[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
X-linked dominant hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most prevalent form of inherited rickets/osteomalacia in humans. The aim of this study was to identify PHEX gene mutations and describe the clinical features observed in 6 unrelated Chinese families and 3 sporadic patients with hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia.
For this study, 45 individuals from 9 unrelated families of Chinese Han ethnicity (including 16 patients and 29 normal phenotype subjects), and 250 healthy donors were recruited. All 22 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the PHEX gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced.
The PHEX mutations were detected in 6 familial and 3 sporadic hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. Altogether, 2 novel mutations were detected: 1 missense mutation c.1183G>C in exon 11, resulting in p.Gly395Arg and 1 missense mutation c.1751A>C in exon 17, resulting in p.His584Pro. No mutations were found in the 250 healthy controls.
Our study increases knowledge of the PHEX gene mutation types and clinical phenotypes found in Chinese patients with XLH, which is important for understanding the genetic basis of XLH. The molecular diagnosis of a PHEX genetic mutation is of great importance for confirming the clinical diagnosis of XLH, conducting genetic counseling, and facilitating prenatal intervention, especially in the case of sporadic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to evaluate the association of serum sclerostin with bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal Chinese women and 2) to observe the relationships of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the sclerostin (SOST) gene with serum sclerostin, BMD, and markers of bone metabolism.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 703 postmenopausal Chinese women. Ten tagging SNPs (rs1234612, rs1513670, rs1634330, rs1708635, rs2023794, rs7220711, rs74252774, rs851057, rs851058, and rs865429) of the SOST gene were genotyped. Serum sclerostin and markers of bone metabolism were measured, including serum intact PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide, and β-CrossLaps of type I collagen containing cross-linked C-telopeptide (β-CTX). The BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Serum sclerostin was positively correlated with BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip and with serum 25(OH)D (all P < .01) but negatively correlated with β-CTX (P < .01). The significant relationships between serum sclerostin and BMD and with serum β-CTX persisted, even after adjustments for age, body mass index, and serum 25(OH)D (all P < .01). However, there was no correlation between serum sclerostin and age or serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide. We failed to identify a significant association between the SNP, haplotypes of SOST and BMD, or serum sclerostin.
Our results suggested that serum sclerostin was positively correlated with the BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip and with serum 25(OH)D but was negatively correlated with serum β-CTX. Genetic polymorphisms of SOST may not be a major contributor to variations in the serum sclerostin or BMD in postmenopausal Chinese women.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing protein-16 (PRDM16) is a cell-autonomous transcriptional component that stimulates the development of brown fat cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variants of PRDM16 to obesity-related phenotype variations in Chinese.
A total of 3204 subjects (consisting of 400 male-offspring nuclear families, 401 female-offspring nuclear families, and 729 unrelated older males) were recruited. Ten tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PRDM16 gene were genotyped using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR by Taqman assay. Body compositions were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The associations of the SNPs with the obesity-related phenotypes were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT), GLM-ANOVA and PLINK statistical methods.
Rs2236518 was the only SNP that was associated with BMI in young (aged 20–40 years) males (P=0.011) using QTDT, and in the older men (aged 50–80 years) (P=0.003) using GLM-ANOVA. No significant associations were detected in the females. Nor was a relationship found between any haplotype and obesity-related phenotypes. When PLINK was used, no significant relationship was detected between 10 SNPs and obesity-related phenotypes in any of the studied cohorts.
Rs2236518 is associated with BMI in the young males (using QTDT), and the older males (using GLM-ANOVA).However, the result is not confirmed using PLINK. The discrepancy needs to be further addressed.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Inclusion-body myopathy (IBM) with Paget's disease of bone (PDB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), designated as IBMPFD, is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder (MIM 605382). IBMPFD is caused by mutations in the gene that encode valosin-containing protein (VCP). We investigated a Chinese family in which multiple members were diagnosed with PDB and suffered from weakness of the limbs. However, no members of this family were diagnosed with FTD. We made a preliminary diagnosis of PDB, but failed to identify an SQSTM1 mutation in any of the patients. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify the pathogenic gene mutation affecting the Chinese male proband.
Materials and methods:
Altogether, 254 subjects, including one 56-year-old male proband, four affected, related individuals and additional nine family members from a non-consanguineous Chinese family, and 240 healthy donors were recruited and genomic DNA was extracted. All eight exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the SQSTM1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced in five patients (II13, II4, II5, II8, II9). Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel mutation in VCP as the disease-causing mutation. We confirmed the result by sequencing a 500-bp region of the promoter and the coding region of VCP in all 254 of the participants using Sanger sequencing.
No mutation in the SQSTM1 gene was identified in the five patients examined using direct Sanger sequencing. However, through whole-exome sequencing we were able to identify a novel missense mutation in exon 3 of the VCP gene (p.Gly97Glu) in the Chinese male proband. This mutation was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. The proband, four affected individuals and three unaffected individuals carried this mutation. We were able to correctly diagnose the patients with atypical IBMPFD. Structural analysis of the p.Gly97Glu mutation in the VCP protein showed that the affected amino-acid is located in the interface of the protein. This abnormality may therefore interfere with protein function.
This is the first report of a family from China with IBMPFD. A novel VCP mutation was found as the cause of atypical IBMPFD in a Chinese family. Our findings confirm that VCP gene mutations can be a pathogenic cause of IBMPFD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Osteosclerosis (OMIM: 144750) is a type of autosomal dominant bone disease caused by a mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene. The case of a Chinese family with two affected individuals is reported in the present study in order to investigate the clinical characteristics and virulence genes of this sclerosing bone disorder.
Biochemical and radiographic examinations and bone mineral density (BMD) and genetic analyses were performed in two patients and eight other family members.
The 40-year-old proband (II-1) and her 64-year-old mother (I-2) both had chronic lumbodorsal pain, an elongated mandible and torus palatinus in the center of the hard palate. No fractures were observed in any of the family members. Skull, mandibular and pelvic X-rays in each of the two patients revealed thickened cranial plates, an enlarged sella turcica, an elongated mandible and cortical thickening of the long bones. The BMD values of the two patients was significantly higher than the standard age- and sex-matched adult mean reference values. Both patients had higher serum sclerostin levels, while their renal function markers and serum calcium, phosphonium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25(OH)D levels were within the normal ranges. The heterozygous missense mutation p.Ala242Thr in exon 4 of the LRP5 gene was detected in the two patients, while the other family members and 200 healthy donors had normal wild-type genotypes.
The A242T mutation in the LRP5 gene resulted in a high bone mass phenotype with an elongated mandible and torus palatinus in this osteosclerotic family.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoxygenase (LOX) is one of the major metabolic enzymes for arachidonic acid, which has been reported to be associated with many postmenopausal and many hormone-related diseases. In rats, selective inhibition of the LOX pathway led to defective ovulation. However, little is known about the association of the LOX-related genes with menstruation in women. In this study, we investigated the possible association of two key gene (ALOX12 and ALOX15) polymorphisms with age of menarche and menopause in Chinese women.
Six tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ALOX12 and five SNPs of ALOX15 were genotyped. The association of single SNPs and haplotypes in two candidate genes and age at menarche (AAM) variation was tested in 401 Chinese nuclear families using the quantitative transmissing disequilibrium test. Furthermore, the association between these SNPs and haplotypes and age at natural menopause (AANM) in 710 postmenopausal Chinese women was measured.
Using family- and population-based statistical procedures, significant association was found between SNPs rs312462 in ALOX12 and AAM in nuclear families (P = 0.043), and three SNPs (rs2292350, rs312470, and rs312462) in ALOX12 were significantly associated with AANM in postmenopausal women (P = 0.012, P = 0.045, and P = 0.033, respectively). Haplotype analyses corroborated our single SNP results (P = 0.030). However, we failed to find a significant association between ALOX15 gene polymorphisms and AAM as well as AANM (P > 0.05).
Our present results suggest that genetic variations in ALOX12 are associated with both the onset and cessation of menstruation in Chinese women living in Shanghai.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that changes in hip geometry increase the risk of hip fracture. The aim of this study was to identify whether body composition were associated with hip geometry or bone mineral density (BMD) in a large sample of Chinese people. A total of 2072 subjects aged 20-79yr (including 700 males and 1372 females) were selected. The following measurements were taken: lumbar spine (L1-4); proximal femur BMD; lean mass (LM); fat mass (FM); and hip geometric parameters, including hip axis length (HAL), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), neck-shaft angle, and femur strength index (SI) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FM and LM were positively correlated with HAL, CSMI, and CSA, and negatively correlated with SI in both men and women. Multiple regression analysis showed that leg LM contributions to HAL, CSMI, and CSA variance were 12.6-37.6%. Compared with FM, LM was generally more strongly related to hip geometry and BMD in young and old men and women. Body composition was a good predictor for hip geometry parameter variation and BMD variation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Clinical Densitometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To increase awareness of the rarity of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) in the Chinese population, we characterized the clinical manifestations and features of 13 Chinese sporadic PDB patients. The clinical features of our Chinese PDB patients show similarities with cases reported in Western countries. The most common lesion sites were the pelvis, femur, and tibia; the next most common lesion sites were the spine and skull. Most patients had a higher serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. Treatment with bisphosphonates was effective. In addition, we screened for PDB-causing mutations and performed a functional analysis in an attempt to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of PDB. A total of 216 persons, including 13 sporadic PDB patients, three unaffected relatives of 1 patient, and 200 healthy donors, were recruited. All eight exons and exon-intron boundaries of the SQSTM1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. We identified a 53-year-old man who harbored a heterozygous T-to-C transversion at position 1250 in exon 8 (1250T > C), which resulted in a methionine-to-threonine (ATG > ACG) substitution at codon 404 (M404T). The M404T mutant SQSTM1 protein exhibited increased NF-κB activation and drove a significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (OLCs) that formed in response to RANKL and an increased number of OLC nuclei. This is the first report of an SQSTM1 genetic mutation that contributes to the pathogenesis of PDB in Chinese patients. These results may partially explain the mechanism by which this SQSTM1 mutation contributes to the pathogenesis of sporadic PDB in Chinese patients.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth. Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD, lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.
Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited. Anthropometric measurements, including the peak BMD, body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing. Both rs2293284 and +2278GA were genotyped using TaqMan assay, and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The associations of the SNPs with anthropometric variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).
Using QTDT to detect within-family associations, neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site. However, rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001). Moreover, for within-family associations, haplotypes AGG, AAA, and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).
Our results suggest that genetic variation within myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males. Additionally, the myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in ALOX12, which encoded human 12-lipoxygenase, was found to be associated with fat mass in young Chinese men. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the ALOX15 gene and obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring.
We recruited 1,296 subjects from 427 nuclear families with male offspring and genotyped five SNPs (rs9894225, rs748694, rs2619112, rs2619118, and rs916055) in the ALOX15 gene locus. The total fat mass (TFM), trunk fat mass (tFM), leg fat mass (LFM) and arm fat mass (AFM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The percentage of fat mass (PFM) was the ratio of TFM and body weight. The association between SNPs and haplotypes of ALOX15 and obesity-related phenotypic variation was measured using quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).
Using QTDT to measure family-based genetic association, we found that rs916055 had a statistically significant association with PFM (P=0.038), whereas rs916055 had a marginal but statistically insignificant association with tFM (P=0.093). The multiple-parameter 1000 permutations test agreed with the family-based association results: both showed that rs916055 had a statistically significant association with PFM (P=0.033).
rs916055 in ALOX15 gene was significantly associated with the percentage of fat mass in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring in the family-based association study using QTDT approach.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous guanine-to-adenine transition at the invariant -1 position of the acceptor site of intron 1 (c.97-1G>A) in solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1), which encodes a prostaglandin transporter protein, as the causative mutation in a single individual with primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) from a consanguineous family. In two other affected individuals with PHO from two unrelated nonconsanguineous families, we identified two different compound heterozygous mutations by using Sanger sequencing. These findings confirm that SLCO2A1 mutations inactivate prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) transport, and they indicate that mutations in SLCO2A1 are the pathogenic cause of PHO. Moreover, this study might also help to explain the cause of secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 gene (LRP2) is located next to the genomic region showing suggestive linkage with both hip and wrist bone mineral density (BMD) phenotypes. LRP2 knockout mice showed severe vitamin D deficiency and bone disease, indicating the involvement of LRP2 in the preservation of vitamin D metabolites and delivery of the precursor to the kidney for the generation of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). In order to investigate the contribution of LRP2 gene polymorphisms to the variation of BMD in Chinese population, a total of 330 Chinese female-offspring nuclear families with 1088 individuals and 400 Chinese male-offspring nuclear families with 1215 individuals were genotyped at six tagSNPs of the LRP2 gene (rs2389557, rs2544381, rs7600336, rs10210408, rs2075252 and rs4667591). BMD values at the lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-4) and hip sites were measured by DXA. The association between LRP2 polymorphisms and BMD phenotypes was assessed by quantitative transmission disequilibrium tests (QTDTs) in female- and male-offspring nuclear families separately. In the female-offspring nuclear families, rs2075252 and haplotype GA of rs4667591 and rs2075252 were identified in the nominally significant total association with peak BMD at L1-4; however, no significant within-family association was found between peak BMD at the L1-4 and hip sites and six tagSNPs or haplotypes. In male-offspring nuclear families, neither the six tagSNPs nor the haplotypes was in total association or within-family association with the peak BMD variation at the L1-4 and hip sites by QTDT analysis. Our findings suggested that the polymorphisms of LRP2 gene is not a major factor that contributes to the peak BMD variation in Chinese population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopetrosis is a heritable bone disorder resulting from a deficiency of or a functional defect in osteoclasts. We aimed to characterize the molecular defects and clinical manifestations in Chinese patients with osteopetrosis by studying 12 unrelated osteopetrosis families. The entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of the CLCN7, TCIRG1, LRP5 and SOST genes were amplified and directly sequenced. X-rays of hip and lumbar spine, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers were examined simultaneously. Family history and fracture history were collected using a questionnaire. Among 12 unrelated families, 10 families were diagnosed with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII) with 10 probands and 3 affected subjects. Two individuals in the other two families were diagnosed with uncategorized osteopetrosis because no mutations were detected in any of the four studied genes. Eight mutations, including two reported mutations (R767W and E798FS) and six novel mutations (E313K, A316G, R743W, G741R, W127G and S290F), were detected in the CLCN7 gene from 12 living ADOII patients. Among them, R767W and R743W mutations were two common mutations that were each found in 20% of 10 ADOII probands. In CLCN7-related ADOII patients, long bone fractures and elevated serum CK level were two major clinical phenotypes, especially in patients younger than 18 years. Further functional studies of the above eight mutations in the CLCN7 gene are needed in the future.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To study whether genetic polymorphisms of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes affected the onset of fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women.
SNPs in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes were identified via direct sequencing in 32 unrelated postmenopausal Chinese women. Ten SNPs were genotyped in 1252 postmenopausal Chinese women. The associations were examined using both single-SNP and haplotype tests using logistic regression.
Twenty four (4 novel) and 28 (7 novel) SNPs were identified in COL1A1 and COL1A2 gene, respectively. The distribution frequencies of 2 SNPs in COL1A1 (rs2075554 and rs2586494) and 3 SNPs in COL1A2 (rs42517, rs1801182, and rs42524) were significantly different from those documented for the European Caucasian population. No significant difference was observed between fracture and control groups with respect to allele frequency or genotype distribution in 9 selected SNPs and haplotype. No significant association was found between fragility fracture and each SNP or haplotype. The results remained the same after additional corrections for other risk factors such as weight, height, and bone mineral density.
Our results show no association between common genetic variations of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes and fracture, suggesting the complex genetic background of osteoporotic fractures.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene polymorphisms on bone and obesity phenotypes in young Chinese men.
A total of 1244 subjects from 411 Chinese nuclear families were genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique at the Q89R, N740N, and A1330V sites in the LRP5 gene. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and the hip, total fat mass and total lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The association between LRP5 gene polymorphisms and peak BMD, body mass index (BMI), total fat mass, total lean mass and percentage of fat mass was assessed using a quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).
No significant within-family associations were found between genotypes or haplotypes of the LRP5 gene and peak BMD, BMI, total fat mass, total lean mass and percentage of fat mass. The 1000 permutations that were subsequently simulated were in agreement with these within-family association results.
Our results suggest that common polymorphic variations of the LRP5 gene do not influence peak bone mass acquisition and obesity phenotypes in young Chinese men.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the associations between HOXD4 gene polymorphisms with peak bone mineral density (BMD) throughing measuring three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs), including rs1867863, rs13418078, and rs4972504, in HOXD4.
Four hundred Chinese nuclear families with male offspring (1215 subjects) and 401 Chinese nuclear families with female offspring (1260 subjects) were recruited. BMD of the lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-4) and left proximal femur including total hip and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT) was performed to investigate the association among the tagging SNPs, haplotypes and peak BMD.
Only the CC genotype was identified in rs13418078 in the Chinese population, unlike other populations. We failed to find significant within-family association among these SNPs, haplotypes and peak BMD at any bone site in either male- or female-offspring nuclear families.
The results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in HOXD4 may not be a major contributor to the observed variability in peak BMD in the lumbar spine and the hip in Chinese men and women.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica