John M Embil

Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (161)549.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The expert panel on diabetic foot infection (DFI) of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot conducted a systematic review seeking all published reports relating to any type of treatment for infection of the foot in persons with diabetes published as of 30 June 2014. This review, conducted with both PubMed and EMBASE, was used to update an earlier one undertaken on 30 June 2010 using the same search string. Eligible publications included those that had outcome measures reported for both treated and a control populations that were managed either at the same time, or as part of a before and after case design. We did not include studies that contained only information related to definition or diagnosis, but not treatment, of DFI. The current search identified just seven new papers meeting our criteria that were published since the 33 identified with the previous search, making a total of 40 papers from the world literature. The identified papers included 37 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 3 cohort studies with concurrent controls, and included studies on the use of surgical procedures, topical antiseptics, negative pressure wound therapy and hyperbaric oxygen. Among the studies were 15 RCTs that compared outcomes of treatment with new antibiotic preparations compared with a conventional therapy in the management of skin and soft tissue infection. In addition, 10 RCTs and one cohort study compared different treatments for osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. Results of comparisons of different antibiotic regimens generally demonstrated that newly introduced antibiotic regimens appeared to be as effective as conventional therapy (and also more cost-effective in one study), but one study failed to demonstrate non-inferiority of a new antibiotic compared to a standard agent. Overall, the available literature was both limited in both the number of studies and the quality of their design. Thus, our systematic review revealed little evidence upon which to make recommendations for treatment of DFIs. There is a great need for further well-designed trials that will provide robust data upon which to make decisions about the most appropriate treatment of both skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and osteomyelitis in diabetic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Pasteurella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli that are a part of the normal oropharyngeal flora of numerous domestic animals. They have been recognized as a rare but significant cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). A consensus about management strategies for PD-associated peritonitis caused by Pasteurella species currently does not exist. The microbiological database serving the Manitoba Renal Program was searched from 1997 to 2013 for cases of Pasteurella species PD-associated peritonitis, and charts were reviewed. PubMed was searched for case reports and data were abstracted. Seven new local cases and 30 previously reported cases were analyzed. This infection is clinically similar to other forms of PD peritonitis, with household pet exposure appearing to be the strongest risk factor. Cats are the most commonly implicated pet. Direct contact between the pet and the equipment was commonly reported (25 of 37 patients) but was not necessary for infection to develop. The mean duration of treatment was 15 days. Complication rates were low, with only 11% of patients requiring PD catheter removal. There was no mortality reported. Pasteurella species are a rare cause of PD-associated peritonitis that can be successfully treated with a two-week course of intraperitoneal antibiotics with a high likelihood of catheter salvage.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing antimicrobial resistance has been identified as an important global health threat. Antimicrobial use is a major driver of resistance, especially in the hospital sector. Understanding the extent and type of antimicrobial use in Canadian hospitals will aid in developing national antimicrobial stewardship priorities. In 2002 and 2009, as part of one-day prevalence surveys to quantify hospital-acquired infections in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals, data were collected on the use of systemic antimicrobial agents in all patients in participating hospitals. Specific agents in use (other than antiviral and antiparasitic agents) on the survey day and patient demographic information were collected. In 2002, 2460 of 6747 patients (36.5%) in 28 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy. In 2009, 3989 of 9953 (40.1%) patients in 44 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy (P<0.001). Significantly increased use was observed in central Canada (37.4% to 40.8%) and western Canada (36.9% to 41.1%) but not in eastern Canada (32.9% to 34.1%). In 2009, antimicrobial use was most common on solid organ transplant units (71.0% of patients), intensive care units (68.3%) and hematology/oncology units (65.9%). Compared with 2002, there was a significant decrease in use of first-and second-generation cephalosporins, and significant increases in use of carbapenems, antifungal agents and vancomycin in 2009. Piperacillin-tazobactam, as a proportion of all penicillins, increased from 20% in 2002 to 42.8% in 2009 (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in simultaneous use of >1 agent, from 12.0% of patients in 2002 to 37.7% in 2009. From 2002 to 2009, the prevalence of antimicrobial agent use in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals significantly increased; additionally, increased use of broad-spectrum agents and a marked increase in simultaneous use of multiple agents were observed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada
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    ABSTRACT: A case of pneumonia with associated empyema caused by Clostridium bifermentans is described. C bifermentans is an anaerobic, spore-forming, Gram-positive bacillus. This organism is infrequently reported as a cause of infection in humans, and older publications tended to regard it as nonpathogenic. However, in more recent reports, C bifermentans has been documented as a cause of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, abdominal infections, brain abscess, bacteremia and endocarditis. The present case is the third reported case of empyema caused by C bifermentans, and it serves to further define the spectrum of illness due to this uncommon organism.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing antimicrobial resistance has been identified as an important global health threat. Antimicrobial use is a major driver of resistance, especially in the hospital sector. Understanding the extent and type of antimicrobial use in Canadian hospitals will aid in developing national antimicrobial stewardship priorities. METHODS: In 2002 and 2009, as part of one-day prevalence surveys to quantify hospital-acquired infections in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals, data were collected on the use of systemic antimicrobial agents in all patients in participating hospitals. Specific agents in use (other than antiviral and antiparasitic agents) on the survey day and patient demographic information were collected. RESULTS: In 2002, 2460 of 6747 patients (36.5%) in 28 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy. In 2009, 3989 of 9953 (40.1%) patients in 44 hospitals were receiving antimicrobial therapy (P<0.001). Significantly increased use was observed in central Canada (37.4% to 40.8%) and western Canada (36.9% to 41.1%) but not in eastern Canada (32.9% to 34.1%). In 2009, antimicrobial use was most common on solid organ transplant units (71.0% of patients), intensive care units (68.3%) and hematology/oncology units (65.9%). Compared with 2002, there was a significant decrease in use of firstand second-generation cephalosporins, and significant increases in use of carbapenems, antifungal agents and vancomycin in 2009. Piperacillin-tazobactam, as a proportion of all penicillins, increased from 20% in 2002 to 42.8% in 2009 (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in simultaneous use of >1 agent, from 12.0% of patients in 2002 to 37.7% in 2009. CONCLUSION: From 2002 to 2009, the prevalence of antimicrobial agent use in Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals significantly increased; additionally, increased use of broadspectrum agents and a marked increase in simultaneous use of multiple agents were observed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A 29-year-old female transferred to a tertiary care hospital in Winnipeg, Canada, after a prolonged period of hospitalization in Nigeria was found to be colonized with a VIM-2–producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a NDM-1–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and an OXA-181–producing Escherichia coli. Detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms from a rectal swab was accomplished by screening with chromogenic media, followed by confirmation with the Rapid CARB Screen kit (Rosco Diagnostica, Taastrup, Denmark). This case illustrates the need for clinical microbiology laboratories to have a protocol in place to screen patients for carbapenemase producers, even in countries where these organisms are rarely encountered.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary and lifestyle factors may contribute to diabetes and obesity in the Canadian Inuit. We documented dietary patterns, physical activity level, obesity, blood glucose abnormalities and diabetes prevalence in a Canadian Inuit community. There were 250 Inuit residents of Repulse Bay, Nunavut, who had an interview about diet and physical activity, measurement of weight and height, and laboratory studies (194 subjects). Children, adolescents and younger adults (aged < 48 years) consumed significantly less country food and more processed snack foods and sweet drinks than older adults (aged ≥ 48 years). Only 88 of 250 subjects (35%) reported that they went out on the land once or more per week. Of the 85 children and adolescent subjects (aged 7-17 years), 11 (13%) were obese. Average body mass index for adults (aged ≥ 18 years) was 29 ± 6 kg m(-2) , and 61 adults (37%) were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg m(-2) ). In the 140 adults who had laboratory studies, 18 adults (13%) had a blood glucose abnormality, including 10 adults (7%) with impaired fasting glucose, four adults (3%) with impaired glucose tolerance and six adults (4%) with diabetes (five adults previously undiagnosed). Twelve of the 194 subjects tested (6%) had fasting insulin ≥140 pmol L(-1) (mean, 196 ± 87 pmol L(-1) ). In summary, there was a high prevalence of poor dietary choices, limited physical activity, obesity and type 2 diabetes in this Inuit community. Public health programmes are needed to improve the dietary and health status of this community. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In 31 patients, Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was recovered from bronchoscopy specimens (biopsies and aspirates). The pseudo-outbreak was caused by contaminated ice used to control hemorrhage during bronchoscopy and was associated with deficiencies in equipment cleaning. The bronchoscopy technique was modified, the ice dispenser was disinfected, bronchoscope reprocessing was improved, and there were no recurrences.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine predictors of functional prosthetic use after transtibial or transfemoral amputation. In 52 patients (41 [79%] men; 39 [75%] diabetic patients; mean [SD] age, 59 [14] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 29 [5] kg/m2) who had transtibial (43 limbs) or transfemoral (10 limbs) amputation, most frequently for peripheral vascular disease (44 [85%] patients), an in-person or telephone survey was done 2 years after prosthetic fitting and completion of rehabilitation. Functional prosthetic use (Houghton Scale) was significantly associated with younger patient age, higher household income, greater level of ambulation (K-level) at discharge from rehabilitation, fewer medical comorbidities, and patient satisfaction with prosthetist and cosmetic appearance. Activity level with prosthesis (Locomotor Capabilities Index) was significantly associated with younger patient age, higher level of completed education, greater level of ambulation (K-level) at discharge from rehabilitation, fewer medical comorbidities, and patient satisfaction with prosthetist and prosthetic fit. There was no effect of ethnicity, community of residence, amputation level, living arrangement, premorbid dwelling, or specific comorbidities on frequency of prosthetic use, functional prosthetic use (Houghton Scale), or activity level (Locomotor Capabilities Index). Several factors, including level of ambulation upon completion of rehabilitation, may predict functional prosthetic outcome after lower-limb amputation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · JPO Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics
  • Andrew Walkty · John M Embil · Kim Nichol · James Karlowsky
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria belonging to the Streptococcus anginosus group (Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus) are capable of causing serious pyogenic infections, with a tendency for abscess formation. The present article reports a case of S anginosus group pyomyositis in a 47-year-old man. The pathogen was recovered from one of two blood cultures obtained from the patient, but speciation was initially not performed because the organism was considered to be a contaminant (viridans streptococci group). The diagnosis was ultimately confirmed using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of purulent fluid obtained from a muscle abscess aspirate. The present case serves to emphasize that finding even a single positive blood culture of an organism belonging to the S anginosus group should prompt careful evaluation of the patient for a pyogenic focus of infection. It also highlights the potential utility of 16S ribosomal DNA amplification and sequencing in direct pathogen detection from aspirated fluid in cases of pyomyositis in which antimicrobial therapy was initiated before specimen collection.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada
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    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Canadian Medical Association Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of foot problems on mental health in diabetic patients and their caregivers. Methods Diabetic patients (47 patients with and 49 patients without foot problems), and 21 caregivers of patients with foot problems, completed outcome surveys. Foot problems included ulcers (41 patients [87%]), osteomyelitis (9 patients [19%]), and Charcot foot (8 patients [17%]). Results In contrast with diabetic patients having no foot problems, diabetic patients with foot problems had, on average, significantly greater symptoms of diabetes (Diabetes Symptom Checklist-2 score), greater depression symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] - Depression score), worse health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 [SF-36]: Physical Component Summary score and 6 of 8 subscales), greater pain (Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire), and greater suicidal behavior (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised). There were no significant differences in alcohol use (mean Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test score), anxiety (HADS - Anxiety score), or SF-36 Mental Component Summary score between patients with and without foot problems. Caregivers had marked caregiver burden (average Montgomery Caregiver Burden Assessment score) and frequently had mild to moderate depression and anxiety. Conclusions Foot problems are significantly associated with mental health symptoms in diabetic patients and caregivers. This may affect treatment in the foot clinic, outcome, and quality of life.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Foot and Ankle Surgery
  • Keith Bowering · John M. Embil

    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus which is potentially life-threatening if central nervous system (CNS) dissemination occurs. Sixteen patients with proven or probable CNS blastomycosis are presented. Median duration of symptoms was 90 days; headache and focal neurologic deficit were the most common presenting symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) consistently demonstrated an abnormality, compared to 58% of computed tomography scans. Tissue culture yielded the pathogen in 71% of histology-confirmed cases. All patients who completed treatment of an amphotericin B formulation and extended azole-based therapy did not relapse. Initial nonspecific symptoms lead to delayed diagnosis of CNS blastomycosis. A high index of suspicion is necessary if there is history of contact with an area where B. dermatitidis is endemic. Diagnostic tests should include MRI followed by biopsy for tissue culture and pathology. Optimal treatment utilizes a lipid-based amphotericin B preparation with an extended course of voriconazole.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
  • Article: Foot care
    Keith Bowering · John M. Embil

    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can be associated with serious bacteraemia. The focus of this study was to characterize the molecular epidemiology of VRE from bacteraemia cases that were isolated from 1999 to 2009 as part of Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) surveillance activities. Methods: From 1999 to 2009, enterococci were collected from across Canada in accordance with the CNISP VRE surveillance protocol. MICs were determined using broth microdilution. PCR was used to identify vanA, B, C, D, E, G and L genes. Genetic relatedness was examined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results: A total of 128 cases of bacteraemia were reported to CNISP from 1999 to 2009. In 2007, a significant increase in bacteraemia rates was observed in western and central Canada. Eighty-one of the 128 bacteraemia isolates were received for further characterization and were identified as Enterococcus faecium. The majority of isolates were from western Canada (60.5%), followed by central (37.0%) and eastern (2.5%) Canada. Susceptibilities were as follows: daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and chloramphenicol, 100%; quinupristin/dalfopristin, 96.3%; high-level gentamicin, 71.6%; tetracycline, 50.6%; high-level streptomycin, 44.4%; rifampicin, 21.0%; nitrofurantoin, 11.1%; clindamycin, 8.6%; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, 1.2%; and ampicillin, 0.0%. vanA contributed to vancomycin resistance in 90.1% of isolates and vanB in 9.9%. A total of 17 sequence types (STs) were observed. Beginning in 2006 there was a shift in ST from ST16, ST17, ST154 and ST80 to ST18, ST412, ST203 and ST584. Conclusions: The increase in bacteraemia observed since 2007 in western and central Canada appears to coincide with the shift of MLST STs. All VRE isolates remained susceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol and tigecycline.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Foot infections are a common and serious problem in persons with diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) typically begin in a wound, most often a neuropathic ulceration. While all wounds are colonized with microorganisms, the presence of infection is defined by ≥2 classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are then classified into mild (superficial and limited in size and depth), moderate (deeper or more extensive), or severe (accompanied by systemic signs or metabolic perturbations). This classification system, along with a vascular assessment, helps determine which patients should be hospitalized, which may require special imaging procedures or surgical interventions, and which will require amputation. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with aerobic gram-positive cocci (GPC), and especially staphylococci, the most common causative organisms. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli are frequently copathogens in infections that are chronic or follow antibiotic treatment, and obligate anaerobes may be copathogens in ischemic or necrotic wounds. Wounds without evidence of soft tissue or bone infection do not require antibiotic therapy. For infected wounds, obtain a post-debridement specimen (preferably of tissue) for aerobic and anaerobic culture. Empiric antibiotic therapy can be narrowly targeted at GPC in many acutely infected patients, but those at risk for infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms or with chronic, previously treated, or severe infections usually require broader spectrum regimens. Imaging is helpful in most DFIs; plain radiographs may be sufficient, but magnetic resonance imaging is far more sensitive and specific. Osteomyelitis occurs in many diabetic patients with a foot wound and can be difficult to diagnose (optimally defined by bone culture and histology) and treat (often requiring surgical debridement or resection, and/or prolonged antibiotic therapy). Most DFIs require some surgical intervention, ranging from minor (debridement) to major (resection, amputation). Wounds must also be properly dressed and off-loaded of pressure, and patients need regular follow-up. An ischemic foot may require revascularization, and some nonresponding patients may benefit from selected adjunctive measures. Employing multidisciplinary foot teams improves outcomes. Clinicians and healthcare organizations should attempt to monitor, and thereby improve, their outcomes and processes in caring for DFIs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: A phase 3, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in subjects with diabetic foot infections without osteomyelitis (primary study), or with osteomyelitis (substudy), to determine the efficacy and safety of parenteral (iv) tigecycline (150 mg once-daily) versus 1 g once-daily iv ertapenem ± vancomycin. Among 944 subjects in the primary study who received ≥1 dose of study drug, >85% had type 2 diabetes, ~90% had PEDIS (Perfusion, Extent, Depth/tissue loss, Infection, and Sensation) infection grade 2 or 3 and ~20% reported prior antibiotic failure. For the clinically evaluable population at test-of-cure, 77.5% of tigecycline- and 82.5% of ertapenem ± vancomycin-treated subjects were cured. Corresponding rates for the clinical modified intent-to-treat population were 71.4% and 77.9%, respectively. Clinical cure rates in the substudy were low (<36%) for a subset of tigecycline-treated subjects with osteomyelitis. Nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more often after tigecycline treatment (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively), resulting in significantly higher discontinuation rates in the primary study (nausea P = 0.007, vomiting P < 0.001). In the primary study, tigecycline did not meet criteria for non-inferiority compared with ertapenem ± vancomycin in the treatment of subjects with diabetic foot infections.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2012

Publication Stats

4k Citations
549.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997-2015
    • Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1994-2015
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2007
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2005-2006
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • College of Nursing
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 2002
    • Dalhousie University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    • University of Ottawa
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999
    • Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
      • Department of Microbiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1996
    • Hôpital St-Boniface Hospital
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada