We investigated the role of cell-to-cell contact between HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and various lymphocyte subsets in the stimulation of HIV-1 replication. We found that HIV-1 replication and production in DCs were substantially enhanced by the coculture of DCs with primary CD4 T or nonpermissive B lymphocytes but not with primary activated CD8 T lymphocytes or human transformed CD4 T lymphocytes. Most of the new virions released by cocultures of HIV-1-exposed immature DCs and primary B lymphocytes expressed the DC-specific marker CD1a and were infectious for both immature DCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cocultured DCs thus produced large numbers of infectious viral particles under these experimental conditions. The soluble factors present in the supernatants of the cocultures were not sufficient to enhance HIV-1 replication in DCs, for which cell-to-cell contact was required. The neutralizing monoclonal antibody IgG1b12 and polyclonal anti-HIV-1 sera efficiently blocked HIV-1 transfer to CD4 T lymphocytes but did not prevent the increase in viral replication in DCs. Neutralizing antibodies thus proved to be more efficient at blocking HIV-1 transfer than previously thought. Our findings show that HIV-1 exploits DC-lymphocyte cross talk to upregulate replication within the DC reservoir. We provide evidence for a novel mechanism that may facilitate HIV-1 replication and transmission. This mechanism may favor HIV-1 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and persistence.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aetiology of haemic neoplasia (HN) is unknown, so far but many causative factors are suggested such as viral, pollution and genetics. The aim of this study was to determine if, under chronic exposure, two major pesticides (chlorothalonil and mancozeb) which are used in potato production could induce HN in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Short-term experiments with acute exposure were also performed. Clams were collected from an epizootic site (North River, PEI) and from a site free of the disease (Magdalen Islands, Quebec). The tetraploid level of haemocytes was assessed by flow cytometry for each clam to determine the HN status. The bioaccumulation of pesticides in tissues was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for chlorothalonil while mancozeb and manganese were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP/MS). Long term exposure to fungicide Bravo 500((R)) did not induce high tetraploid levels on negative calm from North River and the analysis of the digestive gland and the mantle did not reveal any detectable level of chlorothalonil. In the Manzate 200 DF((R)), some clams revealed high level of tetraploid cells but no difference were observed between the treatments and the control. The analysis of the digestive gland and the mantle for manganese did not highlight any significant difference in tissue concentration (p=0.05). For the acute exposure, chlorothalonil analysis showed that the active ingredient is distributed between four chlorinated compounds: 99.5% for chlorothalonil isomers, 0.4% for pentachlorothalonil and 0.1% for trichlorothalonil isomers. For a 72 h experiment, the accumulation was within 4h; the higher tissue concentration of chlorothalonil was 59.2 microg g(-1) in the mantle after 48 h, following by a decrease to an undetectable level at the end. For the manganese, the accumulation was detected after 4h; the higher tissue concentration was 48.8 microg g(-1) in the mantle after 24h and, over the following 48 h, the accumulation decreased until the end of the trial. Based on the data, the accumulation of these fungicides seems to be transitory. Chlorothalonil and mancozeb are both oxidative-stress promoters and could have induced cell dysfunction while in the tissue. Study on the effect of these fungicides on the p53 protein system is an example of strategy that would provide information on cellular events promoting neoplasia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Marine Pollution Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms by which haemocytes of clams are transformed in the course of haemic neoplasia remain by far unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of p53/p73 and mortalin genes, in relation with the ploidy status of clam haemocytes and to correlate the p53 expression with mortalin expression. For this purpose, soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, were collected from an endemic zone for neoplasia. The ploidy of haemocytes was assessed for each individual clam by flow cytometry using a propidium iodide protocol, while p53/p73 and mortalin gene expressions were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Results show that haemocytes of some clams with a moderate percentage (15-50%) of tetraploid cells have a significantly high level of p53 and p73 in comparison with clams belonging to categories with low (<15%) or high levels (>50%) of tetraploid cells, where low levels of expression of these genes were observed. Furthermore, mortalin gene expression is strongly correlated (r(2)=0.68, p<0.01) with p53 gene expression level. This reinforces the hypothesis of a cytoplasmic p53 sequestration mechanism in clam haemic neoplasia. Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results and further unravel the molecular pathways involved in this process. Our results are believed to provide phenotypic foundation for such studies to be undertaken.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of haemic neoplasia (HN) in the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, is often achieved by hematocytology and histology. Since neoplastic cells display tetraploid DNA contents, haemocyte cell cycle analysis was developed for use as a diagnosis tool. The aim of this study was to assess the application of a flow cytometry procedure of cell cycle analysis established for the common cockle, to clams and to evaluate different thresholds of value for the percentage of tetraploid cells for establishing HN disease status of individual clams and clam populations. HN status of six clam populations from eastern Canada was determined. Results of the present study demonstrate a flow cytometry procedure to be useful for HN diagnosis in clams. Individual clams were considered to be affected by HN when presenting at least 20% of haemocytes in S-4N phase; and negative when presenting less that 5% of haemocytes in S-4N phase. As discussed in this paper, intermediate cases represent uncertain diagnoses including either false-negative or false-positive clams, which are difficult to discriminate. At a population level, an additional threshold of 15% for the mean intensity of the disease is proposed, which means having in the population several individual clams presenting more than 20% of their haemocytes in S-4N phase. Based on these thresholds of value, only one population was considered as free of HN disease, and one population was unequivocally affected by HN. For the four other clam populations, further investigations are needed toward development and use of specific and objective biomarkers of HN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcripts involved in the molecular mechanisms of haemic neoplasia in relation to the haemocyte ploidy status of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, have yet to be identified. For this purpose, real-time quantitative RT-PCR constitutes a sensitive and efficient technique, which can help determine the gene expression involved in haemocyte tetraploid status in clams affected by haemic neoplasia. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is the stability of selected housekeeping genes, as well as an accurate normalization. In this study, we selected five reference genes, S18, L37, EF1, EF2 and actin, generally used as single control genes. Their expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR at different levels of haemocyte ploidy status in order to select the most stable genes. Using the geNorm software, our results showed that L37, EF1 and S18 represent the most stable gene expressions related to various ploidy status ranging from 0 to 78% of tetraploid haemocytes in clams sampled in North River (Prince Edward Island, Canada). However, actin gene expression appeared to be highly regulated. Hence, using it as a housekeeping gene in tetraploid haemocytes can result in inaccurate data. To compare gene expression levels related to haemocyte ploidy status in Mya arenaria, using L37, EF1 and S18 as housekeeping genes for accurate normalization is therefore recommended.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Fish & Shellfish Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disseminated neoplasia (DN) is a disorder referred to as hemic neoplasia (HN) in the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria. Traditionally, diagnosis is performed by hematocytology or histology. The intensity of the disease is generally given as the percentage of transformed neoplastic cells out of total number of hemocytes. Flow cytometry techniques have found a field of application in diagnosis of HN with analysis of ploidy. Hemocytes of the soft-shell clams with HN display tetraploid DNA content, as shown by propidium iodide staining. This feature makes difficult HN diagnosis in the soft-shell clam, especially for early stages of the condition, since the percentage of normal circulating cells undergoing mitosis, which also are tetraploid, remains unknown in molluscs. Use of specific monoclonal antibodies in a flow cytometry assay was foreseen as a way to overcome the difficulty. The purpose of this study was to develop a double staining protocol using propidium iodide for hemocyte cycle analysis and the MAb 1E10 for staining of HN cells. Our results showed a correlation between tetraploid and MAb 1E10-stained hemocytes in a single clam with moderate HN. This protocol offers some potential for further investigation of this cell disorder. However, a validation step will be necessary to confirm our preliminary results.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within the framework of a national scientific program named “MORtalités ESTivales de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas” (MOREST), a family-based experiment was developed to study the genetic basis of resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. As part of the MOREST project, the second generation of three resistant families and two susceptible families were chosen and pooled into two respective groups: “R” and “S”. These two groups of oysters were conditioned for 6 months on two food levels (4% and 12% of oyster soft-tissue dry weight in algal dry weight per day) with a temperature gradient that mimicked the Marennes–Oléron natural cycle during the oyster reproductive period. Oyster mortality remained low for the first two months, but then rapidly increased in July when seawater temperature reached 19 °C and above. Mortality was higher in “S” oysters than in “R” oysters, and also higher in oysters fed the 12% diet than those fed 4%, resulting in a decreasing, relative order in cumulative mortality as follows; 12% “S” > 12% “R” > 4% “S” > 4% “R”. Although the observed mortality rates were lower than those previously observed in the field, the mortality differential between “R” and “S” oysters was similar. Gonadal development, estimated by tissue lipid content, followed a relative order yielding a direct, positive relationship between reproductive effort and mortality as we reported precedently by quantitative histology. Regarding hemocyte parameters, one of the most striking observations was that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly higher in “S” oysters than in “R” oysters in May and June, regardless of food level. The absence of known environmental stress under these experimental conditions suggests that the ROS increase in “S” oyster could be related to their higher reproductive activity. Finally, a higher increase in hyalinocyte counts was observed for”S” oysters, compared to “R” oysters, in July, just before mortality. Taken together, our results suggest an association of genetically based resistance to summer mortality, reproductive strategy and hemocyte parameters.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of acute temperature challenge on some immune parameters of haemocyte in Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri, recognised as a temperature sensitive bivalve species, were evaluated over a short period of time. Scallops were suddenly transferred from 17 °C to 11 °C, 23 °C and 28 °C for a period of 72 h. Total haemocyte count (THC), percentage of phagocytic haemocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, acid phosphatase (ACP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (in both haemocyte lysate and cell-free haemolymph) were chosen as biomarkers of temperature stress. Results demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic haemocytes and ACP activity in cell-free haemolymph of scallops challenged at 28 °C for 72 h significantly decreased. By contrast, reactive oxygen species production by haemocytes increased when compared to the initial values. It is concluded that haemocyte activities of C. farreri appear to be compromised when scallops were transferred from 17 °C to 28 °C. Meanwhile, no obvious negative effect of acute temperature stress was detected on haemocyte activities of C. farreri challenged at 11 °C, which highlighted the high tolerance of scallops to acute decrease of seawater temperatures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bivalve hemocyte competence has been measured by quantifying functional characteristics, including reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production after activation with zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, untreated oyster hemocytes also produce ROI and RNI (reactive nitrogen intermediates) after bleeding even if not stimulated by zymosan or PMA. Extensive investigation of this parameter by flow cytometry showed that, in vitro, ROI/RNI production by untreated hemocytes maintained in seawater appeared to be independent of both bacterial burden in the serum and non-self particle phagocytosis. ROI/RNI production in granulocytes was higher than in hyalinocytes and could be intensified when activated by zymosan but not by PMA. Both cell types used NADPH-oxidase- and NO-synthase-like pathways to produce these molecules; the NO-synthase pathway seemed relatively more dominant in hyalinocytes and NADPH-oxidase appeared more effective in granulocytes. These results provide new insights for interpreting the modulation of ROI/RNI production by untreated hemocytes shown by other studies, relative to environmental conditions or physiological status of the oysters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High variability among individuals is often encountered when hemocyte characteristics are measured in bivalves. Such variability is suspected to result partly from genetic factors. In this study, hemocyte characteristics of six families of Crassostrea gigas were compared by flow cytometry at one sampling date in October 2001. These families were obtained from a nested, half-sibling cross design, and reared from July to October 2001 at three sites distributed along the French Atlantic coast from north to south: Baie des Veys (Normandy), Rivière d'Auray (Brittany) and Ronce (Marennes-oléron Basin, Poitou Charentes).Among the 15 measured hemocyte characteristics, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of untreated hemocytes (maintained in filtered sterile seawater) and treated hemocytes (zymosan at 20 particles per hemocyte, and with Vibrio sp. S322 at 50 bacteria per hemocyte) was the most notable differences between families. This supports the existence of a genetic basis, at least partly, for the hemocyte characteristics of oysters, and especially for ROS production.Among the six families analyzed, three have shown high survival during summer (named as “resistant”, mean mortality 5.2%) and three experienced high mortality during summer (named as “susceptible”, 30.6% mean mortality). Families showing high or low survival to summer mortality had similar hemocyte characteristics, regardless of the environmental conditions or reproductive state. Resistant families were observed to have higher total hemocyte counts and lower production of ROS than susceptible families. Moreover, ROS production of hemocytes from susceptible families was diminished significantly more by pathogenic Vibrio than that of resistant families. However, this study demonstrates also that rearing site strongly affected the hemocyte characteristics of all families of oysters, most notably hemocyte concentration and morphology (size and granularity), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and susceptibility to the cytotoxic activity of the pathogenic Vibrio sp. S322 (50 bacteria/hemocyte). Food availability and reproductive state are the most probable explanations for the site differences observed. Finally, it appeared difficult to link oyster survival during summer mortality to hemocyte profiles evaluated at one sampling date; other relevant indicators would probably help explaining oyster survival during summer mortality events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summer mortality of Pacific oysters is known in several countries. However no specific pathogen has been systematically associated with this phenomenon. A complex combination of environmental and biological parameters has been suggested as the cause and is now starting to be identified. A high genetic basis was found for survival in oysters when a first generation (G1) was tested in three sites during summer. This paper presents a synthesis on physiological characteristics of two selected groups (‘R' and ‘S', from families selected for resistance and susceptibility to summer mortality respectively), of the second and third generations. R and S showed improvement or reduction of survival compared with the control in both field and laboratory trials confirming the high heritability of survival of juveniles <1 year old. Interestingly, no correlation was observed between growth and survival. Comparison between the two selected groups showed that S oysters invested more energy in reproduction and stayed a longer time without spawning than R oysters which had high synchronous spawning. This was mainly shown with high rather than low dietary rations (respectively 12% and 4% DW algae/DW oyster) in a controlled experiment. Moreover, early partial spawning was detected in S oysters and not R ones in the high dietary ration. S showed a higher respiration rate and an earlier decrease in absorption efficiency than R during gametogenesis, but they were not significantly different in glycogen or ATP utilisation. Two months before a mortality episode, hemocytes from S oysters had a higher adhesive capacity than R hemocytes and significantly higher reactive oxygen species production capacity. One month before mortality, S oysters had the highest hyalinocyte concentration and their expression of genes coding for glucose metabolism enzymes (Hexokinase, GS, PGM, PEPCK) was significantly lower in the labial palps. After a thermal increase from 13 °C to 19 °C, during 8 days in normoxia, S oysters showed a large HSP70 increase under hypoxia contrary to R oysters, suggesting their high susceptibility to stress. Their catalase activity was lower than in R oysters and showed no further change to subsequent hypoxia and pesticide stresses, in contrast to R oysters. These observations suggest possible links between higher reproductive effort in S oysters, their specific stress response to temperature and hypoxia, ROS production, partial spawning, hyalinocyte increase and the infection process. To compare R and S oysters in a more integrated way, a suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) library and a micro-array strategy are being undertaken.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the influence of air exposure at different temperatures: a common perturbation associated with aquaculture handling practices, on immune responses in zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri. Scallops were exposed to air for 2 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h at 5 °C, 17 °C and 25 °C respectively. Thereafter, a recovery period of 24 h at 17 °C was applied. Haemocyte mortality, phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of haemocytes, acid phosphatase (ACP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in haemocyte lysates were chosen as immunomarkers of anoxic stress. The results showed that an increase of haemocyte mortality and a decrease of phagocytosis and ACP activity were observed after 2 h of air exposure for all temperatures tested. Moreover, a significant increase of ROS production occurred following 2 h of air exposure at 25 °C and 24 h of air exposure at 17 °C. Significant differences were also observed in haemocyte mortality, percentage of phagocytic cells and ACP and SOD activity depending on the temperature of air exposure. Finally, after 24 h of recovery at 17 °C, percentage of phagocytic haemocytes and ACP activity did not return to initial values. ROS production was significantly higher than before the recovery period and initial values for scallops subjected to air exposure at 5 °C. In our study, scallops showed a relative low anoxia tolerance under a high temperature. All the scallops air exposed to 25 °C died after the 6 h sampling. In conclusion, air exposure associated to aquaculture practices was demonstrated to strongly affect functional immune activities of scallop haemocytes, and high temperature air exposure caused reduced survival of scallops.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) on hemocyte parameters such as hemocyte concentration, phagocytosis, and non-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, as well on proximate biochemical and fatty acid compositions. One-year-old oysters (C. gigas) were fed T-Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-Iso), which is low in 20:5n-3, either alone or with supplements of a lipid emulsion rich in 20:5n-3 at 1%, 10% or 50% (dry weight of the algal ration) for up to 7 weeks. Changes in gill fatty acid composition demonstrated that the lipid emulsion was well ingested by oysters during the dietary conditioning. Biochemical analysis indicated that oysters fed supplements of 50% and, to a lesser extent, 10% lipid emulsions had a higher total lipid content compared with oysters fed other diets, suggesting a more advanced reproductive status for the oysters fed high doses of lipid emulsion. Moreover, some oysters in these two treatment groups spawned during the last three weeks of the seven-week feeding experiment. Lipid supplements had a significant influence on hemocyte concentration, phagocytic index and non-stimulated hemocyte ROS production. After 4 weeks, highest hemocyte concentrations were found in oysters fed on a supplement of 50% lipid emulsion compared with those fed on other diets but the hemocytes derived from these oysters had the lowest short-term phagocytic index. After 7 weeks of dietary conditioning, the ROS production in non-stimulated hemocytes of oysters fed 10% and 50% lipid emulsion declined. These results suggested that 20:5n-3, and perhaps its eicosanoid metabolites, affected oyster hemocyte functions; however, the reproductive status of oysters may also have interfered with the 20:5n-3 dietary effect.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ArA) and its eicosanoid metabolites have been demonstrated to be implicated in immune functions of vertebrates, fish, and insects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of ArA supplementation on the FA composition and hemocyte parameters of oysters Crassostrea gigas. Oyster dietary conditioning consisted of direct addition of ArA solutions at a dose of 0, 0.25, or 0.41 microg ArA per mL of seawater into tanks in the presence or absence of T-Iso algae. Results showed significant incorporation of ArA into gill polar lipids when administered with algae (up to 19.7%) or without algae (up to 12.1%). ArA supplementation led to an increase in hemocyte numbers, phagocytosis, and production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes from ArA-supplemented oysters. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Vibrio aestuarianus extracellular products on the adhesive proprieties of hemocytes was lessened in oysters fed ArA-supplemented T-Iso. All changes in oyster hemocyte parameters reported in the present study suggest that ArA and/or eicosanoid metabolites affect oyster hemocyte functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (20∶4n−6, ArA) and its eicosanoid metabolites have been demonstrated to be implicated in immune functions
of vertebrates, fish, and insects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of ArA supplementation on the FA composition
and hemocyte parameters of oysters Crassostrea gigas. Oyster dietary conditioning consisted of direct addition of ArA solutions at a dose of 0, 0.25, or 0.41 μg ArA per mL of
seawater into tanks in the presence or absence of T-Iso algae. Results showed significant incorporation of ArA into gill polar lipids when administered with algae (up to 19.7%)
or without algae (up to 12.1%). ArA supplementation led to an increase in hemocyte numbers, phagocytosis, and production of
reactive oxygen species by hemocytes from ArA-supplemented oysters. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Vibrio aestuarianus extracellular products on the adhesive proprieties of hemocytes was lessened in oysters fed ArA-supplemented T-Iso. All changes in oyster hemocyte parameters reported in the present study suggest that ArA and/or eicosanoid metabolites affect
oyster hemocyte functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the effect of food quantity on energy storage and defense capacities of oysters during a reproductive cycle. One-year-old Crassostrea gigas oysters were fed two different dietary rations (4% and 12% of oyster dry weight in algal dry weight per day) in controlled experimental conditions over an annual cycle. Oyster dry weights, carbohydrate and lipid contents, energetic adenylate charge, and hemocyte parameters of oysters were significantly affected by reproductive processes related to seasonal temperature variation and, to a lesser extent, by the dietary rations. Energy parameters decreased during gametogenesis as gonads developed then increased during the gonad resorption phase. The additional energy provided to oysters fed the 12% diet compared to oysters fed the 4% diet was allocated mainly to the development of more gonad tissue. Regardless of diet, hemocyte concentrations were also seasonally affected. Hemocyte concentrations were low during gametogenesis and significantly increased during the gonadal resorption and tissue restoration phase. Phagocytic activity and adhesive capacity of hemocytes were temporarily inhibited during gametogenesis and were at their lowest levels in June. Oysters fed the 12% diet had significantly higher hemocyte concentrations and lower phagocytosis activity and reactive oxygen species production compared to those fed the 4% diet.