[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries are the pathological basis for myocardial infarction and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Progression of heart failure after myocardial infarction is associated with cardiac remodeling, which has been studied by means of coronary ligation in mice. However, this ligation model requires excellent techniques. Recently, a new murine model, HypoE mouse was reported to exhibit atherogenic Paigen diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction; however, the HypoE mice died too early to make possible investigation of cardiac remodeling. Therefore, we aimed to modify the HypoE mouse model to establish a novel model for ischemic cardiomyopathy caused by atherosclerotic lesions, which the ligation model does not exhibit.
In our study, the sustained Paigen diet for the HypoE mice was shortened to 7 or 10 days, allowing the mice to survive longer. The 7-day Paigen diet intervention starting when the mice were 8 weeks old was adequate to permit the mice to survive myocardial infarction. Our murine model, called the "modified HypoE mouse", was maintained until 8 weeks, with a median survival period of 36 days, after the dietary intervention (male, n = 222). Echocardiography demonstrated that the fractional shortening 2 weeks after the Paigen diet (n = 14) significantly decreased compared with that just before the Paigen diet (n = 6) (31.4±11.9% vs. 54.4±2.6%, respectively, P<0.01). Coronary angiography revealed multiple diffuse lesions. Cardiac remodeling and fibrosis were identified by serial analyses of cardiac morphological features and mRNA expression levels in tissue factors such as MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, collagen-1, and TGF-β.
Modified HypoE mice are a suitable model for ischemic cardiomyopathy with multiple diffuse lesions and may be considered as a novel and convenient model for investigations of cardiac remodeling on a highly atherogenic background.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progranulin (PGRN) is a multifunctional protein known to be involved in inflammation. However, the relation between PGRN and atherosclerosis remains elusive. The aim of this study was to define the role of PGRN in the development of atherosclerosis.Methods and ResultsFirst, we checked the expression levels of PGRN in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PGRN is strongly expressed in foam cells of atherosclerotic plaques. We also found that PGRN is expressed more abundantly in macrophages than in the smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Next, PGRN(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice were generated to investigate the effect of PGRN on the development of atherosclerosis. PGRN(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited severe atherosclerotic lesions compared to PGRN(+/+)ApoE(-/-) mice, despite their anti-atherogenic lipid profile. These results are partly due to enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, and decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In addition, lack of PGRN leads to accumulate excessive cholesterol in the macrophages and alter HDL-associated proteins.
PGRN seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, possibly by various anti-atherogenic effects, including modulation of local and/or systemic inflammation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Cardiovascular Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Remnant lipoproteins are atherogenic and are accumulated in patients with type III hyperlipidemia (HL). Although type III HL is diagnosed by phenotyping apolipoprotein (apo) E, this procedure is time-consuming and inconvenient for routine clinical use. Clinical indices for screening type III HL in untreated HL patients have been proposed; however, in clinical settings, HL patients are promptly treated with lipid-lowering agents without diagnosing the underlying cause. We investigated whether existing clinical indices for screening type III HL as well as the apo B-48/triglyceride (TG) ratio, which was suggested to be related to the accumulation of small chylomicron (CM) remnants, are useful after the initiation of lipid-lowering therapies.
In 25 normolipidemic subjects and 191 treated HL patients (type I, n =6; IIa, 62; IIb, 66; III, 12; IV, 22; and V, 23) from Osaka University Hospital and related hospitals, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG, and apolipoproteins were measured and clinical indices were evaluated statistically.
Apo B-48 levels were significantly higher in patients with type I, III, and V HL, and TG levels were significantly higher in patients with type I and V HL. The apo B-48/TG ratio was significantly higher only in patients with type III HL compared with other types of HL (p<0.001), and was statistically significant among the other clinical indices (AUC-ROC value, 0.895; cut-off value, 0.110).
The apo B-48/TG ratio is a novel and useful marker for detecting type III HL even after the initiation of lipid-lowering interventions.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High density lipoprotein (HDL) has multi-antiatherogenic effects such as antioxidation and anti-inflammation, in addition to being a key mediator of reverse cholesterol transport. Probucol, known as a lipid lowering drug, is also a potent antioxidant, but it decreases serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. To elucidate the effect of probucol on antioxidant properties of HDL, we investigated the function of HDL derived from patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) who have been treated with probucol.
Probucol-treated FH patients (n=21) showed a 47% reduction of serum HDL-C levels compared to probucol-untreated FH patients (n=15). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that probucol diminished HDL particle size compared to the non-treated group. Antioxidant capacity of HDL was evaluated by its effect to protect reference LDL from oxidation induced in the presence of an oxidizing agent, AAPH. The HDL derived from the probucol-treated group demonstrated a significantly prolonged time to start oxidation by 112%, decreased the maximum oxidation rate by 14%, and lowered the maximum concentration of conjugated dienes formation by 15%. Furthermore, HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, but not platelet-activating factor acetyl-hydrolase (PAF-AH) correlated with these measurements of HDL anti-oxidative activity. Treatment with probucol in vitro and inhibition of PON1 activity demonstrated that probucol in HDL particles and increase of PON1 activity might largely contribute to the increase of HDL anti-oxidative activity.
Probucol reduced HDL-C levels and HDL particle size in patients with heterozygous FH, while it concomitantly enhanced HDL anti-oxidative properties, possibly through increasing PON1 activity.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Adiponectin (APN) improves insulin resistance and prevents atherosclerosis, and HDL removes cholesterol from atherosclerotic lesions. We have demonstrated that serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and APN concentrations are positively correlated and that APN accelerates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) by increasing HDL synthesis in the liver and cholesterol efflux from macrophages. We previously reported that APN reduced apolipoprotein (apo) B secretion from the liver. It is well-known that insulin resistance influences the lipoprotein profile. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of APN levels and insulin resistance in lipoprotein metabolism.
We investigated the correlation between serum APN concentration, HOMA-R, the lipid concentrations and lipoprotein particle size by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 245 Japanese men during an annual health checkup.
Serum APN level was positively correlated with the cholesterol content in large LDL and HDL particles, but inversely correlated with the cholesterol content in large VLDL and small LDL particles. HOMA-R was negatively correlated with the cholesterol content in large LDL and HDL particles and positively correlated with the cholesterol content in large VLDL and small LDL particles. By multivariate analysis, APN was correlated with the particle size of LDL-C and HDL-C independently of age, BMI and HOMA-R.
APN may be associated with the formation of both HDL and LDL particles, reflecting the enhancement of RCT and the improvement in TG-rich lipoprotein metabolism and insulin resistance.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clustering of dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension increases the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events. A class B scavenger receptor, CD36, is a receptor for oxidized LDL and a transporter of long-chain fatty acids. Because of the impaired uptake of oxidized LDL in CD36-deficient macrophages and from the results of CD36 knockout mice, CD36 deficiency (CD36-D) was supposed to be associated with reduced risks for coronary artery disease (CAD); however, CD36-D patients are often accompanied by a clustering of coronary risk factors. The current study aimed to investigate the morbidity and severity of cardiovascular diseases in CD36-D patients.
By screening for CD36 antigen on platelets and monocytes using FACS or the absent myocardial accumulation of 123I-BMIPP by scintigraphy, 40 patients with type I CD36-D were collected, the morbidity of CAD and their features of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases were observed. Screening for CD36-D in both CAD patients (n = 319) and healthy subjects (n = 1,239) were underwent.
The morbidity of CAD was significantly higher in CD36-D patients than in the general population; 50% of patients (20 out of 40) had CAD identified by BMIPP scintigraphy and 37.5% (3 out of 8) by FACS screening, respectively. Three representative CD36-D cases demonstrated severe CAD and atherosclerosis. The frequency of CD36-D was three times higher in CAD patients than in healthy subjects (0.9% vs 0.3%, p < 0.0001).
The morbidity of CAD is significantly higher in CD36-D patients suffering from severe atherosclerosis, implying that the status of CD36-D might be atherogenic.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial hyperlipidemia (PH) is thought to be caused by the impaired postprandial metabolism of triglycerides (TG)-rich lipoproteins in both endogenous and exogenous pathways; however, there is no consensus. It is difficult to estimate the presence of PH without performing a time-consuming oral fat loading (OFL) test, so postprandial lipoprotein metabolism was analyzed by measuring the postprandial levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and apo B-100, and the correlation between postprandial TG increase and fasting apoB-48 levels was assessed to establish a good marker of PH without performing an OFL test.
Ten male normolipidemic subjects were loaded with a high-fat (HF, 1045 kcal) or standard (ST, 566 kcal) meal, and the lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein profiles were analyzed after each meal.
TG, apo B-48, remnant-like particles (RLP)-cholesterol and RLP-TG levels were increased and their levels were significantly higher after intake of the HF meal than the ST meal; however, there was no postprandial increase in apo B-100 and LDL-C levels. Postprandial increases in TG levels of CM, VLDL, LDL and HDL were significantly higher after intake of the HF meal than the ST meal. Fasting apo B-48 levels were strongly correlated with the incremental area under the curve of TG after intake of the HF meal, but not the ST meal.
Postprandial TG increase was mainly due to increased CM and CM-R, but not VLDL. Measurement of fasting serum apo B-48 may be a simple and useful method for assessment of the existence of PH.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48) is a constituent of chylomicron remnants synthesized in the small intestines. The serum concentration of apoB-48 at fasting has been reported to be a marker of postprandial hyperlipidemia, a presumed risk factor for atherosclerosis.
We evaluated the basal performance of a recently developed chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). We also examined the correlations between serum apoB-48 concentrations and other lipid concentrations or life style patterns, including smoking and drinking. We analyzed the data of 273 clinical samples by multiple regression analysis to examine the influence of other serum lipid values, age, sex, smoking, drinking status and BMI on serum apoB-48 values.
Within-run and between-run precision was obtained with 1.7-2.7% and 1.2-7.3%, respectively. The correlativity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was correlation coefficient r=0.953, and regression y=1.02×-1.59. Serum apoB-48 concentrations were higher in males than in females, and were correlated with the status of smoking as well as with remnant-like particle-cholesterol (RLP-C) concentrations. Patients with the metabolic syndrome showed higher values of serum apoB-48 compared with control subjects.
Serum apoB-48 measurement by CLEIA was satisfactory for clinical use to assess abnormalities in the chylomicron remnant metabolism.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial hyperlipidemia (PPHL) is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is based on the accumulation of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants containing apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48). Since atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are frequently observed even in subjects with normal serum triglyceride (TG) level, the correlation between fasting apoB-48 containing lipoproteins and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was analyzed in subjects with normal TG levels.
From subjects who took their annual health check at the Osaka Police Hospital (n=245, male), one-hundred and sixty-four male subjects were selected to take part in this study; the excluding factors were: systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, intake of antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic drugs, or age >65 years. The association between biochemical markers and IMT was analyzed and independent predictors of max-IMT were determined by multiple regression analysis in all subjects and in groups N-1 (TG<100mg/dl, n=58), N-2 (100 ≤ TG<150 mg/dl, n=53) and H (150 ≤ TG mg/dl, n=53), respectively.
Fasting total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, apoB-100 and lnRemL-C (remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol) levels were not correlated with max-IMT, but lnTG and lnapoB-48 were significantly correlated with max-IMT in all subjects. LnapoB-48 and apoB-48/TG ratio were significantly correlated with max-IMT in group N-2. By multiple regression analysis, age and lnapoB-48 were independent variables associated with max-IMT in group N-2.
Serum apoB-48 level might be a good marker for the detection of early atherosclerosis in middle-aged subjects with normal-range levels of blood pressure and TG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) has been shown repeatedly to be associated with metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We have recently reported that ezetimibe inhibits PHTG in patients with type IIb hyperlipidemia. Ezetimibe was also reported to atten-uate PHTG in combination with low-dose statins in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome. We reported CD36-deficient (CD36KO) mice as a new model for PHTG, in which the synthesis of chylomicron (CM) in the small intestines is enhanced. In the current study, we investigated the effect of ezetimibe on PHTG in this mouse model of metabolic syndrome.
Wild-type (WT) mice fed a western diet, and CD36KO mice fed a normal chow diet, respectively, were treated for 3 weeks with and without ezetimibe, followed by an evaluation of triglyceride (TG) concentrations by enzymatic method and by high performance liquid chromatogra-phy (HPLC) as well as those of and apolipoprotein (Apo) B-48 in plasma and intestinal lymph after oral fat loading with olive oil. Intestinal mucosa was also harvested to evaluate the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in the intestinal production of ApoB-containing lipoproteins.
Ezetimibe dramatically reduced PHTG in both WT and CD36KO mice. HPLC analysis of plasma showed that the decrease in TG content in CM and CM remnants-sized particles contributed to this suppression, suggesting that CM production in the small intestines might be reduced after ezetimibe treatment. Intestinal lymph was collected after oral fat loading in ezetimibe-treated and non-treated mice. Both TG content and ApoB-48 mass were decreased in ezetimibe-treated mice. The quantitative RT-PCR of intestinal mucosa showed down-regulation of the mRNA expression of FATP4 and ApoB in both groups along with FABP2, DGAT1, DGAT2 and SCD1 in WT mice at postprandial state after ezetimibe treatment.
Ezetimibe alone reduces PHTG by blocking both the absorption of cholesterol and the intracellular trafficking and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids in enterocytes, resulting in the reduction of the formation of ApoB-48 which is necessary for the ApoB48-containing lipoprotein production in the small intestines.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis