[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD) is a product of APP processing with transcriptional modulation activity, whose overexpression causes various Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related dysfunctions. Here we report that 1-(3',4'-dichloro-2-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) (CHF5074), a compound that favorably affects neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and memory deficit in transgenic mouse models of AD, interacts with the AICD and impairs its nuclear activity. In neuroglioma-APPswe cells, CHF5074 shifted APP cleavage from Aβ42 to the less toxic Aβ38 peptide without affecting APP-C-terminal fragment, nor APP levels. As revealed by photoaffinity labeling, CHF5074 does not interact with γ-secretase, but binds to the AICD and lowers its nuclear translocation. In vivo treatment with CHF5074 reduced AICD occupancy as well as histone H3 acetylation levels and transcriptional output of the AICD-target gene KAI1. The data provide new mechanistic insights on this compound, which is under clinical investigation for AD treatment/prevention, as well as on the contribution of the AICD to AD pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p50/RelA is a key molecule with a dual effect in the progression of ischemic stroke. In harmful ischemia, but not in preconditioning insult, neurotoxic activation of p50/RelA is characterized by RelA-specific acetylation at Lys310 (K310) and deacetylation at other Lys residues. The derangement of RelA acetylation is associated with activation of Bim promoter. OBJECTIVE: With the aim of producing neuroprotection by correcting altered acetylation of RelA in brain ischemia, we combined the pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1-3, the enzymes known to reduce global RelA acetylation, and the activation of sirtuin 1, endowed with a specific deacetylase activity on the K310 residue of RelA. To afford this aim, we tested the clinically used HDAC 1-3 inhibitor entinostat (MS-275) and the sirtuin 1 activator resveratrol. METHODS: We used the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and primary cortical neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). RESULTS: The combined use of MS-275 and resveratrol, by restoring normal RelA acetylation, elicited a synergistic neuroprotection in neurons exposed to OGD. This effect correlated with MS-275 capability to increase total RelA acetylation and resveratrol capability to reduce RelA K310 acetylation through the activation of an AMP-activated protein kinase-sirtuin 1 pathway. The synergistic treatment reproduced the acetylation state of RelA peculiar of preconditioning ischemia. Neurons exposed to the combined drugs totally recovered the optimal histone H3 acetylation. Neuroprotection was reproduced in mice subjected to MCAO and treated with MS-275 (20μg/kg and 200μg/kg) or resveratrol (6800μg/kg) individually. However, the administration of lowest doses of MS-275 (2μg/kg) and resveratrol (68μg/kg) synergistically reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits. Importantly, the treatment was effective even when administered 7h after the stroke onset. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of cortices harvested from treated mice showed that the RelA binding and histone acetylation increased at the Bcl-x(L) promoter and decreased at the Bim promoter. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that epigenetic therapy shaping acetylation of both RelA and histones may be a promising strategy to limit post-ischemic injury with an extended therapeutic window.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Neurobiology of Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms responsible for increasing iron and neurodegeneration in brain ischemia are an interesting area of research which could open new therapeutic approaches. Previous evidence has shown that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through RelA acetylation on Lys310 is the prerequisite for p50/RelA-mediated apoptosis in cellular and animal models of brain ischemia. We hypothesized that the increase of iron through a NF-κB-regulated 1B isoform of the divalent metal transporter-1 (1B/DMT1) might contribute to post-ischemic neuronal damage. Both in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in neuronally differentiated SK-N-SH cells exposed to oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD), 1A/DMT1 was only barely expressed while the 1B/DMT1 without iron-response-element (-IRE) protein and mRNA were early up-regulated. Either OGD or over-expression of 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 isoform significantly increased iron uptake, as detected by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and iron-dependent cell death. Iron chelation by deferoxamine treatment or (-)IRE DMT1 RNA silencing displayed significant neuroprotection against OGD which concomitantly decreased intracellular iron levels. We found evidence that 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 was a target gene for RelA activation and acetylation on Lys310 residue during ischemia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the 1B/DMT1 promoter showed there was increased interaction with RelA and acetylation of H3 histone during OGD exposure of cortical neurons. Over-expression of wild-type RelA increased 1B/DMT1 promoter-luciferase activity, the (-)IRE DMT1 protein, as well as neuronal death. Expression of the acetylation-resistant RelA-K310R construct, which carried a mutation from lysine 310 to arginine, but not the acetyl-mimic mutant RelA-K310Q, down-regulated the 1B/DMT1 promoter, consequently offering neuroprotection. Our data showed that 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 expression and intracellular iron influx are early downstream responses to NF-κB/RelA activation and acetylation during brain ischemia and contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke-induced neuronal damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain cells display an amazing ability to respond to several different types of environmental stimuli and integrate this response physiologically. Some of these responses can outlive the original stimulus by days, weeks or even longer. Long-lasting changes in both physiological and pathological conditions occurring in response to external stimuli are almost always mediated by changes in gene expression. To effect these changes, cells have developed an impressive repertoire of signaling systems designed to modulate the activity of numerous transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms affecting the chromatin structure. Since its initial characterization in the nervous system, NF-κB has shown to respond to multiple signals and elicit pleiotropic activities suggesting that it may play a pivotal role in integration of different types of information within the brain. Ample evidence demonstrates that NF-κB factors are engaged in and necessary for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, but they also regulate brain response to environmental noxae. By focusing on the complexity of NF-κB transcriptional activity in neuronal cell death, it emerged that the composition of NF-κB active dimers finely tunes the neuronal vulnerability to brain ischemia. Even though we are only beginning to understand the contribution of distinct NF-κB family members to the regulation of gene transcription in the brain, an additional level of regulation of NF-κB activity has emerged as operated by the epigenetic mechanisms modulating histone acetylation. We will discuss NF-κB and epigenetic mechanisms as integrative regulators of brain resilience to anoxic stress and useful drug targets for restoration of brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: CHF5074 is a new gamma-secretase modulator in clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies have shown that CHF5074 can induce astrocyte stellation independently from gamma-secretase modulation (JAD 2010; 22: 1135-55). These results prompt us to investigate on neuroprotective activity of CHF5074 in experimental models unrelated to Abeta accumulation. Much research is actually focused on epigenetic mechanism regulating histone acetylation and involved in process of chromatin remodeling, microtubule dynamics, metabolism and ageing with relevance in different complex, late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have proved to be neuroprotective in animal models of AD and brain ischemia. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of CHF5074 in mouse primary cortical neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), a cell-based model of brain ischemia. The effect of CHF5074 was compared to that elicited by ibuprofen and other neuroprotective agents, the sirtuin activator resveratrol and the HDAC inhibitor MS-275.
Methods: Fifteen days embryonic C57BL/6 mice were harvested with caesarean section from anaesthetized pregnant dams. Cerebral cortices were isolated and dissociated by manual dispersion. The cells were plated in Neurobasal medium supplemented with 2% B27, 0.5 mM L-glutamine and 50 U/mL penicillin/streptomicin. At 10 days in vitro near pure cortical neurons were exposed to OGD at 37° C for 3 h. At the end of the OGD period, cortical neurons were allowed to recover for 24 hours in Neurobasal medium containing 0.4% B27 supplement, under normoxic conditions and with or without the test drugs. We analyzed the effect of CHF5074 in the concentration range eliciting anti-amyloidogenic activity, from 1-30 µM, ibuprofen at 500 µM, resveratrol at 30 µM and MS275 at 1 µM. Neuronal injury and neuroprotection were evaluated by measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the culture medium. To test histone acetylation, nuclear extracts were prepared 6 hours after the OGD exposure and nuclear proteins were processed for Western blot analysis by using antibody specific for histone H3 acetylated on K9/18 residues.
Results: Near pure cortical neurons were exposed to CHF5074 from 1 to 30 μM during the OGD period and the following 24 hour recovery. In another set of experiments, CHF5074 was added only after the OGD exposure. When compared to neurons exposed to OGD, cells treated with CHF5074 displayed higher survival at all the concentrations tested, i.e 1, 3, 10, 30 μM. Maximal neuroprotection (75 % reduction of LDH release) was evident at 10 μM concentration. If added only after the OGD period, CHF5074 was still neuroprotective, though with lower potency. Likewise 3 μM CHF5074, 30 μM resveratrol and 1 μM MS-275 added in the post-OGD period also elicited neuroprotection while 500 μM ibuprofen exacerbated the neuronal cell death. Analysis of histone acetylation, showed a decreased H3 acetylation on the K9/18 residues at 6 hours after OGD. The acetylation state of histone H3 recovered in cells treated in the post-OGD period with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 or with CHF5074, but not with the sirtuin activator resveratrol.
Conclusions: These data indicate that CHF5074, but not ibuprofen, elicits neuroprotection in cortical neurons previously exposed to OGD. CHF5074 effects were associated with the increase of histone H3 acetylation. In spite of observed similar neuroprotection, CHF5074 effect on histone acetylation was reproduced by MS-275 but not by resveratrol. This leaves open the possibility that CHF5074 may directly or indirectly modulate the HDAC activity. The possible role of HDAC activity modulation in the beneficial effects of CHF5074 in AD deserves further investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal amyloid-β (Aβ) production and deposition is believed to represent one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). γ-Secretase is the enzymatic complex responsible for Aβ generation from its precursor protein. Inhibition or modulation of γ-secretase represents an attractive therapeutic approach. CHF5074 is a new γ-secretase modulator that has been shown to inhibit brain plaque deposition and to attenuate memory deficit in adult AD transgenic mice after chronic treatment. To date, it is not known whether the positive behavioral effects of this compound also occur in young transgenic mice without plaque deposition. Here, we evaluated the effects of acute and subchronic treatment with CHF5074 on contextual and recognition memory and on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in plaque-free Tg2576 mice. We found that at 5 months of age, contextual memory impairment was significantly attenuated after acute subcutaneous administration of 30 mg/kg CHF5074. At 6 months of age, recognition memory impairment was fully reversed after a 4-week oral treatment in the diet (≈60 mg/kg/day). These cognitive effects were associated with a reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment in the hippocampus. A significant reduction in brain intraneuronal AβPP/Aβ levels and hyperphosphorylated tau, but no change in soluble or oligomeric Aβ levels was detected in Tg2576 mice showing functional recovery following CHF5074 treatment. We conclude that the beneficial effects of CHF5074 treatment in young transgenic mice occurred at a stage that precedes plaque formation and were associated with a reduction in intraneuronal AβPP/Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau is not fully understood, though it is proposed that in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) Aβ accumulation precedes and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation via activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β). Both events contribute to learning and memory impairments. Modulation of γ-secretase activity has proved to reduce the Aβ burden and cognitive deficits in mouse models of AD, but its ability in reducing the tau pathology remains elusive. Chronic treatments with two γ-secretase modulators, ibuprofen and CHF5074, disclosed higher activity of CHF5074 in ameliorating brain plaque deposition and spatial memory deficits in transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) with Swedish and London mutations (APP(SL) mice). The aim of our study was to investigate in APP(SL) mice the effect of the two compounds on the accumulation of native hyperphosphorylated tau as well as on the GSK-3β signaling. CHF5074 was more effective than ibuprofen in reducing tau pathology, though both compounds decreased the GSK-3β level and increased the GSK-3β inhibitory phosphorylation near to the non-Tg values. The inhibition of GSK-3β appeared to be secondary to the reduction of Aβ generation as, differently from LiCl, CHF5074 reproduced its effect in hAPP-overexpressing neuroglioma cells, but not in wild-type primary neurons. Our data show that the novel γ-secretase modulator CHF5074 can fully reverse β-amyloid-associated tau pathology, thus representing a promising therapeutic agent for AD.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50/RelA is a key event in ischemic neuronal injury, as well as in brain ischemic tolerance. We tested whether epigenetic mechanisms affecting the acetylation state of RelA might discriminate between neuroprotective and neurotoxic activation of NF-κB during ischemia. NF-κB activation and RelA acetylation were investigated in cortices of mice subjected to preconditioning brain ischemia or lethal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and primary cortical neurons exposed to preconditioning or lethal oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In mice subjected to MCAO and in cortical neurons exposed to lethal OGD, activated RelA displayed a high level of Lys310 acetylation in spite of reduced total acetylation. Also, acetylated RelA on Lys310 interacted strongly with the CREB-binding protein (CBP). Conversely, RelA activated during preconditioning ischemia appeared deacetylated on Lys310. Overexpressing RelA increased Bim promoter activity and neuronal cell death both induced by lethal OGD, whereas overexpressing the acetylation-resistant RelA-K310R, carrying a mutation from Lys310 to arginine, prevented both responses. Pharmacological manipulation of Lys310 acetylation by the sirtuin 1 activator resveratrol repressed the activity of the Bim promoter and reduced the neuronal cell loss. We conclude that the acetylation of RelA in Lys310 dictates NF-κB-dependent pro-apoptotic responses and represents a suitable target to dissect pathological from neuroprotective NF-κB activation in brain ischemia.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Cell Death & Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diverse nuclear factor-kappaB subunits mediate opposite effects of extracellular signals on neuron survival. While RelA is activated by neurotoxic agents, c-Rel drives neuroprotective effects. In brain ischaemia RelA and p50 factors rapidly activate, but how they associate with c-Rel to form active dimers and contribute to the changes in diverse dimer activation for neuron susceptibility is unknown. We show that in both cortical neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and mice subjected to brain ischaemia, activation of p50/RelA was associated with inhibition of c-Rel/RelA dimer and no change p50/c-Rel. Targeting c-Rel and RelA expression revealed that c-Rel dimers reduced while p50/RelA enhanced neuronal susceptibility to anoxia. Activation of p50/RelA complex is known to induce the pro-apoptotic Bim and Noxa genes. We now show that c-Rel-containing dimers, p50/c-Rel and RelA/c-Rel, but not p50/RelA, promoted Bcl-xL transcription. Accordingly, the OGD exposure induced Bim, but reduced Bcl-xL promoter activity and decreased the content of endogenous Bcl-xL protein. These findings demonstrate that within the same neuronal cell, the balance between activation of p50/RelA and c-Rel-containing complexes fine tunes the threshold of neuron vulnerability to the ischaemic insult. Selective targeting of different dimers will unravel new approaches to limit ischaemia-associated apoptosis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been proposed to serve a dual function as a regulator of neuron survival in pathological conditions associated with neurodegeneration. NF-kappaB is a transcription family of factors comprising five different proteins, namely p50, RelA/p65, c-Rel, RelB and p52, which can combine differently to form active dimers in response to external stimuli. Recent research shows that diverse NF-kappaB dimers lead to cell death or cell survival in neurons exposed to ischemic injury. While the p50/p65 dimer participates in the pathogenesis of post-ischemic injury by inducing pro-apoptotic gene expression, c-Rel-containing dimers increase neuron resistance to ischemia by inducing anti-apoptotic gene transcription. We present, in this report, the latest findings and consider the therapeutic potential of targeting different NF-kappaB dimers to limit ischemia-associated neurodegeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a dimeric transcription factor composed of five members, p50, RelA/p65, c-Rel, RelB, and p52 that can diversely combine to form the active transcriptional dimer. NF-kappaB controls the expression of genes that regulate a broad range of biological processes in the central nervous system such as synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and differentiation. Although NF-kappaB is essential for neuron survival and its activation may protect neurons against oxidative-stresses or ischemia-induced neurodegeneration, NF-kappaB activation can contribute to inflammatory reactions and apoptotic cell death after brain injury and stroke. It was proposed that the death or survival of neurons might depend on the cell type and the timing of NF-kappaB activation. We here discuss recent evidence suggesting that within the same neuronal cell, activation of diverse NF-kappaB dimers drives opposite effects on neuronal survival. Unbalanced activation of NF-kappaB p50/RelA dimer over c-Rel-containing complexes contributes to cell death secondary to the ischemic insult. While p50/RelA acts as transcriptional inducer of Bcl-2 family proapoptotic Bim and Noxa genes, c-Rel dimers specifically promote transcription of antiapototic Bcl-xL gene. Changes in the nuclear content of c-Rel dimers strongly affect the threshold of neuron vulnerability to ischemic insult and agents, likewise leptin, activating a NF-kappaB/c-Rel-dependent transcription elicit neuroprotection in animal models of brain ischemia.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · International Review of Neurobiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin is an adipose hormone endowed with angiopoietic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective properties. We tested the hypothesis that leptin might act as an endogenous mediator of recovery after ischemic stroke and investigated whether nuclear transcription factors kappaB activation is involved in leptin-mediated neuroprotection.
The antiapoptotic effects of leptin were evaluated in cultured mouse cortical neurons from wild-type or NF-kappaB/c-Rel(-/-) mice exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Wild-type, c-Rel(-/-) and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Leptin production was measured in brains from wild-type mice with quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Mice received a leptin bolus (20 microg/g) intraperitoneally at the onset of ischemia.
Leptin treatment activated the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factors kappaB dimers containing the c-Rel subunit, induced the expression of the antiapoptotic c-Rel target gene Bcl-xL in both control and oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions, and counteracted the oxygen-glucose deprivation-mediated apoptotic death of cultured cortical neurons. Leptin-mediated Bcl-xL induction and neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation were hampered in cortical neurons from c-Rel(-/-) mice. Leptin mRNA was induced and the protein was detectable in microglia/macrophage cells from the ischemic penumbra of wild-type mice subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Ob/ob mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion injury. Leptin injection significantly reduced the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion-mediated cortical damage in wild-type and ob/ob mice, but not in c-Rel(-/-) mice.
Leptin acts as an endogenous mediator of neuroprotection during cerebral ischemia. Exogenous leptin administration protects against ischemic neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo in a c-Rel-dependent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcriptional regulator of neuron survival eliciting diverse effects according to the specific composition of its active dimer. While p50/p65 mediates neurodegenerative events, c-Rel-containing dimers promote cell survival. Stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors type 5 (mGlu5) reduces neuron vulnerability to amyloid-beta through activation of anti-apoptotic, c-Rel-dependent transcription of Bcl-X(L) pathway. We here evaluated the protective activity of mGlu5 agonists in dopaminergic SK-N-SH cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), the active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causing parkinsonism in experimental animals. MPP(+) produced a concentration-dependent cell loss. Activation of mGlu5 receptors by CHPG (1 mM) and 3HPG (50 microM) abolished the toxic effect produced by 3 microM MPP(+). The neuroprotection was associated with activation of NF-kappaB p65/c-Rel dimer and reduction of p50/p65. These effects were prevented by the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP (5 microM). It is suggested that mGlu5 receptor agonists through activation of a c-Rel-dependent anti-apoptotic pathway can rescue dopaminergic cell from mitochondrial toxicity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Neural Transmission
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progressive degeneration and intraneuronal Lewy bodies made of filamentous alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) in dopaminergic cells of the nigrostriatal system are characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD). Glucose uptake is reduced in some of the brain regions affected by PD neurodegenerative changes. Defects in mitochondrial activity in the substantia nigra have been observed in the brain of patients affected by PD and substantia nigra lesions can induce the onset of a secondary parkinsonism. Thus, energy starvation and consequently metabolic impairment to dopaminergic neurons may be related to the onset of PD. On this line, we evaluated the effect of nutrient starvation, reproduced 'in vitro' by glucose deprivation (GD), in primary mesecephalic neuronal cultures and dopaminergic-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, to evaluate if decreased glucose support to dopaminergic cells can lead to mitochondrial damage, neurodegeneration and alpha-syn misfolding. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of dopamine (DA) treatment in the presence of a DA-uptake inhibitor or of the D(2)/D(3) receptor (D(2)R/D(3)R) agonist quinpirole on GD-treated cells, to evaluate the efficacy of these therapeutic compounds. We found that GD induced the formation of fibrillary aggregated alpha-syn inclusions containing the DA transporter in dopaminergic cells. These alterations were accompanied by dopaminergic cell death and were exacerbated by DA overload. Conversely, the block of DA uptake and D(2)R/D(3)R agonist treatment exerted neuroprotective effects. These data indicate that glucose starvation is likely involved in the induction of PD-related pathological changes in dopaminergic neurons. These changes may be counteracted by the block of DA uptake and by dopaminergic agonist treatment.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the diverse mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of post-ischemic and post-traumatic injuries, excitotoxicity and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation through induction of IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex have a primary role. We investigated the effects of the selective inhibitor of the IKK2 subunit, the anilinopyrimidine derivative AS602868, on excitotoxic injury produced in rat organotypic hippocampal slices and cerebellar primary neurons. Brief exposure to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) induces astrocyte reactivity, neuron cell death and oligodendrocyte degeneration in hippocampal slices. Application of AS602868 elicited a long-lasting protection of both neurons and oligodendrocytes. Maximal effect was observed with prolonged application of the compound after NMDA exposure. Neuroprotection was also evident in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells starting from 20 nM concentration. AS602868-elicited neuroprotection correlated with inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. Our results suggest that AS602868 may prove to be a valuable approach in treating neurodegeneration and demyelination associated with cerebral trauma and ischemia.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Neural Transmission
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We originally suggested that inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) death pathway could be taken into consideration as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, because the critical role of TRAIL in immune surveillance, the neutralization of TRAIL protein by an antibody to prevent its binding to death receptors is definitely a risky approach. Here, we demonstrated that the blockade of the TRAIL death receptor DR5 with a specific antibody completely prevented amyloid beta peptide (A beta) neurotoxicity in both neuronal cell line and primary cortical neurons. DR5 was demonstrated to be a key factor in TRAIL death pathway. In fact, whereas TRAIL expression was enhanced dose-dependently by concentrations of beta amyloid ranging from 10 nM to 1 microM, only the highest toxic dose of A beta (25 microM) induced the increased expression of DR5 and neuronal cell death. In addition, the increased expression of DR5 receptor after beta amyloid treatment was sustained by p53 transcriptional activity, as demonstrated by the data showing that the p53 inhibitor Pifithrin alpha prevented both beta amyloid-induced DR5 induction and cell death. These data suggest a sequential activation of p53 and DR5 upon beta amyloid exposure. Further insight into the key role of DR5 in AD was suggested by data showing a significant increase of DR5 receptor in cortical slices of AD brain. Thus, these findings may give intracellular TRAIL pathway a role in AD pathophysiology, making DR5 receptor a possible candidate as a pharmacological target.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Neuropsychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is well known for its antiapoptotic action. However, in some disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, a proapoptotic function of NF-kappaB has been demonstrated. To analyze which subunit of NF-kappaB is functional in cerebral ischemia, we induced focal cerebral ischemia in mice with a germline deletion of the p52 or c-Rel gene or with a conditional deletion of RelA in the brain. Only RelA deficiency reduced infarct size. Interestingly, expression of the proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2 homology domain 3)-only genes Bim and Noxa in cerebral ischemia depended on RelA and the upstream kinase IKK (IkappaB kinase). RelA stimulated Bim and Noxa gene transcription in primary cortical neurons and bound to the promoter of both genes. Thus, the deleterious function in cerebral ischemia is specific for the NF-kappaB subunit RelA and may be mediated through Bim and Noxa.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides are key proteins in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While Abeta42 aggregates very rapidly to form early diffuse plaques, supplemental Abeta40 deposition is required to form mature neuritic plaques. We here investigated the role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway in Abeta40-mediated neuronal damage and amyloid pathology. In rat primary neurons and human postmitotic neuronal cells, the Abeta peptide induced a dose-dependent neuronal death, reduced the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL, enhanced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and elicited the intracellular accumulation and secretion of Abeta42 oligomers. Moreover, Abeta40 activated the NF-kappaB pathway by selectively inducing the nuclear translocation of p65 and p50 subunits, and promoted an apoptotic profile of gene expression. As inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway, we tested the capability of a double-stranded kappaB decoy oligonucleotide, the anti-inflammatory drug aspirin and the selective IkappaB kinase 2 inhibitor, AS602868, to modify the Abeta40-mediated effects. These treatments, transiently applied before Abeta exposure, completely inhibited p50/p65 nuclear translocation and neuronal damage. The kappaB decoy also inhibited the Abeta-induced release of cytochrome c, restored the levels of Bcl-XL, and prevented intraneuronal accumulation and secretion of Abeta42. These results open up interesting perspectives on the development of novel strategies targeting out NF-kappaB p50/p65 dimers for pharmacological intervention in AD.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · European Journal of Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opposite effects of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) on neuron survival rely on activation of diverse NF-kappaB factors. While p65 is necessary for glutamate-induced cell death, c-Rel mediates prosurvival effects of interleukin-1beta. However, it is unknown whether activation of c-Rel-dependent pathways reduces neuron vulnerability to amyloid-beta (Abeta), a peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. We show that neuroprotection elicited by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors type 5 (mGlu5) against Abeta toxicity depends on c-Rel activation. Abeta peptide induced NF-kappaB factors p50 and p65. The mGlu5 agonists activated c-Rel, besides p50 and p65, and the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and Bcl-X(L). Targeting c-Rel expression by RNA interference suppressed the induction of both antiapoptotic genes. Targeting c-Rel or Bcl-X(L) prevented the prosurvival effect of mGlu5 agonists. Conversely, c-Rel overexpression or TAT-Bcl-X(L) addition rescued neurons from Abeta toxicity. These data demonstrate that mGlu5 receptor activation promotes a c-Rel-dependent antiapoptotic pathway responsible for neuroprotection against Abeta peptide.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Cell Death and Differentiation