[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of nosocomial infections (NIs) differs in different patient populations and different hospitals, and information on NI in Chinese children patients is scarce. This study fills these research gaps by evaluating the frequency of NIs, main infection sites, and common microorganisms found in pediatric hematology patients in a general children's hospital. A retrospective study was performed by analyzing the medical records of patients with NIs. The rates of NIs were calculated on the basis of cases identified during surveillance and the number of discharges annually. One thousand six hundred and four NIs were detected in 21,456 subjects (overall rate: 7.0 episodes/100 discharges). The most commonly observed infections were respiratory tract infections (1079 cases, 67.3%), followed by gastrointestinal infections (198 cases, 12.3%), skin and soft tissue infections (161 cases, 10.0%), bloodstream infections (97 cases, 6%), and urinary tract infections (16 cases, 1%). Gram-negative bacteria were the most common pathogens, followed by Gram-positive bacteria, virus, and fungal organisms. Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections were the common NIs in pediatric hematology/oncology patients. Gram-negative bacteria were responsible for most pathogens of NIs. In future studies, the prospective use of incidence density rates and postdischarge surveillance in children patient populations would be an interesting research direction.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in antibiotics prescribing, and evaluate the use of antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at the Beijing Children's Hospital.
Our interventions included (1) educating the pediatricians on antibiotics prescribing, (2) applying an antimicrobial spectrum chart, and (3) controlling the prescription of specific antibiotics with the use of a guideline. Nine hundred clinical records, including clinical information and antibiotic usage data, were selected retrospectatively from the PICU admissions during the pre- and post-intervention periods.
In this 5-year survey, the mean rate of antibiotic prescribing was greater than 95% in the PICU. More than 76% of the prescriptions were started empirically. The most frequently used antibiotics were third-generation cephalosporins. After the intervention, we found a reduction in the rate of antibiotic cost/patient/day (P < 0.05); a decrease in the prescription rate of third-generation cephalosporins and macrolides (P < 0.01); an increase in the prescription rate of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors and second-generation cephalosporins (P < 0.01); a reduction in the empiric treatment (P < 0.01); and a significant reduction in the incidence rates of bacterial resistance for imipenem-, cefepime-, and ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05), and cefepime-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (P < 0.01).
Our interventions led to a significant reduction of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing associated with the significant reduction in bacterial resistance in the PICU. The implementation of the antibiotics guideline appeared to be effective.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial usage in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in China.
Data were equally collected from 540 charts of PICUs in the three Chinese tertiary teaching children hospitals in 2006. The data included demographic, clinical data and those on antimicrobial usage and results of microbiological examinations.
Of the 540 cases, 524 (94.7%) patients received at least one antimicrobial agent. The main treatment started empirically in 387 (71.6%). The third-generation cephalosporins were the major antimicrobials used in all participating hospitals, accounting for 227 (31%). Bacteria were isolated from 48%, 68% and 59% of the three PICUs. Six common pathogens accounted for more than 75% of the isolated bacteria. The rates of Escherichia coli isolates resistant to cefotaxime were 73.8%, 58.3% and 49.2%, respectively, with the rate being higher in H1 than in H2 and H3 (both p<0.01).
Irrational use of antimicrobials exists in clinical practice of PICUs in China. It is recommended that antimicrobial usage should be guided by bacterial isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility tests in order to select correct antimicrobials and to prevent emergency of drug-resistant strains in PICUs.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Acta Paediatrica