Yogesh K. Vohra

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States

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Publications (390)812.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Climate change impacts were investigated in two species of crustose Antarctic macroalgae that may be natural competitors in their habitat. The seawater parameters oceanic pH and temperature were modified to near future projections for the western Antarctic Peninsula in microcosm experiments. Experiments included two crustose algae, the calcified coralline alga Clathromorphum obtectulum and the fleshy encrusting rhodophyte Hildenbrandia sp., and were run for six weeks. Treatments reflected near future ocean conditions under climate change predictions: increased temperature (3.5°C×pH8.1), increased pCO2 (1.5°C×pH7.8), combined factors (3.5°C×pH7.8), and ambient conditions (1.5°C×pH8.1). The physiological responses of the algae were evaluated through photosynthetic parameters (slope to saturation of photo centers (α), saturating irradiance (Ek), maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax), maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm)), growth, chlorophyll a concentration, and for C. obtectulum calcium carbonate content and Mg/Ca ratio. No negative impacts of elevated temperature or increased pCO2 were observed in either species. The fleshy alga decreased in size in low pH and high temperature treatments alone, but increased growth significantly when these factors were combined. Photosynthetic parameters were depressed by increased temperature in the calcified species and pH in the fleshy species but no significant differences were observed in other parameters in either species. This indicates that Hildenbrandia sp. may have a competitive advantage for space in the subtidal environment in near future oceanic conditions. However because benthic ecology in this geographic region is not well understood it is uncertain how these results will ultimately impact the community.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
  • Spencer J Smith · Jeffrey M Montgomery · Yogesh K Vohra
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    ABSTRACT: High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped heating diamond anvil. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in five different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I → orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II → unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. This new data is combined with previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and x-ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
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    ABSTRACT: Electrospinning technique was utilized to engineer a small-diameter (id = 4 mm) tubular graft. The tubular graft was made from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and poliglecaprone with 3:1 (PCL:PGC) ratio. Enzymatic degradation effect on the mechanical properties and fiber morphology in the presence of lipase enzyme were observed. Significant changes in tensile strength (1.86-1.49 MPa) and strain (245-205 %) were noticed after 1 month in vitro degradation. The fiber breakage was clearly evident through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 4 weeks in vitro degradation. Then, the graft was coated with a collagenous protein matrix to impart bioactivity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aortic artery smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) attachment on the coated graft were observed in static condition. Further, HUVECs were seeded on the lumen surface of the grafts and exposed to laminar shear stress for 12 h to understand the cell attachment. The coated graft was aged in PBS solution (pH 7.3) at 37 °C for 1 month to understand the coating stability. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested the erosion of the protein matrix from the coated graft under in vitro condition.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed the first high-pressure magnetotransport and x-ray diffraction measurements on ferromagnetic LaCo5, confirming the theoretically predicted electronic topological transition driving the magneto-elastic collapse seen in the related compound YCo5. Our x-ray diffraction results show an anisotropic lattice collapse of the c-axis near 10 GPa that is also commensurate with a change in the majority charge carriers evident from high-pressure Hall effect measurements. The coupling of the electronic, magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom is further substantiated by the evolution of the anomalous Hall effect, which couples to the magnetization of the ordered state of LaCo5.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: Using high-pressure magnetotransport techniques we have discovered superconductivity in Bi2Te, a member of the infinitely adaptive (Bi2)m(Bi2Te3)n series, whose end members, Bi and Bi2Te3, can be tuned to display topological surface states or superconductivity. Bi2Te has a maximum Tc= 8.6 K at P= 14.5 GPa and goes through multiple high pressure phase transitions, ultimately collapsing into a bcc structure that suggests a universal behavior across the series. High-pressure magnetoresistance and Hall measurements suggest a semi-metal to metal transition near 5.4 GPa, which accompanies the hexagonal to intermediate phase transition seen via x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition, the linearity of Hc2(T) exceeds the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg limit, even in the extreme spin-orbit scattering limit, yet is consistent with other strong spin-orbit materials. Considering these results in combination with similar reports on strong spin-orbit scattering materials seen in the literature, we suggest the need for a new theory that can address the unconventional nature of their superconducting states.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report thermodynamic and transport properties, and also theoretical calculations, for Cu-based compound Ca2Cu6P5 and compare with CaCu(2-x)P2. Both materials have layers of edge-sharing copper pnictide tetrahedral CuP4, similar to Fe-As and Fe-Se layers (with FeAs4, FeSe4) in the iron-based superconductors. Despite the presence of this similar transition-metal pnictide layer, we find that both Ca2Cu6P5 and CaCu(2-x)P2 have temperature-independent magnetic susceptibility and show metallic behavior with no evidence of either magnetic ordering or superconductivity down to 1.8 K. CaCu(2-x)P2 is slightly off-stoichiometric, with delta = 0.14. Theoretical calculations suggest that unlike Fe 3d-based magnetic materials with a large density of states (DOS) at the Fermi surface, Cu have comparatively low DOS, with the majority of the 3d spectral weight located well below Fermi level. The room-temperature resistivity value of Ca2Cu6P5 is only 9 micro ohm-cm, due to a substantial plasma frequency and an inferred electron-phonon coupling lambda of 0.073 (significantly smaller than that of metallic Cu). Also, microscopy result shows that Cu-Cu distance along the c-axis within the double layers can be very short (2.5 A), even shorter than metallic elemental copper bond (2.56 A). The value of dp over dT for CaCu(2-x)P2 at 300 K is approximately three times larger than in Ca2Cu6P5, which suggests the likelihood of stronger electron-phonon coupling. This study shows that the details of Cu-P layers and bonding are important for their transport characteristics. In addition, it emphasizes the remarkable character of the DOS of '122' iron-based materials, despite much structural similarities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagram of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) was determined by in situ synchrotron infrared radiation spectroscopy with resistively heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) technique. The stability of high P-T FOX-7 polymorphs is established from ambient pressure up to 10 GPa and temperatures until decomposition. The phase diagram indicates two near isobaric phase boundaries at ~2 GPa (α → I) and ~5 GPa (I → II) that persists from 25oC until the onset of decomposition at ~300oC. In addition, the ambient pressure, high temperature α→β phase transition (~111oC) lies along a steep boundary (~100 oC/GPa) with a α-β-δ triple point at ~1 GPa and 300 oC. A 0.9 GPa isobaric temperature ramping measurement indicates a limited stability range for the γ-phase between 0.5 - 0.9 GPa and 180 - 260oC terminating in a β-γ-δ triple point. With increasing pressure, the δ-phase exhibited a small negative dT/dP slope (up to ~0.2 GPa) before turning over to a positive 70oC/GPa slope, at higher pressures. The decomposition boundary (~55oC/GPa) was identified through the emergence of spectroscopic signatures of the characteristic decomposition products as well as trapped inclusions within the solid KBr pressure media.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry A
  • Vinoy Thomas · Danna Nozik · Harsh Patel · Raj K. Singh · Yogesh K. Vohra
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    ABSTRACT: Tubular grafts were fabricated from blends of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGC) polymers and coated with an extracellular matrix containing collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans, but not growth factors (HuBiogel™). Multifunctional scaffolds from polymer blends and membrane proteins provide the necessary biomechanics and biological functions for tissue regeneration. Two crosslinking agents, a natural crosslinker namely genipin (Gp) and a carbodiimide reagent namely 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), were used for further stabilizing the protein matrix and the effect of crosslinking was evaluated for structural, morphological, mechanical properties using SEM, DSC and DMA. SEM images and fiber diameter distribution showed fiber-size between 0.2 μm to 1 μm with the majority of fiber diameters being under 500 nm, indicating upper range of protein fiber-sizes (for example, collagen fibers in extracellular matrix are in 50 to 500 nm diameter range). HB coating did not affect the mechanical properties, but increased its hydrophilicity of the graft. Overall data showed that PCL/PGC blends with 3:1 mass ratio exhibited mechanical properties comparable to those of human native arteries (tensile strength of 1-2 MPa and Young’s modulus of <10 MPa). Additionally, the effect of crosslinking on coating stability was investigated to assure the retention of proteins on scaffold for effective cell-matrix interactions.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ultra-high static pressures have been achieved in the laboratory using a two-stage micro-ball nanodiamond anvils as well as a two-stage micro-paired diamond anvils machined using a focused ion-beam system. The two-stage diamond anvils’ designs implemented thus far suffer from a limitation of one diamond anvil sliding past another anvil at extreme conditions. We describe a new method of fabricating two-stage diamond micro-anvils using a tungsten mask on a standard diamond anvil followed by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) homoepitaxial diamond growth. A prototype two-stage diamond anvil with 300 µm culet and with a CVD diamond second stage of 50 µm in diameter was fabricated. We have carried out preliminary high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on a sample of rare-earth metal lutetium sample with a copper pressure standard to 86 GPa. The micro-anvil grown by CVD remained intact during indentation of gasket as well as on decompression from the highest pressure of 86 GPa.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · High Pressure Research
  • Gopi K. Samudrala · Samuel L. Moore · Yogesh K. Vohra
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    ABSTRACT: Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. We demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Materials
  • J R Jeffries · N P Butch · Y K Vohra · S T Weir
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    ABSTRACT: The group V-VI compounds—like Bi2Se3, Sb2Te3, or Bi2Te3—have been widely studied in recent years for their bulk topological properties. The high-Z members of this series form with the same crystal structure, and are therefore amenable to isostructural substitution studies. It is possible to tune the Bi-Sb and Te-Se ratios such that the material exhibits insulating behavior, thus providing an excellent platform for understanding how a topological insulator evolves with applied pressure. We report our observations of the pressure-dependent electrical transport and crystal structure of a pseudobinary (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 compound. Similar to some of its sister compounds, the (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 pseudobinary compound undergoes multiple, pressure-induced phase transformations that result in metallization, the onset of a close-packed crystal structure, and the development of distinct superconducting phases.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
  • Samuel L. Moore · Yogesh K. Vohra
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond growth on (111)-diamond surfaces has received increased attention lately because of the use of N-V related centers in quantum computing as well as application of these defect centers in sensing nano-Tesla strength magnetic fields. We have carried out a detailed study of homoepitaxial diamond deposition on (111)-single crystal diamond (SCD) surfaces using a 1.2 kW microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) system employing methane/hydrogen/nitrogen/oxygen gas phase chemistry. We have utilized Type Ib (111)-oriented single crystal diamonds as seed crystals in our study. The homoepitaxially grown diamond films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The nitrogen concentration in the plasma was carefully varied between 0 and 1500 ppm while a ppm level of silicon impurity is present in the plasma from the quartz bell jar. The concentration of N-V defect centers with PL zero phonon lines (ZPL) at 575nm and 637nm and the Si-defect center with a ZPL at 737nm were experimentally detected from a variation in CVD growth conditions and were quantitatively studied. Altering nitrogen and oxygen concentration in the plasma was observed to directly affect N-V and Si-defect incorporation into the (111)-oriented diamond lattice and these findings are presented.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · MRS Online Proceeding Library
  • Danna Nozik · Harsh Patel · Yogesh Vohra · Vinoy Thomas
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    ABSTRACT: There is a huge demand for small-diameter vascular grafts, as the majority of vascular disease cases involve small-caliber blood vessels. Recently, electrospinning has gained attention as a valuable technique for the fabrication of scaffolds for blood vessel engineering, as electrospinning produces nanofibers that closely approximate the structure of native extracellular matrix (ECM). Accordingly, electrospun scaffolds were fabricated in a 3D tubular structure from a blend of the synthetic polymers, viscoelastic and durable polycaprolactone (PCL) and relatively fast-degrading shape memory poliglecaprone (PGC). The scaffolds were coated with a physiological biomatrix, HuBiogelTM. The biohybrid graft was found to exhibit mechanical properties comparable to those of native blood vessels, and the HuBiogelTM coating imparted bioactivity. The coating was crosslinked using EDC and the natural crosslinker genipin (Gp) to improve its stability in physiological conditions. This study evaluated the effects of EDC- and Gp-crosslinking on the scaffold mechanical, structural, and morphological properties. Additionally, coating stability was studied to assure the presence of collagenous biomatrix on the scaffold for effective cell-matrix interactions. Mechanical testing showed little difference between EDC- and Gp-crosslinked scaffolds; both retained mechanical properties in the range of native human arteries (tensile strength 1-2 MPa, tensile modulus 9-12 MPa). SEM imaging revealed that while crosslinking with EDC resulted in an increase in fiber diameter compared to uncrosslinked scaffolds, Gp-crosslinking did not affect fiber diameter; the majority of fibers in EDC and Gp-crosslinked scaffolds had diameters ranging from approximately 0.9 – 1.4 microns and 0.7 – 1.2 microns, respectively. This is in the upper range of fiber diameters in native extracellular matrix. Coating stability studies using picrosirius red (PSR) stain showed that EDC-crosslinked scaffolds were more effective than Gp-crosslinked scaffolds in enhancing the stability of the biomatrix coating.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Blends of poliglecaprone (PGC) and polycaprolactone (PCL) of varying compositions were electrospun into tubular conduits and their mechanical, morphological, thermal and in vitro degradation properties were evaluated under simulated physiological conditions. Generally, mechanical strength, modulus and hydrophilic nature were enhanced by the addition of PGC to PCL. In vitro degradation study in PBS (pH of 7.3) was carried out for up to one month to understand the hydrolytic degradation effect on the mechanical properties in both longitudinal and circumferential directions. Pure PCL and 4:1PCL/PGC blend scaffolds exhibited considerable elastic stiffening after a one-month long in vitro degradation. FT-IR and DSC techniques were used to understand the degradation behavior and the changes in structure and crystallinity of the polymeric blends. 3:1 PCL/PGC blend was concluded to be a judicious blend composition for tubular graft based on overall results from mechanical properties and performance after one month in vitro degradation study.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Polymer International
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    ABSTRACT: High pressure structural transition studies have been carried out on rare earth metal gadolinium in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to 169 GPa. Gadolinium has been compressed to 38% of its initial volume at this pressure. With increasing pressure, a crystal structure sequence of hcp → Sm-type → dhcp → fcc → dfcc → monoclinic has been observed in our studies on gadolinium. The measured equation of state of gadolinium is presented to 169 GPa at ambient temperature. Magnetic ordering temperature of gadolinium has been studied using designer diamond anvils to a pressure of 25 GPa and a temperature of 10 K. The magnetic ordering temperature has been determined from the four-point electrical resistivity measurements carried out on gadolinium. Our experiments show that the magnetic transition temperature decreases with increasing pressure to 19 GPa and then increases when gadolinium is subjected to higher pressures.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · High Pressure Research
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    ABSTRACT: Nanocrystalline titanium (nc-Ti) metal was investigated up to 161 GPa at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell. X-ray diffraction and electrical resistance techniques were used to investigate the compressibility and structural phase stability. nc-Ti is observed to undergo three structural phase transitions at high pressures, starting with at 10 GPa and followed by at 127 GPa and at 140 GPa. The observed structural phase transitions, as well as compressibility, are consistent with previously reported values for coarse grained Ti (c-Ti). The high pressure experiments on nc-Ti samples do no show any significant variation of the transition pressure under varying non-hydrostatic conditions. This is in sharp contrast to c-Ti, where a significant decrease in the transition pressure is observed under increasing non-hydrostatic conditions. This would indicate that the decrease in grain size in nano grained titanium makes the phase transition less sensitive to shear stresses as compared to bulk or c-Ti.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of electrical resistivity under applied pressure were performed on single-crystalline samples of LaFeAsO grown in a molten NaAs flux. We observe a smooth suppression of spin-density wave order under nearly hydrostatic applied pressures up to 2.6 GPa and in quasihydrostatic pressures up to 14.7 GPa. Similar to some of the other reports on single and polycrystalline samples of LaFeAsO, these crystals exhibit a resistivity that increases as temperature is lowered. By fitting an Arrhenius law to the the semiconducting-like temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, we extract an energy gap that is suppressed with pressure and vanishes near 10 GPa. This is accompanied by the emergence of a metallic temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. A similar behavior is also observed in diamond anvil cell experiments carried out to $$\sim${}37\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{GPa}$. Complete transitions to a bulk superconducting phase are not observed in any of the experiments.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Physical Review B
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    ABSTRACT: The structural phase stability of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide (paracetamol) has been studied at ambient temperature up to 23 GPa using Raman spectroscopy. Spectral changes have provided further evidence for a highly kinetically driven Form I  II transition that occurs as a mixed phase from 4.8 - 6.5 GPa, and might complete as early as 7 GPa. Upon further compression to 8.1 GPa, a drastic shift in spectral signature was observed providing the first evidence for a previously undiscovered Form IV of paracetamol. Additional shifts in mode intensities were observed near 11 GPa indicating a potential restructuring of the hydrogen bonding network and/or structural modification to a potentially new Form V. Phase boundaries at 7 and 8 GPa were confirmed under hydrostatic conditions using Raman spectroscopy. Spectral changes indicate that the transition Form IV  V occurs near 11 GPa. Multiple ab initio harmonic frequency calculations at different levels of theory were performed with a B3LYP/6-31G** being used to provide a more robust mode assignment to our experimentally obtained Raman modes. High pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed up to 21 GPa which provided further evidence for a highly kinetically driven Form I  II transition in agreement with our Raman measurements. In addition, the XRD provided further evidence for the existence of Form IV near 8 GPa and Form V near 11 GPa with Form V persisting up to 21 GPa.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry A
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    ABSTRACT: Iridium-based 5d transition-metal oxides are attractive candidates for the study of correlated electronic states due to the interplay of enhanced crystal-field, Coulomb and spin-orbit interaction energies. At ambient pressure, these conditions promote a novel Jeff = 1/2 Mott-insulating state, characterized by a gap of the order of ~0.1 eV. We present high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements of single crystals of Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7. While no indications of a pressure-induced metallic state up to 55 GPa were found in Sr2IrO4, a strong decrease of the gap energy and of the resistance of Sr3Ir2O7 between ambient pressure and 104 GPa confirm that this compound is in the proximity of a metal-insulator transition.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Physics Condensed Matter
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 69 GPa and a temperature of 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were able to track magnetic ordering temperature only till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hcp phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remains localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · High Pressure Research

Publication Stats

7k Citations
812.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993-2016
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • Department of Biology
      • • Department of Physics
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Physics
      College Park, MD, United States
  • 1985-2011
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 1978-2001
    • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
      • Chemistry Division
      Mumbai, State of Maharashtra, India
  • 1982-2000
    • Universität Paderborn
      Paderborn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1995
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States