Hideo Ema

Keio University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (72)453.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The transplantation of blood tissues from bone marrow into a lethally irradiated animal is an experimental procedure that is used to study how the blood system is reconstituted by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In a competitive repopulation experiment, a lethally irradiated mouse was transplanted with a single HSC as a test cell together with a number of bone marrow cells as competitor cells, and the fraction of the test cell progeny (percentage of chimerism) was traced over time. In this paper, we studied the stem cell kinetics in this experimental procedure. The balance between symmetric self-renewal and differentiation divisions in HSC determined the number of cells which HSC produce and the length of time for which HSC live after transplantation. The percentage of chimerism depended on the type of test cell (long-, intermediate-, or short-term HSC), as well as the type and number of HSC included in competitor cells. We next examined two alternative HSC differentiation models, one-step and multi-step differentiation models. Although these models differed in blood cell production, the percentage of chimerism appeared very similar. We also estimated the numbers of different types of HSC in competitor cells. Based on these results, we concluded that the experimental results inevitably include stochasticity with regard to the number and the type of HSC in competitor cells, and that, in order to detect different types of HSC, an appropriate number of competitor cells needs to be used in transplantation experiments.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Theoretical Biology
  • Zhao Wang · Hideo Ema
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    ABSTRACT: A large number of studies have shown that quiescence is essential for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to maintain their number and function. Otherwise, HSCs are exhausted or damaged by various substances. We need to understand how the quiescent state is maintained in HSCs, how HSCs are driven into the cell cycle, and how HSCs return to the quiescent state. We also need to understand how cycling HSCs make the decision whether to self-renew. A number of molecules have been reported as candidate regulators of these events in HSCs. In this review, we focus on the HSC niche, the cytokine network, and associated transcription factors; and then discuss to what extent we can currently understand these critical issues in stem cell biology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Hematology
  • Hideo Ema · Aled O'Neill · Toshio Suda

    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Experimental Hematology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Experimental Hematology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014
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    Dataset: Document1-1

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014
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    Dataset: TableS1

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014
  • Hideo Ema · Yohei Morita · Toshio Suda
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a more heterogeneous population than previously thought. Extensive analysis of reconstitution kinetics after transplantation now permits new classifications of HSCs based on lineage balance. Previously unrecognized classes of HSCs, such as myeloid- and lymphoid-biased HSCs, have emerged. However, varying nomenclature has been used to describe these cells, promoting confusion in the field. To establish a common nomenclature, we propose a re-classification of short-, intermediate-, and long-term (ST, IT, and LT) HSCs defined as: ST <6 months, IT >6 months, and LT >12. We observe that myeloid-biased HSCs or α cells overlap with LT-HSCs, whereas lymphoid-biased HSCs or γ/δ cells overlap with ST-HSCs, suggesting that HSC lifespan is linked to cell differentiation. We also suggest that HSC heterogeneity prompts reconsideration of long-term (>4 months) multilineage reconstitution as the gold standard for HSC detection. In this review, we discuss relationships among ST-, IT-, and LT-HSCs relevant to stem cell heterogeneity, hierarchical organization, and differentiation pathways.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Experimental hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Consensus holds that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to multipotent progenitors (MPPs) of reduced self-renewal potential and that MPPs eventually produce lineage-committed progenitor cells in a stepwise manner. Using a single-cell transplantation system and marker mice, we unexpectedly found myeloid-restricted progenitors with long-term repopulating activity (MyRPs), which are lineage-committed to megakaryocytes, megakaryocyte-erythroid cells, or common myeloid cells (MkRPs, MERPs, or CMRPs, respectively) in the phenotypically defined HSC compartment together with HSCs. Paired daughter cell assays combined with transplantation revealed that HSCs can give rise to HSCs via symmetric division or directly differentiate into MyRPs via asymmetric division (yielding HSC-MkRP or HSC-CMRP pairs). These myeloid bypass pathways could be essential for fast responses to ablation stress. Our results show that loss of self-renewal and stepwise progression through specific differentiation stages are not essential for lineage commitment of HSCs and suggest a revised model of hematopoietic differentiation.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cell

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Experimental Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescent-protein transgenic mice are useful for obtaining marked somatic cells to study kinetics of development or differentiation. Fluorescence-marked hematopoietic stem cells in particular are commonly used for studying hematopoiesis. However, as far as we know, no transgenic mouse line is described in which a fluorescent protein is stably and constitutively expressed in all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes and platelets. Using the random segregation of provirus (RSP) method, we generated from retrovirally transduced mouse embryonic stem cells a transgenic mouse line expressing a red/orange fluorescent protein, Kusabira Orange (KuO). KuO transgenic mouse line cells carry only one proviral integration site and stably express KuO in all hematopoietic-lineage elements, including erythrocytes and platelets. Moreover, bone-marrow transplantation in KuO transgenic mice demonstrated normal hematopoieisis. KuO transgenic mice likely will prove useful for study of hematopoiesis that includes erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis.
    Preview · Article · May 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    Hideo Ema · Toshio Suda
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    ABSTRACT: The niche microenvironment controls stem cell number, fate, and behavior. The bone marrow, intestine, and skin are organs with highly regenerative potential, and all produce a large number of mature cells daily. Here, focusing on adult stem cells in these organs, we compare the structures and cellular components of their niches and the factors they produce. We then define the niche as a functional unit for stem cell regulation. For example, the niche possibly maintains quiescence and regulates fate in stem cells. Moreover, we discuss our hypothesis that many stem cell types are regulated by both specialized and nonspecialized niches, although hematopoietic stem cells, as an exception, are regulated by a nonspecialized niche only. The specialized niche is composed of 1 or a few types of cells lying on the basement membrane in the epithelium. The nonspecialized niche is composed of various types of cells widely distributed in mesenchymal tissues. We propose that the specialized niche plays a role in local regulation of stem cells, whereas the nonspecialized niche plays a role in relatively broad regional or systemic regulation. Further work will verify this dual-niche model to understand mechanisms underlying stem cell regulation.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside and self-renew in the bone marrow (BM) niche. Overall, the signaling that regulates stem cell dormancy in the HSC niche remains controversial. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β type II receptor-deficient HSCs show low-level Smad activation and impaired long-term repopulating activity, underlining the critical role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in HSC maintenance. TGF-β is produced as a latent form by a variety of cells so we searched for those that express activator molecules for latent TGF-β. Non-myelinating Schwann cells in BM proved responsible for activation. These glial cells ensheathed autonomic nerves, expressed HSC niche-factor genes, and were in contact with a substantial proportion of HSCs. Autonomic-nerve denervation reduced the numbers of these active TGF-β producing cells and led to rapid loss of HSCs from BM. We propose that glial cells are components of a bone marrow niche and maintain HSC hibernation by regulating activation of latent TGF-β.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained at a very low frequency in adult bone marrow under steady-state conditions. However, it is not fully understood how homeostasis of bone marrow HSCs is maintained. We attempted to identify a key molecule involved in the regulation of HSC numbers, a factor that, in the absence of Lnk, leads to HSC expansion. Here, we demonstrate that upon stimulation with thrombopoietin, expression of Bcl-xL, an antiapoptotic protein, was highly enhanced in Lnk-deficient HSCs compared to normal HSCs. As a result, Lnk-deficient HSCs underwent reduced apoptosis following exposure to lethal radiation. Downregulation of Bcl-xL expression in Lnk-deficient HSCs by short-hairpin RNA resulted in a great reduction of their capacity for reconstitution. These findings suggest that Lnk/Sh2b3 constrains the expression of Bcl-xL and that the loss of Lnk/Sh2b3 function enhances survival of HSCs by inhibiting apoptosis. Furthermore, our observations indicate that HSCs in patients with an Lnk/Sh2b3 mutation might become resistant to apoptosis due to thrombopoietin-mediated enhanced expression of Bcl-xL. Consequently, reduced apoptosis could facilitate accumulation of HSCs with oncogenic mutations leading to development of myeloproliferative disorders.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Experimental hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in both bone marrow (BM) and spleen in adult mice. However, whether BM and spleen HSCs are functionally similar is not known. Spleen HSCs were compared with BM HSCs by various assays. Whole BM and spleen cells were quantitatively analyzed by competitive repopulation. Single-cell transplantation was performed with HSCs purified from BM and spleen. A parabiosis model was used to distinguish organ-specific HSCs from circulating HSCs. The cell cycle was analyzed with pyronin Y staining and bromodeoxyuridine uptake. Repopulating and self-renewal potentials were similar on a clonal basis between BM and spleen HSCs, whereas the HSC frequency in the spleen was significantly lower than that in the BM. Analysis of parabiotic mice suggested that most HSCs are long-term residents in each organ. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that spleen HSCs cycle twice as frequently as do BM HSCs, suggesting that G(0) phase length is longer in BM HSCs than in spleen HSCs. The cycling difference between BM and spleen HSCs was also observed in mice that had been reconstituted with BM or spleen cells, suggesting that HSC quiescence is regulated in an organ-specific manner. Spleen HSCs and BM HSCs are functionally similar, but their cycling behaviors differ.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Experimental hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS), a rare hematological malignancy, is an aggressive neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy, and there remains a need for more, and more realistic, animal models. HS cells typically show a histiocytic (ie, tissue macrophage-like) morphology and express histiocyte/macrophage markers in the absence of lymphocyte markers. In this study, we report that Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice develop HS, but do not exhibit elevated incidence of other types of tumors. These mutant mice showed earlier mortality than wild-type (WT) or the other mutant mice, and this mortality was associated with HS. In total, 17 of 21 tumor-bearing Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice necropsied at 25-66 weeks of age showed multiple organ spread, with osteolytic lesions and orthotopic invasion from the bone marrow to skeletal muscle. Tumors from the mice were transplantable. In addition, all Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice, but only a small proportion of Dok-3(-/-) mice and no Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-) mice, exhibited abnormal accumulation of macrophages in the lung on necropsy at 8-12 weeks of age. Macrophages derived from Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice displayed an exaggerated proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) compared with WT and mutant controls. Together, these findings indicate that Dok-1, Dok-2, and Dok-3 cooperatively suppress aggressive HS, and commend Dok-1(-/-)Dok-2(-/-)Dok-3(-/-) mice as a useful model for the study of this neoplasia.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Laboratory Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been extensively characterized based on functional definitions determined by experimental transplantation into lethally irradiated mice. In mice, HSCs are heterogeneous with regard to self-renewal potential, in vitro colony-forming activity, and in vivo behavior. We attempted prospective isolation of HSC subsets with distinct properties among CD34(-/low) c-Kit+Sca-1+Lin- (CD34-KSL) cells. CD34-KSL cells were divided, based on CD150 expression, into three fractions: CD150high, CD150med, and CD150neg cells. Compared with the other two fractions, CD150high cells were significantly enriched in HSCs, with great self-renewal potential. In vitro colony assays revealed that decreased expression of CD150 was associated with reduced erythroblast/megakaryocyte differentiation potential. All three fractions were regenerated only from CD150high cells in recipient mice. Using single-cell transplantation studies, we found that a fraction of CD150high cells displayed latent and barely detectable myeloid engraftment in primary-recipient mice but progressive and multilineage reconstitution in secondary-recipient mice. These findings highlight the complexity and hierarchy of reconstitution capability, even among HSCs in the most primitive compartment.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
  • Y. Morita · H. Ema · H. Nakauchi

    No preview · Article · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generally uses fibroblastic cells, but other cell sources may prove useful in both research and clinical settings. Although proof of cellular origin requires genetic-marker identification in both target cells and established iPSCs, somatic cells other than mature lymphocytes mostly lack such markers. Here we show definitive proof of direct reprogramming of murine hematopoietic cells with no rearranged genes. Using iPSC factor transduction, we successfully derived iPSCs from bone marrow progenitor cells obtained from a mouse whose hematopoiesis was reconstituted from a single congenic hematopoietic stem cell. Established clones were demonstrated to be genetically identical to the transplanted single hematopoietic stem cell, thus proving their cellular origin. These hematopoietic cell-derived iPSCs showed typical characteristics of iPSCs, including the ability to contribute to chimerism in mice. These results will prompt further use of hematopoietic cells for iPSC generation while enabling definitive studies to test how cellular sources influence characteristics of descendant iPSCs.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: The Rho GTPase family members play essential roles in hematopoiesis. Of these, Rac1 is thought to be required for the appropriate spatial localization of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs) within the bone marrow (BM), whereas Rac2 likely plays a role in BM retention of HSPCs. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying Rac-mediated functions in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we studied Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous proteins (WAVEs), the specific effectors downstream of the Rac GTPases in actin polymerization. We here showed that CD34(-/low)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)lineage(-) HSCs (CD34(-)KSL HSCs) express WAVE2 but neither WAVE1 nor WAVE3. Because WAVE2 knockout mice are embryonic-lethal, we utilized HSCs in which the expression of WAVE2 was reduced by small interfering RNA. We found that knockdown (KD) of WAVE2 in HSCs affected neither in vitro colony formation nor cell proliferation but did impair in vivo long-term reconstitution. Interestingly, WAVE2 KD HSCs exhibited unaltered homing but showed poor BM repopulation detected as early as day 5 after transplantation. The mechanistic studies on WAVE2 KD HSCs revealed modest but significant impairment in both cobblestone-like area-forming on stromal layers and actin polymerization upon integrin ligation by fibronectin. These results suggested that WAVE2-mediated actin polymerization, potentially downstream of Rac1, plays an important role in intramarrow mobilization and proliferation of HSCs, which are believed to be crucial steps for long-term marrow reconstitution after transplantation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Stem Cells

Publication Stats

3k Citations
453.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2014
    • Keio University
      • School of Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2003-2011
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute of Medical Science
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999-2003
    • University of Tsukuba
      • • Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
      • • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1998
    • Institut Pasteur
      • Department of Immunology
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1997
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992
    • Jichi Medical University
      • Division of Hematology
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, Washington, United States