[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A very virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDVks) was isolated from the bursae of Fabricius of IBDV-affected broiler chickens. Following 43 serial passages in specific pathogen-free embryonated eggs, an attenuated strain was established (IBDVmb). Dosages of IBDVmb in the range 10(2) to 10(4) embryo infective dose of 50% were found to be safe and protective for commercial chicks. Chickens vaccinated with live vaccine containing IBDVmb responded with precipitating and type-specific neutralizing antibodies, and were immune to subsequent challenge with a very virulent IBDV. IBDVmb has been used as an attenuated vaccine throughout the world since 1993. A comparison of the full sequences of the virulent and attenuated strains (IBDVks and IBDVmb, respectively) revealed seven nucleotides that were different, four of them leading to changes in the amino-acid sequence. Comparison of the protein sequence of these strains and published sequences of very virulent and attenuated phenotypes lead us to suggest that the novel difference responsible for virulence of the Israeli strains are: residue 272 (VP2, very conserved site) and residue 527 (VP4), both in segment A, and in segment B (VP1) residues 96 and 161 (both conserved). Our study strengthens the possibility that more than one protein is involved in IBDV attenuation. In all reports, including ours, virulence was reduced without affecting antigenicity of the neutralizing epitopes in VP2. This could have practical implications for attenuated-vaccine development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal sites are one of the main natural ports of entry into the body. Stimulation of a local response by antibodies as the systemic protection may enhance the efficacy of non-living vaccines, and allow for vaccination by subunit vaccines without the need for injection. Mucosal or skin vaccination necessitates a suitable adjuvant and carrier. Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and its B subunit (LTB) have been found to be effective adjuvants. The aim of this study was to efficiently produce and purify recombinant LTB (brLTB), and examine its adjuvant and carrier properties. The gene encoding LTB was cloned and expressed in E. coli, and the product was found to have a pentameric form with the ability to bind the cell receptor, GM1 ganglioside. A one-step method for efficient purification and concentration of brLTB was developed. Both oral and intramuscular vaccination with purified brLTB yielded high antibody titers, which detected the whole toxin. In an attempt to test its adjuvant characteristics, brLTB was mixed with either BSA or a recombinant protein (rKnob of egg drop syndrome adenovirus) and delivered intramuscularly, orally or transcutaneously. The addition of brLTB significantly elevated the antibody response in groups vaccinated orally and transcutaneously, but had no influence in injected groups. Vaccination with another recombinant protein, (viral protein 2 of infectious bursal disease virus) supplemented with brLTB did not elevate the antibody response, as compared to vaccination with the antigen alone. These results demonstrate that the addition of brLTB makes oral and transcutaneous vaccination with protein antigens possible.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) is an adenovirus that infects turkeys and causes immunosuppression and mortality. The virus used for the inactivated vaccine is extracted from spleens of infected turkeys, since its propagation in tissue cultures or embryonated eggs is unsuitable for mass production. The aim of this study was to develop a subunit vaccine based on a capsid protein of the virus. The knob protein, together with an adjacent part of the shaft domain pertaining to the fiber protein of HEV, was expressed in Escherichia coli and tested as a vaccine. Vaccination with this recombinant protein conferred protection against challenge in controlled and in floor-pen experiments. This finding suggests that the knob protein may be used as safe and efficient vaccine against hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys. The possibility that the knob proteins of other adenoviruses may be protective and serve as vaccine is also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) have been studied intensively as vaccines against diseases caused by those bacteria and as adjuvants for mucosal vaccination. Two major problems interfere with the use of these promising adjuvants: their toxicity and the residual bacterial endotoxins mixed with the desired LT. In this study, subunit B of LT was expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast cells (yrLTB) and the recombinant protein was purified and concentrated by ion-exchange chromatography. The final yield of the recombinant protein was 5-8 mg/l induction medium. The molecule is in pentameric form and binds to GM1 gangliosides. When given orally to chickens, anti-LTB antibodies were produced, exhibiting its ability to cross the digestive system and induce an immune response. The adjuvant activity of yrLTB was proven by fusing it to viral protein 2 (VP2) of infectious bursal disease virus. Birds intramuscularly vaccinated with this molecule exhibit 70-100% protection, in a dose-response-dependent manner. This method eliminated the bacterial endotoxins and enabled the production of large quantities of LTB. Expression in a eukaryotic system allows the production of fusion proteins that require post-translational modifications. This may allow oral vaccination with a protein fused to yrLTB. The approach described in this study will enable the efficient production of a non-toxic, eukaryotically expressed enterotoxin as a vaccine against the toxin itself or as a carrier or adjuvant for foreign vaccine molecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, an infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. One of the most effective types of inactivated IBDV vaccine is produced by infecting young chickens with a virulent strain, sacrificing them and extracting the virus from the bursa of Fabricius. The goal of this study was to produce an effective subunit vaccine against IBDV thereby providing an effective means of combating the disease. In areas in which the bursa-derived vaccine is in use, this subunit vaccine would eliminate the use of live birds for the production of inactivated vaccines. The gene for viral protein 2 (VP2) of IBDV was cloned into a Pichia pastoris expression system. This efficient system allowed us to meet the need for inexpensive vaccines required by the poultry industry. Following expression and scale-up, the protein was used to vaccinate chickens, against either Gumboro disease alone or in combination with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Full protection was conferred against IBDV following vaccination with the subunit recombinant vaccine. No untoward influence on the response to the NDV vaccine was recorded. Over 250 million birds have already been vaccinated with this vaccine. The advantages of a subunit vaccine over an inactivated one are discussed. This approach will enable rapid adjustment to new virulent strains if and when they appear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the effectiveness of antibodies against the hexon, fiber or a fiber fragment of an avian adenovirus egg-drop syndrome (EDS), in neutralizing the virus was tested. The fiber protein is responsible for binding the virus to the target cell. The fiber fragment knob-s comprises the carboxy-terminal knob domain and 34 amino acids of the immediately adjacent shaft domain of the adenovirus fiber protein. The hexon, fiber capsid protein and knob-s were produced in E. coli and injected into chickens. Antibodies that were produced against the whole fiber protein showed some hemagglutination inhibition (HI) activity. Antibodies produced against the knob-s protein showed HI activity and serum neutralization (SN) activity similar to the positive control-whole virus vaccine. We assume that production of only part of the fiber enables the protein produced in E. coli to fold correctly. Antibodies produced against the hexon protein showed no SN activity. In summary, knob-s induced SN and HI antibodies against EDS virus at a rate similar to the whole virus and were significantly more efficient than the full-length fiber. The recombinant knob-s protein may be used as a vaccine against pathogenic adenovirus infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experimental broiler lines were developed by divergent selection for high (HH) and low (LL) antibody response to Escherichia coli. Antibody response of these lines to immunization with a commercial vaccine (whole inactivated virus, WIV) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) or with proteins VP2 and VP3 of that virus, and their resistance to challenge with a virulent IBDV, were tested. The study was performed with 213 male and female chicks from the tenth generation of the HH and LL lines. At 15 d of age, after disappearance of maternal antibodies, chicks from each line were randomly divided into four groups and injected with WIV, VP2, VP3, or adjuvant alone as a negative control. Chicks were bled 18 d postinjection, and antibody titers were determined by ELISA. Ten days later, the chicks were challenged with a virulent strain of the virus and killed after 10 d; the ratio of bursa of Fabricius to 100 g BW was determined for each bird. Significant differences in antibody titers were found among immunized and control chicks. Chicks from the HH line exhibited significantly higher antibody titers than LL chicks in response to WIV and VP2 vaccines but not to VP3 vaccine. Following challenge, bursa weight (relative to BW) of HH and LL chicks vaccinated with WIV and VP2 was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that of chicks vaccinated with VP3 or the challenged unvaccinated control. No difference was found in this parameter between the latter two groups. Possible explanations for the differences in the line response to VP2 and VP3 are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A baculovirus-derived recombinant VP2 (rVP2) subunit vaccine elicited anti-infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) antibodies in commercial flocks. The induced antibody levels were similar to those evoked against IBDV by a commercial vaccine. The levels remained higher than that of the negative controls for at least four and a half months in commercial chickens. The antibodies were also transferred to their offspring and were detected in the blood of the progeny for at least 20 days after hatching. These results, along with former data, that show that antibodies elicited by baculovirus rVP2 confer protection to chickens from IBDV [J. Pitcovski et al. (1996), Insect cell-derived VP2 of infectious bursal disease confers protection against the disease in chickens. Avian Diseases, 40, 753-761], imply that the baculovirus-derived rVP2 subunit may serve as a successful vaccine for commercial breeding flocks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine incorporated in oil alone or in killed-in-oil ND vaccine. Incorporation of live vaccine in oil emulsions was carried out just prior to vaccination. Live-in-oil ND vaccine containing 106.0 median embryo lethal doses (ELD50/dose induced the same protection following challenge and the same level of antibody at 42 days post-vaccination as did commercial killed-in-oil ND vaccine containing about 250 times as much antigen (108.4 ELD50/dose). Incorporation of live ND vaccine in killed-in-oil vaccine contributed markedly to protection rates and antibody levels, as compared to those obtained following vaccination with killed-in-oil vaccine only. One-day-old turkey poults also showed the advantage of incorporation of live ND vaccine in killed-in-oil vaccine when challenged 3 months post-vaccination. One-day-old broiler chicks, vaccinated with live ND and infectious bursal disease vaccine (IBD) incorporated in killed-in-oil combined ND + IBD vaccine, showed better protection against challenge with IBDV and higher antibody levels to NDV as compared to vaccination with killed-in-oil vaccine alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparisons between sequences of very virulent, virulent, and attenuated strains of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) may indicate sites on the genome co-inciding with virulence. In an attempt to detect if such sites exist on the coding region of segment B, viral protein 1 (VP1) (encoded for by segment B) of a very virulent Israeli virus, IL3; its attenuated strain, IL4; and the attenuated Winterfield vaccine 2512 were cloned and sequenced. A comparison was made among them and with six other published sequences of segment B. Six nucleic acids distinguished between IL3 and IL4, three of which were predicted to be expressed as amino acids. A striking similarity between the VP1 sequences of 2512 and P2 (an attenuated German strain) was discovered. Although conclusions could not be drawn concerning attenuation sites on VP1, the analysis performed on the VP1 sequences of the two Israeli strains and the Winterfield 2512 strain sheds light on the phylogeny of IBDV and contributes to the accumulating information that may lead to the identification of virulence-related sites of this virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has become a serious economic problem as a result of the emergence of new and very virulent strains. Most of the antibodies produced against IBDV are for the structural proteins viral protein (VP) 2 (VP2) and VP3. The purpose of this study was to test the potential of recombinant VP3 to induce protective antibodies. The gene for VP3 was isolated from a virulent strain of the virus and cloned into prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic (baculovirus) expression systems. The protein expressed by both systems was of the expected size (32 kD) and was detected by anti-IBDV antibodies. Following partial purification, the polypeptides were injected into intact birds and induced the production of high levels of anti-IBDV antibodies, as detected by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. These antibodies did not prevent changes in the bursa and mortality when birds were challenged with a virulent IBDV strain after vaccination with the recombinant VP3. The results show that VP3 polypeptide cannot be used as a subunit vaccine against IBDV and raise questions concerning the nature of the neutralizing epitope on this structural protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) belongs to the Adenoviridae family, a subgroup of adenoviruses (Ads) that infect avian species. In this article, the complete DNA sequence and the genome organization of the virus are described. The full-length of the genome was found to be 26,263 bp, shorter than the DNA of any other Ad described so far. The G + C content of the genome is 34.93%. There are short terminal repeats (39 bp), as described for other Ads. Genes were identified by comparison of the DNA and predicted amino acid sequences with published sequences of other Ads. The organization of the genome in respect to late genes (52K, IIIa, penton base, core protein, hexon, endopeptidase, 100K, pVIII, and fiber), early region 2 genes (polymerase, terminal protein, and DNA binding protein), and intermediate gene IVa2 was found to be similar to that of other human and avian Ad genomes. No sequences similar to E1 and E4 regions were found. Very low similarity to ovine E3 region was found. Open reading frames were identified with no similarity to any published Ad sequence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has become a major problem in recent years. Conventional vaccines make use of attenuated or inactivated viral strains, but these are gradually losing their effectiveness. We investigated the possibility of using purified VP2, a subunit of IBDV structural protein expressed in insect cells, as a vaccine. The VP2 gene was cloned into pAcYM1. The cloned gene was expressed in a baculovirus system, giving rise to a high quantity of recombinant VP2 (rVP2) protein. The length of the VP2 is 453 amino acids, and it contains two additional amino acids of the baculovirus at the carboxyl terminus. The molecular mass of the protein is about 48 kD. The rVP2 protein reacted with antibodies raised against viral VP2 and had a similar molecular weight. This protein was tested in a controlled vaccination experiment and compared with an inactivated commercial vaccine. High levels of antibodies were raised by the vaccinated birds. The vaccinated birds were challenged with a pathogenic viral strain. rVP2-vaccinated chickens exhibited high resistance to the virus. No mortality or weight changes in the bursa of Fabricius were observed in the vaccinated birds, whereas in the negative control birds, vaccinated with phosphate buffer, up to 50% mortality was found. Higher levels of antibodies were found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in birds vaccinated with rVP2 compared with those vaccinated with the commercial vaccine. This study suggests the potential use of the isolated rVP2 as a subunit vaccine.