A S Apt

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moskva, Moscow, Russia

Are you A S Apt?

Claim your profile

Publications (99)207.78 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the design, synthesis, and in vitro antimycobacterial activity of a series of novel simple hybrid hydrazides and hydrazide-hydrazones combining indole and pyridine nuclei. The compounds are derivatives of 1-acetylindoxyl or substituted indole-3-carboxaldehydes tethered via a hydrazine group by simple CN or double CN bonds with 3- and 4-pyridines, 1-oxide 3- and 4-pyridine carbohydrazides. The most active of 15 compounds showed MICs values against an INH-sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv equal to that of INH (0.05-2μg/mL). Five compounds demonstrated appreciable activity against the INH-resistant M. tuberculosis CN-40 clinical isolate (MICs: 2-5μg/mL), providing justification for further in vivo studies.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The level of susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection depends upon allelic variations in numerous interacting genes. In our mouse model system, the whole-genome quantitative trait loci (QTLs) scan revealed three QTLs involved in TB control on chromosomes 3, 9, and in the vicinity of the H2 complex on chromosome 17. For the present study, we have established a panel of new congenic, MHC-recombinant mouse strains bearing differential small segments of chromosome 17 transferred from the TB-susceptible I/St (H2j) strain onto the genetic background of TB-resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice (H2b). This allowed narrowing the QTL interval to 17Ch: 33, 77-34, 34 Mb, containing 36 protein-encoding genes. Cloning and sequencing of the H2j allelic variants of these genes demonstrated profound polymorphic variations compare to the H2b haplotype. In two recombinant strains, B6.I-249.1.15.100 and B6.I-249.1.15.139, recombination breakpoints occurred in different sites of the H2-Aβ 1 gene (beta-chain of the Class II heterodimer H2-A), providing polymorphic variations in the domain β1 of the Aβ-chain. These variations were sufficient to produce different TB-relevant phenotypes: the more susceptible B6.I-249.1.15.100 strain demonstrated shorter survival time, more rapid body weight loss, higher mycobacterial loads in the lungs and more severe lung histopathology compared to the more resistant B6.I-249.1.15.139 strain. CD4+ T cells recognized mycobacterial antigens exclusively in the context of the H2-A Class II molecule, and the level of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in the lungs was significantly higher in the resistant strain. Thus, we directly demonstrated for the first time that the classical H2- Ab1 Class II gene is involved in TB control. Molecular modeling of the H2-Aj product predicts that amino acid (AA) substitutions in the Aβ-chain modify the motif of the peptide-MHC binding groove. Moreover, unique AA substitutions in both α- and β-chains of the H2-Aj molecule might affect its interactions with the T-cell receptor (TCR).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mice of the I/St inbred strain genetically hyper-susceptible to TB infection and prone to form neutrophil-abundant necrotic lung lesions and relatively resistant mice of the C57BL/6 (B6) strain were infected with 100 CFU of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. To verify the role of neutrophils in TB immunity, we selectively depleted neutrophils from infected mice with highly specific 1A8 anti-Ly6G antibodies at day 2 and 6 post-challenge. Depletion of neutrophils resulted in reduced lung tissue pathology, mycobacterial CFU counts and an increase of the survival time in genetically susceptible I/St, but not in B6 mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in vivo neutrophil depletion at the onset of TB infection results in a significant increase in numbers of mycobacteria-specific IFN-γ-producing T-cells at the time point when the acquired immunity to mycobacteria is fully developed. These results suggest antagonistic activity of neutrophils and immune T-cells in the course of TB infection and provide further evidence of deleterious rather than protective role of the former. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a pivotal role in the early control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium infections by a host. It was previously shown that both phagocyte-derived and T-cell-derived TNF productions are critical for protective immunity against M. tuberculosis, but the role of TNF produced by B-cells remained unclear. By comparing mice with B-cell-specific TNF deletion to littermate control mice, here we show that TNF production by B-lymphocytes is essential for the formation of infection-specific aggregates of B-cells in the lung. It is likely that these compact foci represent a pathogenic feature of inflammatory response rather than an element of protective immunity, since the capacity to form aggregates has no influence on the severity of M. tuberculosis- and M. avium-triggered diseases.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biochemistry (Moscow)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three stocks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were cultured in vitro under prolonged hypoxic or acidified conditions until partial or complete loss of the capacity to form colonies on agar medium was achieved. Such dormant “non-culturable” mycobacteria were assessed for the growth resuscitation after intra-tracheal injection into mice of the two inbred strains with different genetic susceptibility to M. tuberculosis-triggered disease: hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6. The results indicate that bacteria which are able to resuscitate spontaneously in liquid medium in vitro started to multiply in organs of infected mice, and that the outcome of such infection strongly depended upon the level of genetic TB susceptibility. However, dormant bacteria required inducers for resuscitation in vitro lost the capacity to multiply even in genetically susceptible mice. The established model of dormancy/reactivation is suitable for the studying host–pathogen interactions and testing vaccine and drug candidates specifically targeting latent TB.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Microbial Pathogenesis
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: About 90% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection are comprised of latent mycobacterial persistence in the absence of clinical manifestations. In a proportion of latently infected individuals infection eventually reactivates and becomes contagious, seriously influencing epidemiological situation. Mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to dormancy and TB reactivation are poorly understood, and biological markers of latency remain largely unknown. Data are accumulating that the dynamical equilibrium between the parasite and the host (expressed as a long term asymptomatic infection) and its abrogation (expressed as a reactivation disease) are genetically controlled by both parties. In this short review, the authors summarize the results of experimental studies on genetic regulation of the latent TB infection.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Tuberculosis
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deep sequencing was implemented to study the transcriptional landscape of Mycobacterium avium. High-resolution transcriptome analysis identified the transcription start points for 652 genes. One third of these genes represented leaderless transcripts, whereas the rest of the transcripts had 5' UTRs with the mean length of 83 nt. In addition, the 5' UTRs of 6 genes contained SAM-IV and Ykok types of riboswitches. 87 antisense RNAs and 10 intergenic small RNAs were mapped. 6 intergenic small RNAs, including 4.5S RNA and rnpB, were transcribed at extremely high levels. Although several intergenic sRNAs are conserved in M. avium and M. tuberculosis, both of these species have unique intergenic sRNAs. Moreover, we demonstrated that even conserved small RNAs are regulated differently in these species. Different sets of intergenic sRNAs may underlie differences in physiology between conditionally pathogenic M. avium and highly specialized pathogen M. tuberculosis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The balance between activation and inhibition of local immune responses in affected tissues during prolonged chronic infections is important for host protection. There is ample evidence that regulatory, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) are developed and present in tissues and inhibit overwhelming inflammatory reactions. Also, it was firmly established that stromal microenvironment of many organs is able to induce development of immature regulatory DC (DCreg), an essential element of a general immune regulatory network. However, direct experimental data demonstrating inhibition of immune responses by stroma-instructed immature DCreg in infectious models are scarce, and virtually nothing is known about functioning of this axis of immunity during tuberculosis (TB) infection. In this study, we demonstrate that lung stromal cells are capable of supporting the development in culture of immature CD11b(+)CD11c(low)CD103(-) DCreg from lineage-negative (lin(-)) bone marrow precursors. DCreg developed on lung stroma isolated from mice of genetically TB-hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6 inbred strains inhibited proliferative response of mycobacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell lines a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the inhibitory activity of B6 DCreg was substantially higher than that of I/St Dcreg. Moreover, when the donors of stromal cells were chronically infected with virulent mycobacteria, the capacity to instruct inhibitory DCreg was retained in B6, but further diminished in I/St stromal cells. DCreg-provided suppression was mediated by a few soluble mediators, including PGE2, NO and IL-10. The content of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the mediastinal, lung-draining lymph nodes at the advanced stages of chronic infection did not change in I/St, but increased 2-fold in B6 mice, and lung pathology was much more pronounced in the former mice. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence that the capacity to maintain populations of regulatory cells during M. tuberculosis infection is a part of the host protective strategy.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whole transcriptome profiling is now almost routinely used in various fields of biology, including microbiology. In vivo transcriptome studies usually provide relevant information about the biological processes in the organism and thus are indispensable for the formulation of hypotheses, testing, and correcting. In this study, we describe the results of genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the major human bacterial pathogen M. tuberculosis during its persistence in lungs. Two mouse strains differing in their susceptibility to tuberculosis were used for experimental infection with M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterial transcriptomes obtained from the infected tissues of the mice at two different time points were analyzed by deep sequencing and compared. It was hypothesized that the changes in the M. tuberculosis transcriptome may attest to the activation of the metabolism of lipids and amino acids, transition to anaerobic respiration, and increased expression of the factors modulating the immune response. A total of 209 genes were determined whose expression increased with disease progression in both host strains (commonly upregulated genes, CUG). Among them, the genes related to the functional categories of lipid metabolism, cell wall, and cell processes are of great interest. It was assumed that the products of these genes are involved in M. tuberculosis adaptation to the host immune system defense, thus being potential targets for drug development.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Acta Naturae
  • Boris V Nikonenko · Alexander S Apt
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mice as a species are susceptible to tuberculosis infection while mouse inbred strains present wide spectrum of susceptibility/resistance to this infection. However, non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial infections usually cannot be modeled in mice of common inbred strains. Introduction of specific properties, such as gene mutations, recombinants, targeted gene knockouts significantly extended the use of mice to mimic human Mycobacterial infections, including non-tuberculosis ones. This review describes the available mouse models of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis infections and drug therapy in these models. Mouse models of non-tuberculosis infections are significantly less developed than tuberculosis models, hampering the development of therapies.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using whole genome microarrays, we compared changes in gene expression patterns in the lungs of TB-resistant A/Sn and TB-susceptible I/St mice at day 14 following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Analyses of differentially expressed genes for representation of gene ontology terms and activation of regulatory pathways revealed interstrain differences in antigen presentation, NK, T and B cell activation pathways. In general, resistant A/Sn mice exhibited a more complex pattern and stronger activation of host defense pathways compared to the TB-susceptible I/St mouse strain. In addition, in I/St mice elevated activation of genes involved in neutrophil response was observed and confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and histopathology. Furthermore, a specific post infection upregulation of cysteine protease inhibitors was found in susceptible I/St mice.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein genes Ag85A, Esat-6, and Cfp10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were sequenced using the database GenBank to implement selection and synthesis of primer pairs of given genes. PCR was used to obtain target amplicons of the genes. Chromosome DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was used as the DNA amplification matrix. The PCR products were obtained using the plasmid pQE6, cloned, and amplified in the Escherichia coli M15 strain. Chimere products containing mycobacterial genes and cellulose binding protein domain (CBD), were obtained using the plasmid treated with restriction endonucleases. CBD fragment obtained using similar treatment of the ptt10 plasmid. The plasmids containing merged sequences of mycobacterial genes-antigenes and CBD were selected. The 3 mycobacterial genes were expressed in the E. coli M15 cells resulting in biosynthesis of corresponding recombinant proteins of expected molecular weight. Concentration of CBD, Cfp10-CBD, Ag85A-CBD, and ESAT6-CBD was 20%, 15%, and 15% total protein, respectively. The resulting chimere proteins provide high affinity for cellulose and high stability. Immobilization of CBD-containing recombinant proteins proceeds as one-stage process providing target protein purification and adsorption on cellulose. The vaccines produced using this technology are inexpensive because of low cost of cellulose sorbents as well as simultaneous use of cellulose for purification and immobilization of protein. Many cellulose preparations are not toxic, biocompatible, and widely used in medicine.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Molekuliarnaia genetika, mikrobiologiia i virusologiia
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genes of ESAT-6, CFP-10 and Ag85A secreted antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were cloned in Escherichia coli. Fusion proteins Esat6-CBD, Ag85A-CBD and CFP10-CBD with thermostable cellulose binding domain (CBD) of Anaerocellum thermophilum providing high affinity to cellulose were constructed. Content of the fused proteins in overproducing strains was 20% of total protein for CFP10-CBD and 15% for both Esat6-CBD and Ag85A-CBD. Immobilization of the fusion proteins on cellulose is a one-stage process that provides simultaneous antigen purification and absorption on cellulose. The proteins retain their antigenic properties and can be used as the components for subunit tuberculosis vaccine production or in diagnostic kits.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Molecular Genetics Microbiology and Virology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The species Mycobacterium avium includes several subspecies representing highly specialized avian and mammalian pathogens, non-obligatory pathogens of immune compromised humans and saprophitic organisms. Recently obtained information concerning the diversity of M. avium genomic structures not only clarified phylogenic relationships within this species, but began to shed light on the question of how such closely related microorganisms adapt to the occupation of distinct ecological niches. In this review we discuss specific features of M. avium genetic composition, as well as genetic and molecular aspects of M. avium hominissuis (MAH)-triggered disease pathogenesis, including virulence, penetration, immune response manipulation and host genetic control.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Cellular Microbiology
  • Source
    Alexander S Apt
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Relevance and accuracy of experimental mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) are the subject of constant debate. This article briefly reviews genetic aspects of this problem and provides a few examples of mycobacterial diseases with similar or identical genetic control in mice and humans. The two species display more similarities than differences regarding both genetics of susceptibility/severity of mycobacterial diseases and the networks of protective and pathological immune reactions. In the opinion of the author, refined mouse models of mycobacterial diseases are extremely useful for modelling the corresponding human conditions, if genetic diversity is taken into account.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Immunology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IL-11 is multifunctional cytokine whose physiological role in the lungs during pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is poorly understood. Here, using in vivo administration of specific antibodies against IL-11, we demonstrate for the first time that blocking IL-11 diminishes histopathology and neutrophilic infiltration of the lung tissue in TB-infected genetically susceptible mice. Antibody treatment decreased the pulmonary levels of IL-11 and other key inflammatory cytokines not belonging to the Th1 axis, and down-regulated IL-11 mRNA expression. This suggests the existence of a positive feedback loop at the transcriptional level, which is further supported by up-regulation of IL-11 mRNA expression in the presence of rIL-11 in in vitro cultures of lung cells. These findings imply a pathogenic role for IL-11 during the early phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-triggered disease in a genetically susceptible host.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the residual virulence of mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are defective in 4 of the 5 rpf-like genes, their capacity to persist in the murine host and the utility present in these mutants to serve as novel vaccine candidates. Our data indicate that the two quadruple rpf deletion mutants, ΔACBD and ΔACDE, both display significant attenuation in the mouse lungs after aerosol infection, with no observable increase in bacillary loads upon aminoguanidine-induced immune suppression. However, after subcutaneous injection these strains were able to persist at the low level, similar to that of BCG, in the mouse lungs and lymphoid organs. Furthermore, both rpf quadruple mutants were able to enhance the numbers of IFN-γ-producing T-cells in spleens to a level comparable to that of BCG, and conferred protection upon subsequent challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis in terms of mycobacterial multiplication in organs and survival time. The reduction in organ bacillary loads after vaccination with ΔACDE was comparable to that of BCG, while ΔACBD displayed a small but statistically significant enhancement in protection compared to BCG. Collectively, these data suggest that rpf deletion mutants show potential for further development as novel vaccine candidates for tuberculosis.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of genetic loci involved in tuberculosis (TB) infection control in mice is located within the segment of Chr. 17 occupied by the H2 complex, the mouse MHC. As far as this region includes approximately 40 Mb and contains hundreds of genes affecting immune responses and host-parasite interactions, narrowing the interval by genetic recombination is pre-requisite for identification of particular gene(s). We have developed a panel of recombinant congenic strains bearing different parts of the H2 complex from TB-susceptible I/St mice on the genetic background of TB-resistant C57BL/6 mice. By superposing the phenotype "severe vs. mild infectious course" against the chart of alleles inherited by these new strains from the two parental strains, we have mapped a locus involved in TB control within the segment 33.305-34.479 Mb (-1.1 Mb) of the Chr. 17. Such a location indicates that allelic variants of the prominent pro-inflammatory factor TNF do not affect TB course in our experimental system. This result was confirmed by the assessment of the TNF level in the lung tissue of infected mice of different strains. The QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapped in our study influences several important parameters of TB infection: multiplication of mycobacteria in the lungs, severity of lung pathology and regulation of the early inflammatory response.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Molekuliarnaia biologiia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mice of I/St strain develop severe lung inflammation and die shortly following infection with virulent mycobacteria. Susceptibility does not depend upon the Nramp1 gene, as I/St mice carry its resistant allele, but is controlled by a few interacting QTL mapped to chromosomes 3, 9 and 17. To find out whether tuberculosissusceptible I/St mice are susceptible to other intracellular bacteria, we investigated taxonomically distant pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae. Comparison of I/St and TB-resistant A/Sn mice (both Nramp1r) demonstrated that the former are more susceptible to chlamydia, displaying a significantly shortened survival time following challenge (I/St 9.2 ± 1.2 days, A/Sn − 22.0 ± 2.0 days (p < 0.001). To estimate the degree of chlamydial multiplication in the lungs, we established a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method which allows enumeration of the parasite’s genome equivalents in infected tissue from 1 to 16 days after challenge. Interstrain difference of chlamydia burden in lungs we obtained after 24 hours after infection only. Multiplication of chlamydia in the lungs was controlled efficiently after day 4 of infection, and the numbers of genome equivalents dropped slightly by day 8 both in I/St and A/Sn mice. Lung pathology develops more rapidly in I/St compared to A/Sn mice following infection with chlamydia, despite their similar ability to control bacterial multiplication. Lung tissue of susceptible I/St mice was markedly infiltrated with macrophages (p < 0.01), which differed significantly from the lungs of resistant A/Sn mice. In agreement with higher macrophage content in the lungs, significantly more macrophage-derived proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were detected in lung tissue homogenates obtained from I/St mice (p < 0.05). Because the prominent differences in survival time did not correlate with permanent differences in bacterial multiplication, we suggest that both infections trigger fatal pathological processes whose dynamics depend strongly upon the host genetics. Key wordslung chlamydia infection-tuberculosis-mice
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Molecular Genetics Microbiology and Virology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We performed a comparative analysis ofMycobacterium aviumtranscriptomes (strain 724R) in infected mice of two different strains- resistant and susceptible to infection. Sets of mycobacterial genes transcribed in lung tissue were defined, and differentially transcribed genes were revealed. Our results indicate thatM. aviumgenes coding for enzymes of the Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, NO reduction, fatty acid biosynthesis, replication, translation, and genome modification are expressed at high levels in the lungs of genetically susceptible mice. The expression of genes responsible for cell wall properties, anaerobic nitrate respiration, fatty acid degradation, synthesis of polycyclic fatty acid derivatives, and biosynthesis of mycobactin and other polyketides is increased in the resistant mice. In the resistant host environment,Mycobacterium aviumapparently transitions to a latent state caused by the deficiency in divalent cations and characterised by anaerobic respiration, degradation of fatty acids, and modification of cell wall properties.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Acta Naturae

Publication Stats

2k Citations
207.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Lomonosov Moscow State University
      • Faculty of Biology
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2006-2013
    • Central Research Institute of Epidemiology
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1997-2012
    • Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2005
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1997-2003
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1988
    • Central Scientific Research Institute for Gastroenterology
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia