Xiao-Dong Zhao

Chongqing Medical University, Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China

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Publications (47)55.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) are caused by mutations of the WAS gene. The genotype-phenotype association of WAS and XLT have not been fully elucidated. Here, we established the largest database of WAS in China to further determine the potential correlation between genotype and phenotype and long-term outcome. We collected clinical data of 81 WAS/XLT patients, analyzed mutations of WAS gene at the genomic DNA and transcriptional/translational levels, and quantified three different patterns of WAS protein (WASp) expression in PBMCs by flow cytometry. There were 60 unique mutations identified, including 20 novel mutations and eight hotspots, from 75 unrelated families with a total of 81 affected members. Nearly all the patients with XLT had missense mutations and were WASp-positive in the peripheral cells, while only half of the patients with missense mutations exhibited the XLT phenotype and detectable WASp. In contrast, patients with nonsense mutations, deletions, insertions, and complex mutations were WASp-negative and developed the classic WAS phenotype. An equal number of patients with splice anomalies were either WASp-positive or WASp-negative. Long-term survival rates were lower in WASp-negative patients compared to WASp-positive patients. The clinical phenotype of classic WAS or milder XLT and long-term outcome are potentially influenced by the effect of these defects on gene transcription and translation. Patients with missense mutations allowing expression of mutated WASp and those with splice anomalies, which result in generation of multiple products, including normal WASp, present the attenuated XLT phenotype and show better prognosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
  • Nan Chen · Zhi-Yong Zhang · Da-Wei Liu · Wei Liu · Xue-Mei Tang · Xiao-Dong Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune disease (AD) is common in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and patients with WAS who has an AD usually constitute a high-risk group with poor outcome. However, knowledge of AD in WAS is limited in China. In this study, medical records of 53 patients with WAS at Children´s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from April 2004 to January 2014 were evaluated retrospectively and 14 patients (26%) had at least one AD. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) was the most common and detected in 12 patients (23%), other complications included immune thrombocytopenia (n = 1), immune neutropenia (n = 1), autoimmune arthritis (n = 1), and renal injury (n = 1). No significant differences were found in the level of serum immunoglobulins and lymphocyte subsets between the AD group and non-AD group. Although eight patients with AD received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), three patients died of pulmonary infection after HSCT. AD is frequent in Chinese patients with WAS and AIHA was the most common. AD is a poor prognosis factor for WAS and should be treated as early as possible by HSCT. What is Known: • Autoimmune disease is common in patients with WAS. • Manifestations, follow-up finding, and treatment approaches of autoimmune disease in Chinese patients with WAS have received less attention in the literature. What is New: • This study is firstly intended for evaluation of the clinical and immune characteristics of autoimmune disease in a large series Chinese patients with WAS. • AD is frequent in Chinese patients with WAS and AIHA is the most common.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: A spontaneous reversion that restores Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) expression was reported recently. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the reversion event was unclear. In the present study, a WAS patient with a nonsense mutation (155 C>T, R41X) was followed during a three-year period. No expression of WASP was detected in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) in 2009 and a small population of intracellular WASP positive lymphocytes was detected during the following three years. The increasing trend of the revertant genotype was significant. WASP-expressing cells were present mainly CD56+ NK cells and CD8+ T cells. Sorted WASP+ cells were analyzed, indicating that the population of CD3+ T cells increased from 36.81% to 99.8%. Although the revertant cells in vivo may have a growth advantage, the patient presented a persistent autoimmune disease, thrombocytopenia, and died from extensive pulmonary fibrosis. The results suggest that the clinical consequences of T-cell mosaicism in WAS remain difficult to predict and is not sufficient to fully normalize immune functions in patients with WAS. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Human immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mutations within the ELANE gene, which encodes human neutrophil elastase, are the most common genetic causes of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). No cases of SCN have been previously described from a Chinese population. Herein, we describe the clinical, hematologic and molecular characteristics of 7 Chinese SCN cases with novel ELANE mutations. Methods: Seven Chinese pediatric patients (4 males and 3 females) with suspected SCN were enrolled in this study. Clinical data, peripheral blood, bone marrow and immune function were evaluated for SCN. ELANE genomic DNA and cDNA sequences from patients and potential carriers were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. Results: All the7 patients experienced recurrent infection (soft tissue, lung, oral cavity) during a period of 120 days. Noninfectious conditions such as anemia and osteopenia were found in most patients, and absolute peripheral neutrophil counts varied. DNA and cDNA sequencing demonstrated that the patients harbored a range of heterozygous ELANE gene mutations, including substitution, deletion, insertion and frame shift alterations. All the mutations had not been reported previously; however, no mutation carriers were identified among the parents or siblings, even in a family with 2 affected offspring. Conclusion: SCN cases were identified for the first time in China, and all patients carried novel ELANE mutations. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was an effective treatment for most of the SCN patients and prevented life-threatening bacterial infections.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
  • Zhao-Long Chen · Yun-Fei An · Xiao-Dong Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: MonoMAC syndrome is a newly discovered immune deficiency syndrome caused by GATA-2 mutation, which is an autosomal dominant genetic disease. MonoMAC syndrome has typical immune cell abnormalities, with severe infection and is prone to develop into a hematological disease. Therapeutics for this disease mainly relies on symptomatic treatment and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this paper, the research advances in clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of MonoMAC syndrome are reviewed.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder, with phagocytes failing to produce antimicrobial superoxide due to deficient NADPH oxidase activity. Mutations in the gene encoding CYBB are responsible for the majority of the CGD cases. To date, there have been no reports on large samples of children with CGD in China. Therefore, in this study, we described the clinical and molecular features of 38 suspected CGD patients from 36 unrelated Chinese families. Methods: Clinical diagnosis was performed using dihydrorhodamine assays detected by flow cytometry. Molecular analysis was used to identify underlying CGD-causative genes. Results: The mean age of onset in our 38 patients was 3.4 months, while the mean age at diagnosis was 31.7 months. Apart from recurrent pneumonia and abscesses, tuberculosis (TB) and Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infections were notable features in our cohort. Overall, 17 cases died and patient 1 did not participate in the follow-up period . In total, we identified 29 different CYBB gene mutations in 31 patients. We found NCF1 and CYBA mutations in 3 and 2 patients, respectively. In addition, we identified 31 carriers and prenatally diagnosed 4 CGD and 4 healthy fetuses. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrate that children with BCG infections or recurrent TB infections should have immune function screening tests performed. Moreover, newborns with family histories of primary immunodeficiency diseases should avoid of BCG vaccination. Molecular analysis is an important tool for identifying patients, carriers, and high-risk CGD fetuses.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Clinical Immunology
  • Mao-Zhi Tang · Ying Dou · Xiao-Dong Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have indicated that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an important viral pathogen in acute respiratory infections in children, presenting similar manifestations with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). HMPV infection peaks in the winter-spring season and is more prevalent in younger ages, especially in children less than 1 year old. Host innate immune response has been implicated in recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the virus. This recognition occurs through host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll like receptors (TLRs) are one of the largest class of PRRs which initiate and regulate adaptive immune responses. Some studies have indicated that TLR 3 and TLR 4 may play critical roles in hMPV infection. Construction of recombinant mutant viruses lacking one or two N-linked glycosylation sites in the F protein by using site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics may be helpful for developing attenuated live vaccines.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM1) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the CD40L gene. Patients often present with recurrent infections and autoimmune manifestations. We investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of HIGM1 in thirteen patients from the Chinese mainland and examined the proportion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+Treg, Th17, and Th1 cells in the peripheral blood. We identified ten distinct CD40L mutations in eleven patients: one missense mutation, one nonsense mutation, one insertion mutation (in frame), and seven deletions. Six of these mutations were novel. We observed the percentage of Tregs in the peripheral blood of HIGM1 patients decreased markedly compared with that in healthy controls, but no statistically significant differences was found in the percentages of Th17 and Th1. The identified mutations reflect the heterogeneity of the CD40L gene in HIGM1. Precise genetic diagnosis of HIGM1 will enable appropriate therapeutic interventions, reliable detection of carriers, and genetic counseling. Skewed Treg, Th17/Treg, and Th1/Treg profiles may be associated with immune responses to autoimmunity or infection, which requires replication in larger studies.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Human immunology
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    Ying Dou · Yao Zhao · Zhi-Yong Zhang · Hua-Wei Mao · Wen-Wei Tu · Xiao-Dong Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are common causes of respiratory infections in children. Diseases caused by hMPV are generally considered to be less severe than those caused by RSV; the underlying mechanisms, however, remain unknown. In the present study, the expressions of TLRs in airway epithelial cells and lungs of BALB/c mice infected by hMPV or RSV were measured in an attempt to explore the differences in the airway inflammation caused by the two viruses. Our results demonstrate that both hMPV and RSV infection upregulated the expressions of TLRs and inflammatory cytokines. Specifically, the TLR3 expression was revealed to be elevated in vitro and in mouse lungs. IFN-α produced by A549 cells after RSV or hMPV infection remained undistinguishable, whereas production of TNF-α was significantly higher after RSV infection than hMPV infection either in the presence or absence of Poly I:C. This study provides a clue that more severe clinical syndrome of RSV infection may be due to the greater magnitude of induction of airway inflammation by RSV involving TLR3 activation and production of TNF-α.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: Two hundred three children with genetically proven primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) from 197 unrelated families were enrolled from January 2005 to December 2011. Results: On the basis of criteria developed by the International Union of Immunological Societies, 79 patients were diagnosed as "other well-defined immunodeficiency syndromes" (38.9%), 62 (30.6%) with "predominant antibody deficiencies," 26 (12.8%) with "congenital defects of phagocyte," 25 (12.3%) with "T- and B-cell immunodeficiency" and 11 (5.4%) with "diseases of immune dysregulation." The median time to the diagnosis was 27.9 months and the patients had a wide range of clinical presentations. In addition, a total of 23 pathogenic genes were identified and 213 mutations were detected, including 42 novel mutations. Conclusions: With the increase in the awareness of PIDs and diagnostic competence, more PID patients will be diagnosed and we will be able to more accurately identify the frequency and the distribution of PIDs in the most populous country in the world.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
  • Bai-Gang Yan · Xiao-Bao Ren · Xiao-Dong Zhao · Hua Li · Wei Liu · Wen-Feng Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: To discuss the influence of intensive insulin therapy on insulin resistance of patients with severe burn or trauma. Sixty patients with severe burn or trauma hospitalized in the Third People's Hospital of Chongqing or Southwest Hospital of the Third Military Medical University from January 2010 to December 2011 were randomly divided into intensive insulin therapy group (IT, treated with intensive insulin therapy to control the blood glucose to the level of 6.0-8.0 mmol/L) and control group (C, treated with routine therapy) according to the paired grouping method, with 30 patients in each group. Before treatment and on post treatment day (PTD) 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, the levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting plasma insulin were determined. Insulin resistance index and β-cell function index were calculated using homeostasis model assessment. Data were processed with t test, analysis of variance, and LSD test. On PTD 1, 3, 7, 10, levels of fasting blood glucose in group IT [(6.8 ± 1.4), (6.7 ± 1.3), (5.8 ± 1.9), (5.4 ± 1.6) mmol/L] were significantly lower than those of group C [(14.8 ± 4.9), (12.7 ± 3.7), (7.7 ± 1.9), (6.6 ± 1.3) mmol/L, with t values respectively 12.453, 11.386, 5.563, 4.731, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01]. On PTD 3, 7, levels of fasting insulin in group IT [(14 ± 5), (10 ± 3) mU/L] were significantly lower than those of group C [(16 ± 4), (13 ± 4) mU/L, with t values respectively 4.212, 4.364, P values below 0.05]. Levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin in the two groups at each time point were statistically significantly different from those before treatment (with P values below 0.01), except for the level of fasting blood glucose on PTD 3. On PTD 1, 3, 7, 10, levels of insulin resistance index in group IT (1.60 ± 0.80, 1.46 ± 0.70, 0.96 ± 0.21, 0.90 ± 0.23) were significantly lower than those in group C (2.15 ± 1.35, 2.21 ± 1.21, 1.50 ± 0.95, 1.17 ± 0.66, with t values respectively 8.316, 10.607, 7.825, 5.217, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Levels of insulin resistance index of patients in the two groups at each time point after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (with P values below 0.01). On PTD 1, 3, 7, levels of β-cell function index in group IT (4.6 ± 2.9, 4.5 ± 3.3, 4.5 ± 3.6) were significantly higher than those in group C (3.4 ± 2.5, 3.6 ± 2.2, 4.2 ± 2.5, with t values respectively 8.243, 7.914, 4.338, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Levels of β-cell function index in group C on PTD 1 and 3 were significantly lower than that before therapy (with P values below 0.05). Intensive insulin therapy can alleviate insulin resistance of patients with severe burn or trauma.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns
  • Xian Qin · Li-Ping Jiang · Xue-Mei Tang · Mo Wang · En-Mei Liu · Xiao-Dong Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: Background: X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene mutation. XLA patients have an extremely small amount of peripheral B cells and profound deficiency in all immunoglobulin isotypes. We analyzed the clinical, immunologic, and molecular characteristics of children with XLA in an attempt to improve the diagnosis and treatment of XLA in China. Methods: Twenty children with XLA-compatible phenotypes from 18 unrelated families were enrolled in this study. The BTK gene was amplified and sequenced, followed by mutation analysis in these children and their female relatives. Results: Eighteen different mutations of the BTK gene were identified in the 20 patients. Eleven mutations had been reported previously including eight missense mutations (c.994C>T, c.1987C>A, c.1885G>T, c.502T>C, c.1085C>T, c.1816C>T, c.214C>T, c.1912G>A) and three nonsense mutations (c.1267T>A, c.1793C>G, c.1618C>T). Seven novel mutations of the BTK gene were also presented and included five missense mutations (c.134T>A, c.1646T>A, c.1829C>G, c.711G>T, c.1235G>A), one splice-site mutation (c.523+1G>A) and one insertion mutation (c.1024-1025in sTTGCTAAAGCAACTGCTAAAGCAAG). Eight out of 18 mutations of the BTK gene were located in the TK domain, 4 in the PH domain, 4 in the SH2 domain and 2 in the TH domain. Genetic study for carrier status was carried out in 18 families with definite BTK gene mutations. Nine carriers with BTK gene mutations were identified. Six families without carriers were detected, and 3 patients were not tested in this study. Conclusion: Our results support that molecular genetic testing represents an important tool for early confirmed diagnosis of congenital agammaglobulinemia and may allow accurate carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · World Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the main pathogen causing respiratory tract infection in susceptible populations, particularly in children and the elderly. Specimens were collected from hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI), and the hMPV was detected by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full-length G gene of hMPV was amplified by RT-PCR. A total of 1,410 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected from April 2008 to March 2011, and 114 (10.2%) were positive for hMPV. Most hMPV-positive children were <5 years of age. The hMPV infection rate peaked in the spring-summer season of 2008 to 2009 and 2009 to 2010, while hMPV circulated predominantly during the winter-spring season of 2010 to 2011. The full-length G gene of 23 hMPV strains was amplified, and group A and B viruses accounted for 95.7% (22/23) and 4.3% (1/23), respectively. Genotype A2b of hMPV appeared to be predominant during the study period. Three genotypes (A2b, A1, and B1) were prevalent in the epidemic season of 2008 to 2009, and only genotype A2b was identified in the other two seasons (2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011). The G gene of hMPV was predicted to encode proteins with four different lengths, in which one with 210 amino acids was first identified in China. These findings suggest that hMPV was an important pathogen of ALRTI in pediatric patients, especially those <5 years of age. Genotype A2b of hMPV likely predominates in Southwest China, where other genotypes also circulate.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of clinical microbiology
  • Jing Wang · Zheng Liu · Li-ping Jiang · Yun-fei An · Xiao-dong Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: To establish a novel flow cytometry-based assay for measuring the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1, CD107α) on the cell surface of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and evaluate the screening value of this assay for cytotoxic defects-related diseases such as familial hemophagocytic lymphopro-liferative (FHL) syndrome. Three suspected Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) patients, three suspected FHL patients and 10 healthy children were enrolled in the study from October 2010 to June 2011. Their PBMCs were separated and activated overnight with IL-2. After the granule release of NK cells activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and CD8+T cells by anti-CD3, the CD107α expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. The peripheral blood DNA and RNA of the patients were extracted to analyze the pathogenic genes via DNA-PCR/RT-PCR and direct sequencing. The CD107α expression on CTL in the ten healthy children significantly increased after activation by anti-CD3 [(0.18 ± 0.07)% vs. (4.47 ± 2.36)%, P < 0.05] and NK cells after activation by PHA [(0.27 ± 0.07)% vs. (5.80 ± 2.83)%, P < 0.05]. The frequency of CD107α-expression NK cells in three suspected CHS after activation was significantly elevated when compared with the healthy control [0.5%, 0.6% vs. (5.80 ± 2.83)%] except patient 2. After the anti-CD3 activation, the frequency of CD107α expression on CTL cells also showed no significant difference [0.3%, 0.9%, 0.2% vs. (4.47 ± 2.36)%] in three patients. All of their mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) showed the same trend. Patient 1 and 3 were identified to have LYST mutations (Patient 1: c.5411-5414 del TTTC, L1741fsX1758 and c.7975 C > T, R2596X; Patient 3: c.4863G > A, R1563H and c.5392-5393delAA, E1739fsX1756). There was no mutation identified in the LYST gene for patient 2. CD107α expression of NK cells and CTL in the suspected FHL patients and in mirror of these findings, no underlying gene variation of PRF, MUNC13-4 and STX11 were identified. We developed a method to quantitatively assess cytotoxicity of the NK cells and CTL by measuring the expression of CD107α on the cell membrane, which appeared to be an effective and rapid screening test for cytotoxic defects-related diseases such as FHL and other HLH secondary to primary immunodeficiency.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Deficiency of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) caused by XIAP/BIRC4 gene mutations is an inherited immune defect recognized as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2. This disease is mainly observed in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) often associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. We described nine Japanese patients from six unrelated families with XIAP deficiency and studied XIAP protein expression, XIAP gene analysis, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell counts, and the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) alloantigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Of the nine patients, eight patients presented with symptoms in infancy or early childhood. Five patients presented with recurrent HLH, one of whom had severe HLH and died after cord blood transplantation. One patient presented with colitis, as did another patient's maternal uncle, who died of colitis at 4 years of age prior to diagnosis with XIAP deficiency. Interestingly, a 17-year-old patient was asymptomatic, while his younger brother suffered from recurrent HLH and EBV infection. Seven out of eight patients showed decreased XIAP protein expression. iNKT cells from patients with XIAP deficiency were significantly decreased as compared with age-matched healthy controls. These results in our Japanese cohort are compatible with previous studies, confirming the clinical characteristics of XIAP deficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Clinical Immunology
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    Xue-Mei Tang · Zong-Yi Zou · Xiao-Dong Zhao · Xue-Lan Chen · Yu Zhang · Qiu Li
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    ABSTRACT: We present a retrospective review of DNA immu-noadsorption (DNA-IA) therapy on clinical symptoms as well as indicators in pediatric cases with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and follow up the short-term curative effects. 16 SLE cases were treated by DNA-IA for 3 times every other day. We observed the changes on clinical manifestations and immunological indicators, in order to compare the alteration of these indicators including clinical manifestations, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Active Index (SLEDAI) scores, 24 h-urinary protein excretion, autoantibodies, serum IgG and complement C3. 13 cases were fol-lowed up regularly, within 3 months after DNA-IA therapy, 12 cases of clinical manifestations improved (92.3%). SLEDAI scores in 10 cases decreased from (16.20 ± 12.54) to less than 5 (76.9%), 8 cases of ANA, anti-DNA antibodies were negative (61.5%), 13 cases with IgG level in serum recovered to normal (10.39 ± 4.38) g/L, C3 level rose to normal (1.06 ± 0.23) g/L. 3 to 6 months after IA, clinical manifestations and labo-ratory examinations in all cases got maximum im-proved. 9 months after IA, SLEDAI score in 2 cases (15.4%) rose to more than 5, anti-DNA antibody in 2 cases (15.4%) became positive, and 1case (7.7%) with serum C3 decreased again. 2 cases died from multiple organs dysfunction within 3 to 6 months after IA. No serious complications were found during DNA-IA. We recommend that DNA immunoadsorption is a safe and effective therapy for active childhood-onset SLE, which could improve clinical symptoms, elimi-nate ANA and anti-DNA antibodies. Combining with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, DNA-IA could significantly reduce the activity of disease and protect vital organs function in the short term.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the value of gene analysis of amniotic fluid exfoliated cells and WASP detection from cord blood in prenatal diagnosis of high-risk fetus with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Seven patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome were diagnosed by gene analysis and WASP detected by flow cytometry from 2008 to 2010. After detailed inquiry for medical history and gene analysis of related family members, seven pedigree trees were drawn, including 15 carriers of abnormal genes. From 2008 to 2011, seven samples of amniotic cell gotten by amniocentesis were collected from seven high-risk pregnant women with abnormal gene during 18 to 20 gestational weeks. WASP gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA of amniotic cell gotten and sequencing was performed directly on the PCR products forward and reversely. Embryo blood sample was collected from one high-risk fetus by needle puncture of bilical blood vessel and WASP expression was detected by flow cytometry. Karyotyping was performed in amniotic cell gotten cultivated by orthotope slice and G band staining. Gene analysis of WASP, WASP expression detected by flow cytometry and evaluation of immune function were reexamined in high-risk fetus after delivery. Amniocentensis and culture of amniotic cell succeeded in all the seven fetuses. Gene analysis and karyotyping showed that one male fetus and four female fetusse were normal and two female fetuses were carriers. WASP expression detected from embryo blood sample of the patient was normal. After delivery, the result of gene analysis, WASP detection and evaluation of immune function was the same as that of prenatal diagnosis. Karyotyping, gene analysis and WASP detection of cord blood can provide reliable service of prenatal diagnosis for high-risk pregnant women with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) is a rare, life-threatening immune disorder, caused by mutations of the gene for the γ-chain (γc) of the interleukin-2 receptor, IL2RG. We analyzed the clinical, immunologic, and molecular characteristics of children with X-SCID, attempting to improve the diagnosis and treatment of X-SCID in China. Methods X-SCID was suspected in male infants with recurrent or persistent infections. Eleven male infants from ten unrelated Chinese families were included. The IL2RG gene was amplified and sequenced, followed by mutation analysis in these children and their female relatives. X-linked short tandem repeat (X-STR) typing was done to define the maternal lymphocyte engraftment. Results The 11 children exhibited recurrent infections and 10 of them had lymphopenia. B cells were present in all patients, T cells were markedly reduced in 10, and NK cells were markedly reduced in 9. Nine IL2RG gene mutations were identified in the 11 children, with 5 novel mutations. One patient was found to have the maternal lymphocyte engraftment. Conclusion The clinical presentations and immunologic characteristics of the X-SCID patients were accordingly quite uniform despite the heterogeneity of mutations locating almost in the entire γc gene.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · World Journal of Pediatrics
  • Chun-mei Yu · Rong-pei Li · Xin Chen · Ping Liu · Xiao-dong Zhao
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    ABSTRACT: This study was to evaluate the replication and pathogenicity of attenuated human metapneumovirus (HMPV) mutants in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. SCID mice were intranasally infected with either wild type GFP-rHMPV (WT), or mutant viruses (M1, M2 and M4) with the N-linked glycosylation(s) of the F protein removed. The organs were collected for viral isolation, titration, pulmonary histopathology and mRNA detection by PCR at different time points. WT or mutant viruses were successfully isolated from the lungs of infected mice after inoculation. The titers of WT and M1 peaked on 5th day and remained detectable until 14th day post-inoculation. M2 reached approximately 4 logs lower titer on 5th and 9th day post-inoculation as compared to WT and M1. M4 showed similar growth kinetics to M2. Viral signal was never detected from the heart, liver, spleen, kidney and brain on 5th day post-inoculation. The pulmonary pathology score in the M1 infected mice was similar to WT infected mice but higher than in M2 or M4 infected mice. WT and HMPV mutants can thus only replicate in the lungs of SCID mice. Attenuated M2 and M4 may be considered as candidates for the preparation of vaccine against HMPV.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical features of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), to analysis the outcome of HLH-2004 protocol, and to explore the prognostic factors in EBV-HLH patients. The clinical features at onset and outcome of HLH-2004 protocol from 83 pediatric patients with EBV-HLH enrolled from January 2006 to December 2009 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate COX regression analysis were used to identify statistically significant prognostic factors. (1) Among the 83 patients, 45 were males and 38 were females. The age of onset ranged from 6 months to 14 years 4 months. 44 patients were treated with HLH-2004, and 3-year overall survival (OS) was (55.8 ± 7.9)%. (2) The most common clinical features of EBV-HLH included high fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and coagulopathy; The respiratory symptoms, angina phlogistic, skin rashes, neurologic abnormality were rare. 97.3% of patients showed an elevation of serum ferritin, liver dysfunction and lipid metabolism disorders was found in most of EBV-HLH patients. 89.0% of patient had hemophagocytosis in bone marrow at diagnosis of EBV-HLH. (3) COX regression analysis revealed that anemia degree, serum albumin < 30 g/L, CD4:CD8 abnormity, NK cell < 3%, treatment protocol were related with the prognosis significantly (P < 0.05). EBV-HLH in pediatric patients has severe clinical feature and poor prognosis. HLH-2004 protocol is an effective treatment for patients with EBV-HLH. Symptomatic treatment can't rescue the patients of EBV-HLH.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi