Ramakrishnan Lakshmy

AIIMS Bhopal All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

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Publications (96)469.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Urban Asian Indians generally have low serum 25(OH)D. Information on serum bioavailable 25(OH)D and the effect of prolonged sun-exposure in them is not known. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D in males with varying durations of sun-exposure in Delhi during August-September. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), bioavailable 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D index, iPTH, ionized calcium and sun-index were assessed in outdoor, mixed outdoor-indoor and indoor workers (n = 88, 32 and 74, respectively). The mean sun-index (12.0 ± 6.25, 4.3 ± 2.20 and 0.7 ± 0.62, respectively; P < 0.001) was highest outdoors and lowest indoors. Serum 25(OH)D (29.0 ± 8.61, 19.1 ± 5.73 and 10.9 ± 4.19 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001), bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index were maximum in outdoor workers followed by mixed-exposure and indoor workers. Their mean serum DBP levels (241.2 ± 88.77, 239.3 ± 83.40 and 216.6 ± 63.93 µg/ml, respectively; P = 0.12) were comparable. Mean serum iPTH was significantly lower in outdoor than indoor workers and showed inverse correlations with serum 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index (r = -0.401, -0.269 and -0.236, respectively; P < 0.001 in all). Daily dietary-calorie intake was higher and calcium lower in outdoor than indoor workers. On regression analysis, sun-exposure was the only significant variable, increasing serum 25(OH)D by 2.03 ng/ml per hour of sun-exposure (95 % confidence interval 1.77-2.28; P < 0.001). Outdoor workers with prolonged sun-exposure were vitamin D-sufficient, with higher serum bioavailable 25(OH)D than the indoor workers during summer. Use of serum DBP levels did not affect the interpretation of their vitamin D status.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of ultraviolet B index (UVBI) and its impact on vitamin D synthesis is important. We observed the maximum UVBI between 11 am and 1 pm. There was no increase in serum 25(OH)D levels following sun exposure during winter as the UVBI was significantly low, emphasizing the need for vitamin D supplementation during these months. Introduction The amount of vitamin D3 synthesizing UVB irradiation (290–320 nm) reaching the earth’s surface at different altitudes and seasons in different parts of India and it’s impact on vitamin D synthesis has not been well studied. Methods The hourly UVB index (UVBI) from 10 am to 3 pm everyday for 12 months was measured by a solar meter in 4 different zones (North, Northeast, West and South) of the country. To study the impact of sun light exposure on vitamin D synthesis during winter, healthy school children aged 10–15 years were exposed to sunlight for a period of 30 min per day, between 11 am to 12 noon with 10 % body surface area, for 4 weeks. The main outcome measures were serum 25(OH)D, PTH, calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels before and after sun exposure. Results The mean UVBI was highest between 11 am and 1 pm throughout the year in all locations. The highest UVBI was recorded from the North zone (4.5 ± 2.7 μW/Cm2), while the least was recorded in the Northeast zone (2.1 ± 1.2 μW/Cm2). UVBI readings in the Northeast zone were consistently low throughout the year, while all the other three zones showed significant seasonal fluctuations. Surprisingly, we observed a significant decrease in serum 25(OH)D levels from baseline (6.3 ± 4.6 to 5.1 ± 2.7 ng/mL; p < 0.001) despite sun exposure. Conclusion The mean UVBI was highest between 11 am and 1 pm throughout the year in all locations. No increase in the serum 25(OH)D levels was observed following sun exposure in winter, emphasizing the need for vitamin D supplementation during these months.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Osteoporosis International
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate estimation of post-mortem interval is of great importance in medico-legal autopsy cases. The present study is intended to compare the accuracy of estimating post-mortem interval from biochemical parameters of vitreous humour and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both the fluids were collected from 100 medico-legal autopsies with known time of death and analysed for potassium, glucose, sodium, calcium, urea and creatinine. The current study found that vitreous humour is a better fluid in comparison to CSF for estimation of post-mortem interval. It is also observed that among the statistically significant parameters in both the fluids, level of potassium and sodium in vitreous humour are giving more accurate results in comparison to their corresponding parameters in CSF while accuracy of glucose is more or less same in both the fluid. Nevertheless potassium concentration in vitreous humour is a single best time honoured parameter to estimate post-mortem interval.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to determine the associated risk factors for the same. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at a Pediatric Clinic of a tertiary care teaching center in India, from May 2011 through December 2012. HIV infected children aged 5-15 y were enrolled if they did not have any severe disease or hospital admission within last 3 mo or receive any medications known to affect the lipid profile. Eighty-one children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 6 mo and 16 were receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants' sociodemographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded in addition to anthropometry and evidence of lipodystrophy. Fasting lipid profile, apolipoprotein A1 and B levels were done for all the children. Among the children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 38.3 % had dyslipidemia and 80.2 % had lipodystrophy, while 25 % antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected children had dyslipidemia. No clinically significant risk factors could be identified that increased the risk of dyslipidemia or lipodystrophy in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children with HIV infection with an imminent need to establish facilities for testing and treatment of these children for metabolic abnormalities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To validate the stability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C for up to one month. Methods: The study group comprised 142 type 2 diabetic subjects visiting a tertiary centre for diabetes at Chennai city in south India. The HbA1c assay was done on a fasting blood sample using the Bio-Rad Variant machine on Day 0 (day of blood sample collection). Several aliquots were stored at -20°C and the assay was repeated on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after the sample collection. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and variation in the HbA1c levels on the different days was compared with the day 0 level. Results: The median differences between HbA1c levels measured on Day 0 and the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after blood collection were 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% respectively. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the differences between the day '0' and the different time points tend to get larger with time, but these were not clinically significant. Conclusions: HbA1c levels are relatively stable up to 2weeks, if blood samples are stored at -20°C.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of diabetes and its complications
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency contributes to osteomalcia (35.3%) and rickets (7.6%) in India despite adequate sunlight throughout the year.(1) Since solar ultraviolet irradiation of the skin is essential for endogenous vitamin D synthesis, inadequate exposure to sunlight is one of the important contributing factors for vitamin D deficiency.(2) Significant increase in serum 25 (OH) D concentrations has been described with exposure to artificial source ultraviolet B irradiation.(3-7) . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · British Journal of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and controls (n=13) comprising angiography normal individuals. In vitro high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of these blood plasma samples was carried out at 400 MHz, and intensity data were analysed with partial least square discriminant analysis. Categorization of subjects as controls or CAD patients and the patients further as single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) was done at the end of the study based on their angiography reports. Raised levels of lipids, alanine (Ala) and isoleucine/leucine/valine (Ile/Leu/Val) were observed in CAD patients compared with controls. Partial least square discriminant analysis showed separation between controls vs CAD patients. TVD patients showed increased levels of Ile/Leu/Val and Ala compared with controls and SVD. Alanine, Ile/Leu/Val, and LDL/VLDL appear as possible biomarkers for distinguishing between controls and patients with SVD and TVD. A metabolic adaptation of myocardium may play a role in raising the Ala level.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Biosciences
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Association of vitamin D deficiency with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been widely reported. Emerging data has shown high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Indians. However, this association has not been studied in Indians. METHODS: A case-control study with 120 consecutive cases of first incident acute myocardial infarction (MI) and 120 age and gender matched healthy controls was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The standard clinical and biochemical risk factors for MI were assessed for both cases and controls. Serum 25 (OH) vitamin D assay was performed from stored samples for cases and controls using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml] was highly prevalent in cases and controls (98.3% and 95.8% respectively) with median levels lower in cases (6 ng/ml and 11.1 ng/ml respectively; p < 0.001). The cases were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension and consume tobacco and alcohol. They had higher waist hip ratio, total and LDL cholesterol. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH) vitamin D < 10 ng/ml] was associated with a risk of MI with an odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI 2.2-9.2). CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases of acute MI and controls from India, with levels of 25 (OH)D being significantly lower among cases. Despite rampant hypovitaminosis, severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with acute MI after adjusting for conventional risk factors. This association needs to be tested in larger studies in different regions of the country.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Indian Heart Journal
  • Ramakrishnan Lakshmy · Mohamad Tarik · Ransi Ann Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Older adults represent a substantial number of the world population, which is set to grow considerably in the coming years. The health challenges faced by the older adults are unique. Several age-related changes in them make phlebotomy difficult. Application of dried blood has been demonstrated to be useful in the other similarly vulnerable population, the neonates. Similar approach of standardization and demonstration of use of dried blood spots (DBS) for analytes of interest in older adult population would be highly appreciated. There are very few reports of use of DBS in older adults. There are several potential areas of interest for older adults in which DBS assays are available but have not been applied for screening in them. This review describes a brief general overview of DBS, its advantages and disadvantages and potential use in disease diagnosis in older adults.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Bioanalysis
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: This study estimated the levels of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in urban and rural areas of four regions in India. Research design and methods: Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) Study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Jharkhand) and one Union Territory (Chandigarh) and covering a population of 213 million people. Using a stratified multistage sampling design, individuals ≥20 years of age were recruited. Glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes was assessed by measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), estimated by the Variant™ II Turbo method (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Results: Among the 14,277 participants in Phase I of INDIAB, there were 480 subjects with self-reported diabetes (254 urban and 226 rural). The mean HbA1c levels were highest in Chandigarh (9.1±2.3%), followed by Tamil Nadu (8.2±2.0%), Jharkhand (8.2±2.4%), and Maharashtra (8.0±2.1%). Good glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) was observed only in 31.1% of urban and 30.8% of rural subjects. Only 22.4% of urban and 15.4% of rural subjects had reported having checked their HbA1c in the past year. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed younger age, duration of diabetes, insulin use, and high triglyceride levels to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusions: The level of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in India is poor. Urgent action is needed to remedy the situation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken in view of the paucity of data regarding the profile of prothrombotic factors in children with ischemic stroke. Sixty-four children with ischemic stroke were prospectively evaluated for presence of prothrombotic factors over a 2 year period. The blood samples were analyzed for protein C (PC), protein S (PS), activated protein C resistance (APCR), factor V Leiden (FVL), anti-thrombin-III (AT-III), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG, homocysteine, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) at least 3 months after the onset of stroke. At least one prothrombotic factor was identified in 45.3% children (29/64). These included hyperhomocysteinemia (11/64), PC deficiency (9/64), aCL (8/64), PS deficiency (5/64), APCR (3/64), AT-III deficiency (2/64) and LA (1/64). Multiple factors were coexistent in 17.2% (11/64). The prevalence of PC deficiency, PS deficiency and co-existence of multiple abnormalities observed were similar to the published literature. Elevated Lp(a) and APCR were less prevalent. FVL and MTHFR were not seen in any of the study children. Forty-five percent of children had at least one prothrombotic abnormality. Hyperhomocysteinemia, PC deficiency, aCL and PS deficiency were the most frequent prothrombotic abnormalities.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphism and epistasis play a role in etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). In this case-control study, a total of 241 patients were included in the study to see the effect of paraoxonase 1 (PON1; rs662 and rs85460) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genes in altering the odds of having AD and VaD along with serum PON and lipid profile. The presence of at least 1 variant allele of rs662, but not rs85460, increased the risk of having AD by 1.8-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-3.40) and VaD by 3.09-fold (95% CI: 1.4-6.9). The interaction between PON1 genes (rs662 and rs85460) and ApoE genes showed synergistic epistasis in altering the odds of significantly having both AD and VaD. On the other hand, low serum level of high-density lipoprotein and low level of serum PON activity were found associated significantly (P ≤ .001 in both cases) only in patients with VaD as compared to healthy control.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has emerged as the leading cause of death in the world. This burden is disproportionately higher in low and middle income countries like India. Obesity is associated not only with increased risk for CVD but is also an independent risk factor for other risk factors of CVD like diabetes and hypertension. Indices like BMI, Waist Circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), Waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR) and Body Adiposity Index (BAI) are used to estimate central obesity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Association of vitamin D deficiency with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been widely reported. Emerging data has shown high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Indians. However, this association has not been studied in Indians. A case-control study with 120 consecutive cases of first incident acute myocardial infarction (MI) and 120 age and gender matched healthy controls was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The standard clinical and biochemical risk factors for MI were assessed for both cases and controls. Serum 25 (OH) vitamin D assay was performed from stored samples for cases and controls using radioimmunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml] was highly prevalent in cases and controls (98.3% and 95.8% respectively) with median levels lower in cases (6 ng/ml and 11.1 ng/ml respectively; p < 0.001). The cases were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension and consume tobacco and alcohol. They had higher waist hip ratio, total and LDL cholesterol. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH) vitamin D < 10 ng/ml] was associated with a risk of MI with an odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI 2.2-9.2). This study reveals high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cases of acute MI and controls from India, with levels of 25 (OH)D being significantly lower among cases. Despite rampant hypovitaminosis, severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with acute MI after adjusting for conventional risk factors. This association needs to be tested in larger studies in different regions of the country. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Low level of vitamin B12 and folic acid has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were assayed in 80 AD and 50 VaD cases and in 120 healthy controls. The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) gene, rs1051266, which encodes the RFC 1, protein was analyzed for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. It was observed that the patients having folic acid <8.45 ng/mL had 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.5) times higher odds of having AD and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.2) times higher odds of having VaD than patients having folic acid ≥8.45 ng/mL. Serum vitamin B12 level did not show any such statistically significant effect in altering the odds. No direct association was found between variant (G) allele or genotype of rs1051266 with AD and VaD cases. On serum folate level no association was observed with gene polymorphism.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias
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    ABSTRACT: The decreased number and senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are considered markers of vascular senescence associated with aging, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease (CAD) in elderly. In this study, we explore the role of vascular senescence in premature CAD (PCAD) in a developing country by comparing the numerical status and senescence of circulating EPCs in PCAD patients to controls. EPCs were measured by flow cytometry in 57 patients with angiographically documented CAD, and 57 controls without evidence of CAD, recruited from random patients <= 50 years of age at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. EPC senescence as determined by telomere length (EPC-TL) and telomerase activity (EPC-TA) was studied by real time polymerase chain reaction (q PCR) and PCR-- ELISA respectively.Result: The number of EPCs (0.18% Vs. 0.039% of total WBCs, p < 0.0001), and EPC-TL (3.83 Vs. 5.10 kb/genome, p = 0.009) were markedly lower in PCAD patients compared to controls. These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking and medications. EPC-TA was reduced in PCAD patients, but was statistically significant only after adjustment for confounding factors (1.81 Vs. 2.20 IU/cell, unadjusted p = 0.057, adjusted p = 0.044). We observed an association between increased vascular cell senescence with PCAD in a sample of young patients from India. This suggests that early accelerated vascular cell senescence may play an important mechanistic role in CAD epidemic in developing countries like India where PCAD burden is markedly higher compared to developed countries.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) versus epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery. A prospective randomized study. A tertiary care center. The study was conducted on 64 consecutive adult patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Group EACA received a bolus of 50 mg/kg of EACA after induction of anesthesia over 20 minutes followed by maintenance infusion of 25 mg/kg/h until chest closure. Group TXA received a bolus of 10 mg/kg of TXA after induction of anesthesia over 20 minutes followed by maintenance infusion of 1 mg/kg/h until chest closure. Cumulated mean blood loss, total packed red blood cells, and blood product requirement up to 24 h postoperatively were comparable between groups. A significant renal injury (EACA 40% v TXA 16%; p = 0.04) and increased tendency for renal failure (EACA 10% v TXA 0%, p = 0.11; relative risk 2.15) were observed with EACA compared to TXA. There was increased tendency of seizure with TXA (EACA v TXA: 3.3% v 10%; p>0.05, relative risk 1.53). There was significant increase in the D-dimer from preoperative to postoperative values in Group EACA. (p< 0.01). Both EACA and TXA were equally effective in reducing the perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery. While significant renal injury was observed with EACA, there was a tendency for higher incidence of seizure with TXA. Prospective placebo-controlled trials recruiting larger sample size using sensitive biomarkers are required before any recommendations.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia

Publication Stats

2k Citations
469.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • AIIMS Bhopal All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • 2004-2015
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Cardiac Biochemistry
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
      • • Department of Cardiology
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2014
    • Indian Council of Medical Research
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2005
    • Sunder Lal Jain Hospital
      Old Delhi, NCT, India