[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transgenic mouse lines expressing a soluble form of human nectin-2 (hNectin-2Ig Tg) exhibited distinctive elevation of amylase and lipase levels in the sera. In this study, we aimed to clarify the histopathology and to propose the transgenic mouse lines as new animal model for characteristic pancreatic exocrine defects. The significant increase of amylase and lipase levels in sera of the transgenic lines approximately peaked at 8 weeks old and thereafter, plateaued or gradually decreased. The histopathology in transgenic acinar cells was characterized by intracytoplasmic accumulation of abnormal proteins with decrease of normal zymogen granules. The hNectin-2Ig expression was observed in the cytoplasm of pancreatic acinar cells, which was consistent with zymogen granules. However, signals of hNectin-2Ig were very weak in the transgenic acinar cells with the abnormal cytoplasmic accumulaion. The PCNA-positive cells increased in the transgenic pancreas, which suggested the affected acinar cells were regenerated. Acinar cells of hNectin-2Ig Tg had markedly small number of zymogen granules with remarkable dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen containing abundant abnormal proteins. In conclusion, hNectin-2Ig Tg is proposed as a new animal model for characteristic pancreatic exocrine defects, which are due to the ER stress induced by expression of mutated cell adhesion molecule that is a soluble form of human nectin-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have spread throughout many areas of Asia, Europe and Africa, and numerous cases of HPAI outbreaks in domestic and wild birds have been reported. Although recent studies suggest that the dissemination of H5N1 viruses is closely linked to the migration of wild birds, information on the potential for viral infection in species other than poultry and waterfowl is relatively limited. To investigate the susceptibility of terrestrial wild birds to infection with H5N1 HPAI viruses, common reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), pale thrushes (Turdus pallidus) and brown-eared bulbuls (Hypsipetes amaurotis) were infected with A/mountain hawk-eagle/Kumamoto/1/07(H5N1) and A/whooper swan/Aomori/1/08(H5N1). The results showed that common reed buntings and brown-eared bulbuls were severely affected by both virus strains (100% mortality). While pale thrushes did not exhibit any clinical signs, seroconversion was confirmed. In common reed buntings, intraspecies-transmission of A/whooper swan/Aomori/1/08 to contact birds was also confirmed. The findings show that three passerine species; common reed buntings, brown-eared bulbuls and pale thrushes are susceptible to infection by H5N1 HPAI viruses, which emphasizes that continued surveillance of species other than waterfowl is crucial for effective monitoring of H5N1 HPAI virus outbreaks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is dependent on multiple factors, but the sequence at the HA cleavage site plays the most important role. To better understand the mechanism of virulence of HPAI virus, an avirulent H5 avian influenza virus, A/teal/Tottori/150/02 (H5N3, teal/150), was passaged in respiratory organs of chickens to generate a virus with a highly pathogenic phenotype. After 12 consecutive passages, the virus (strain 12a) became highly pathogenic, with a 100 % mortality rate in chickens. Sequence analysis of the highly pathogenic variant revealed an amino acid change from aspartic acid (Asp) to asparagine (Asn) at position 44 of matrix protein 2 (M2). To investigate the role of M2 in the pathogenicity of HPAI virus, we generated reassortant viruses possessing a polybasic HA cleavage site and either Asp or Asn at position 44 of M2 using the highly pathogenic strain 12a and the avirulent strain 7a, which has Asp at position 44 of M2 derived from isolate teal/150, and we compared their pathogenicity in chickens. Experimental infections demonstrated that the pathogenicity of viruses possessing Asp in M2 was dramatically decreased, and the mortality rate of inoculated chickens was 0 %, in contrast to viruses with Asn, which showed 70 to 100 % mortality. Our findings indicate that M2 protein of the avirulent H5 avian influenza virus is important for acquiring high virulence and that Asn at position 44 of M2, in addition to the polybasic HA cleavage site, is crucial for high pathogenicity in chickens.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Kynurenine (L-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway (KP). The systemic administration of L-KYN sulfate (L-KYNs) leads to a rapid elevation of the neuroactive KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). An elevated level of KYNA may have multiple effects on the synaptic transmission, resulting in complex behavioral changes, such as hypoactivity or spatial working memory deficits. These results emerged from studies that focused on rats, after low-dose L-KYNs treatment. However, in several studies neuroprotection was achieved through the administration of high-dose L-KYNs. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the systemic administration of a high dose of L-KYNs (300 mg/bwkg; i.p.) would produce alterations in behavioral tasks (open field or object recognition) in C57Bl/6j mice. To evaluate the changes in neuronal activity after L-KYNs treatment, in a separate group of animals we estimated c-Fos expression levels in the corresponding subcortical brain areas. The L-KYNs treatment did not affect the general ambulatory activity of C57Bl/6j mice, whereas it altered their moving patterns, elevating the movement velocity and resting time. Additionally, it seemed to increase anxiety-like behavior, as peripheral zone preference of the open field arena emerged and the rearing activity was attenuated. The treatment also completely abolished the formation of object recognition memory and resulted in decreases in the number of c-Fos-immunopositive-cells in the dorsal part of the striatum and in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. We conclude that a single exposure to L-KYNs leads to behavioral disturbances, which might be related to the altered basal c-Fos protein expression in C57Bl/6j mice.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a consequence of an ischaemic episode, the energy production is disturbed, leading to neuronal cell death. Despite intensive research, the quest for promising neuroprotective drugs has largely failed, not only because of ineffectiveness, but also because of serious side-effects and dosing difficulties. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an essential nutrient which plays a key role in the energy metabolism by transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria for β-oxidation. It is an endogenous compound and can be used at high dose without toxicity in research into ischaemia. Its neuroprotective properties have been reported in many studies, but its potential action on long-term potentiation (LTP) and dendritic spine density has not been described to date. The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the possible protective effect of ALC after the ischaemic insult inflicted on the hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model in rat. For electrophysiological measurements, LTP was tested on hippocampal slices. The Golgi-Cox staining technique was used to determine the spine density. 2VO resulted in a decreased, unstable LTP and a significant loss of dendritic spines. ALC administered after 2VO was not protective, but as pretreatment prior to 2VO it restored the LTP nearly to the control level. This finding paralleled the histological analysis: ALC pretreatment resulted in the reappearance of dendritic spines on the CA1 pyramidal cells. Our data demonstrate that ALC administration can restore the hippocampal function and the spine density. ALC probably acts by enhancing the aerobic metabolic pathway, which is inhibited during and following the ischaemic attack.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a consequence of an ischemic episode, energy production is disturbed, leading to neuronal cell death. Despite intensive research, the quest for promising neuroprotective drugs has largely failed, not only because of ineffectiveness, but also because of serious side-effects and dosing difficulties. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is an essential nutrient which plays a key role in energy metabolism by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria for β-oxidation. It is an endogenous compound and can be used at high dose without toxicity in research into ischemia. Its neuroprotective properties have been reported in many studies, but its potential action on long-term potentiation (LTP) and dendritic spine density has not been described to date. The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the possible protective effect of ALC after ischemic insults inflicted on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model in rats. For electrophysiological measurements, LTP was tested on hippocampal slices. The Golgi-Cox staining technique was used to determine spine density. 2VO resulted in a decreased, unstable LTP and a significant loss of dendritic spines. ALC administered after 2VO was not protective, but as pretreatment prior to 2VO it restored LTP nearly to the control level. This finding paralleled the histological analysis: ALC pretreatment resulted in the reappearance of dendritic spines on the CA1 pyramidal cells. Our data demonstrate that ALC administration can restore hippocampal function and spine density. ALC probably acts by enhancing the aerobic metabolic pathway, which is inhibited during and following ischemic attacks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factors of alphaherpesviruses not only control the expression of their own viral genes, but also influence the gene expression of mammalian cells. In the course of breeding of the transgenic mouse line (TgIE96) expressing the immediate-early protein IE180 of pseudorabies virus belonging to the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, we found that TgIE96 male mice suffered from severe breeding difficulties. Testes of TgIE96 were smaller than that of non-transgenic littermates and abnormal spermatogenesis such as morphological, numerical and functional anomalies of spermatozoa were found in the transgenic mouse line. Expression of IE180 was detected in the germ cells at all stages, especially spermatocytes, and fewer Sertoli cells. In addition, expression of IE180 was also detected in the germinal cells of C57BL/6 mice inoculated with PRV into their testes. These results suggest that IE180 of PRV induces male infertility by abnormal spermatogenesis, which effect morphological, numerical, and functional anomalies of spermatozoa, in transgenic mice.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polymerase basic 2 (PB2) protein is one of four proteins that make up the influenza A virus replication complex, which is responsible for viral gene transcription and replication. To assess the antiviral potential of an anti-PB2 monoclonal antibody that inhibits RNA transcription of influenza A viruses, Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were transformed with two transgenes that encode the light and heavy chains of the monoclonal antibody. The transformed cell lines expressing this monoclonal antibody displayed resistance to several subtypes of influenza A virus infection. In the transformed cell lines infected with influenza A virus, the level of viral RNA transcription was decreased and the effective nuclear transportation of the PB2 protein was also inhibited. These results demonstrate that the anti-PB2 intrabody is potentially able to interfere with the effective nuclear transportation of PB2 protein, resulting in the observed resistance to influenza A virus infection in vitro.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The Veterinary Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to concerns that wild birds could possibly spread H5N1 viruses, surveillance was conducted to monitor the types of avian influenza viruses circulating among the wild birds migrating to or inhabiting in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. An H5N2 virus isolated from a Eurasian woodcock had a close phylogenetic relationship to H5 viruses recently isolated in South Korea and Japan, suggesting that H5N2 has been shared between Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. An H9N2 virus isolated from a Chinese Hwamei was closely related to two H9N2 viruses that were isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 2009, suggesting that an H9N2 strain relevant to the human isolates had been transmitted to and maintained among the wild bird population in Vietnam and South China. The results support the idea that wild bird species play a significant role in the spread and maintenance of avian influenza and that this also occurs in Vietnam.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 were reported from 2003 to 2005 among poultry in Vietnam. More than 200 million birds were killed to control the spread of the disease. Human cases of H5N1 infection have been sporadically reported in an area where repeated H5N1 outbreaks among birds had occurred. Subtype H5N1 strains are established as endemic among poultry in Vietnam, however, insights into how avian influenza viruses including the H5N1 subtype are maintained in endemic areas is not clear. In order to determine the prevalence of different avian influenza viruses (AIVs), including H5N1 circulating among poultry in northern Vietnam, surveillance was conducted during the years 2006-2009. A subtype H5N1 strain was isolated from an apparently healthy duck reared on a farm in northern Vietnam in 2008 and was identified as an HPAI. Although only one H5N1 virus was isolated, it supports the view that healthy domestic ducks play a pivotal role in maintaining and transmitting H5N1 viruses which cause disease outbreaks in northern Vietnam. In addition, a total of 26 AIVs with low pathogenicity were isolated from poultry and phylogenetic analysis of all the eight gene segments revealed their diverse genetical backgrounds, implying that reassortments have occurred frequently among strains in northern Vietnam. It is, therefore, important to monitor the prevalence of influenza viruses among healthy poultry between epidemics in an area where AIVs are endemic.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Preventive Veterinary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the genetic characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses isolated from domestic ducks in northern Vietnam in 2009. In total, 22 influenza A viruses consisting of 21 H6N1 subtypes and one H9N2 subtype were isolated from 1488 ducks collected in February, March, and April 2009, accounting the overall virus isolation rate for 1.5%. No H5N1 strain was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the eight genes of the H6N1 and H9N2 subtypes analyzed in this study were similar to those isolated in Korea, southeast China and northern Japan, and wild birds which migrate along the coastal East Asian Flyway are estimated to transmit these viruses. There was no evidence that the H6N1 and H9N2 subtypes share the gene segments with H5N1 subtypes. However, it is important to monitor the prevalence and genetical backgrounds of LPAI viruses among poultry in an area where several different influenza A subtypes are in circulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the viral factors of host adaptation from domestic poultry to humans have been studied several times since the first cases of direct transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from domestic poultry to humans were confirmed in 1997, the host-specific adaptation mechanisms from waterfowl to domestic poultry remain unknown. To study the mechanisms involved, a waterfowl-derived virus was passaged in a chicken fibroblast cell line. This passaged virus was found to have much higher growth titer than that of the original virus and several mutations were discovered in its genome. One of the most characteristics was an increase of the polymorphism of the internal genes. In addition, the general applicability of this property to the field isolates of influenza A viruses by database sequences analysis was confirmed, with the smallest amount of amino acid polymorphism in viral internal proteins observed in waterfowl-derived viruses, more in domestic poultry and the most in human-derived viruses. Although specific amino acid changes conserved in human-derived viruses were found, such amino acid changes were not observed in poultry-derived viruses.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · The Kobe journal of medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sero-epidemiological survey of human and equine H3 influenza A virus infections in dogs and cats using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) tests was conducted. Serum samples were collected from 582 dogs and 237 cats in Japan during the periods 2002-2008 and 1997-2008, respectively. Although no HI antibodies against equine H3 virus were detected, 9 (3.8%) from cats and 12 (2.1%) from dogs were HI-positive against human H3 virus. Only one serum each from dogs and cats was NI-positive against N2 virus. These findings suggest that although equine H3 influenza virus infections have not been prevalent in companion animals, human H3N2 influenza A virus infections have occurred in dogs and cats in recent years in Japan.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cerebellum in transgenic mice expressing pseudorabies virus immediate-early protein IE180 (TgIE96) was substantially diminished in size, and its histoarchitecture was severely disorganized, resulting in severe ataxia. TgIE96 mice can therefore be used as an experimental model to study the involvement of cerebellar circuits in different learning tasks. The performance of three-month-old TgIE96 mice was studied in various behavioral tests, including associative learning (classical eyeblink conditioning), object recognition, spatial orientation (water maze), startle response and prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance, and compared with that of wild-type mice. Wild-type and TgIE96 mice presented similar reflexively evoked eyeblinks, and acquired classical conditioned eyelid responses with similar learning curves for both trace and delay conditioning paradigms. The two groups of mice also had similar performances during the object recognition test. However, they showed significant differences for the other three tests included in this study. Although both groups of animals were capable of swimming, TgIE96 mice failed to learn the water maze task during the allowed time. The startle response to a severe tone was similar in both control and TgIE96 mice, but the latter were unable to produce a significant prepulse inhibition. TgIE96 mice also presented evident deficits for the proper accomplishment of a passive avoidance test. These results suggest that the cerebellum is not indispensable for the performance of classical eyeblink conditioning and for object recognition tasks, but seems to be necessary for the proper performance of water maze, prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is an established gene amplification method for rapid diagnosis of various infectious diseases. In order to detect avian influenza viruses, particularly in field specimens, specific primers targeting the matrix gene were designed. Thirty-four virus samples, including isolates from wild and domestic avian hosts belonging to various geographical areas, were used to confirm the validity of the primers. All samples were confirmed to be positive in less than 1 hr. The RT-LAMP assay was also able to detect avian influenza virus in the various field samples, such as swabs, tissues, and feces. These results indicate that the developed RT-LAMP assay with uniquely designed primers is potentially useful in comprehensive avian influenza surveillance.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent epidemic caused by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has spread over many parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. Wild birds, particularly waterfowl, are considered to play a role in viral dissemination. However, detailed information on whether wild terrestrial birds act as carriers is currently unavailable. To investigate the susceptibility of terrestrial birds to HPAI viruses, two species of wild bird (great reed warbler and pale thrush) that are common in East Asia were infected with H5N1 HPAI virus. The results showed that both species were highly susceptible to the virus. The great reed warbler showed fatal infection with 100% mortality, but the pale thrush survived for longer periods (>8 days) with viral shedding. These findings suggest that there is variation in clinical outcome after infection of wild terrestrial birds, and that some bird species could become subclinical excretors of the H5N1 virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of influenza A subtype H5N1 viruses among domestic ducks in the period between October and November 2006 when H5N1 outbreaks had been absent, 1106 healthy ducks raised in northern Vietnam were collected. Inoculation of all throat and cloacae samples into embryonated eggs resulted in the isolation of subtype H3N8 in 13 ducks, but not H5N1 viruses. Serological analyses demonstrated that five ducks (0.45%) solely developed H5N1 subtype-specific hemagglutinin-inhibiting and neuraminidase-inhibiting antibodies together with anti-non-structural protein 1 antibodies. The results suggested that the ducks were naturally infected with H5N1 viruses when obvious H5N1 outbreaks were absent.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) enters cells either via fusion of the virion envelope and host cell plasma membrane or via
endocytosis, depending on the cell type. In the study reported here, we investigated a viral entry pathway dependent on the
paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor α (PILRα), a recently identified entry coreceptor for HSV-1 that associates with
viral envelope glycoprotein B (gB). Experiments using inhibitors of endocytic pathways and ultrastructural analyses of Chinese
hamster ovary (CHO) cells transduced with PILRα showed that HSV-1 entry into these cells was via virus-cell fusion at the
cell surface. Together with earlier observations that HSV-1 uptake into normal CHO cells and those transduced with a receptor
for HSV-1 envelope gD is mediated by endocytosis, these results indicated that expression of PILRα produced an alternative
HSV-1 entry pathway in CHO cells. We also showed that human and murine PILRα were able to mediate entry of pseudorabies virus,
a porcine alphaherpesvirus, but not of HSV-2. These results indicated that viral entry via PILRα appears to be conserved but
that there is a PILRα preference among alphaherpesviruses.
Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nectin-1 is a Ca2+-independent Ig-like cell-cell adhesion molecule and an alphaherpesvirus receptor that binds to virion glycoprotein D by the first Ig-like domain. We have investigated the antiviral potentials of soluble forms of porcine nectin-1 to PRV infection by generating transgenic mice expressing different types of fusion protein. Previously, we reported that mice transgenic for a chimera that carried the entire ectodomain of porcine nectin-1 fused to the Fc portion of porcine IgG1 were more resistant than those transgenic for a chimera that carried the first Ig-like domain fused to the Fc portion. Recently, we generated transgenic mice expressing a fusion protein made of the first Ig-like domain fused to the Fc portion of human IgG1, and reported that they showed a microphthalmia. Here, two transgenic mouse lines expressing the fusion protein were challenged with PRV for comparing their resistances with those of transgenic mice expressing different types of fusion protein. Surprisingly, both transgenic mouse lines showed a high resistance to the viral infection, especially via the i.n. route. Significant resistance of the embryonic fibroblasts was also observed. Altogether, these findings indicated that the fusion protein consisting of the first Ig-like domain fused to the human Fc portion provided a marked resistance against PRV infection to the transgenic mice.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Microbiology and Immunology