Publications (26)46.99 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellulase and xylanase genes of filamentous Trichoderma fungi exist under carbon catabolite repression mediated by the regulator carbon catabolite repressor (CREI). Our objective was to find the role of CREI in a cellulase-hyperproducing mutant of Trichoderma koningii, and address whether enzyme production can be further improved by silencing the cre1 gene. cre1 partially silenced strains were constructed to improve enzyme production in T. koningii YC01, a cellulase-hyperproducing mutant. Silencing of cre1 resulted in derepression of cellulase gene expression in glucose-based cultivation. The cre1 interference strain C313 produced 2.1-, 1.4-, 0.8-, and 0.8-fold higher amounts of filter paper activity, β-1,4-exoglucanase activity (ρ-nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside as substrate), β-1,4-endoglucanase activity (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate), and xylanase activity, respectively, than the control strain, suggesting that silencing of cre1 resulted in enhanced enzyme production capability. In addition, downregulation of cre1 resulted in elevated expression of another regulator of xylanase and cellulase expression, xyr1, indicating that CREI also acted as a repressor of xyr1 transcription in T. koningii under inducing conditions. These results show that RNAi is a feasible method for analyzing the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression and improving xylanase and cellulase productivity in T. koningii.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Plant expansins and fungal swollenin that can disrupt crystalline cellulose have great potential for applications in conversion of biomass. Recent studies have been mainly focused on Trichoderma reesei swollenin that show relatively low activity in the promotion of cellulosic hydrolysis. Our aim was to isolate a novel swollenin with greater disruptive activity, to establish an efficient way of producing recombinant swollenin, and to optimize the procedure using swollenin in facilitation of cellulosic hydrolysis. Results A novel gene encoding a swollenin-like protein, POSWOI, was isolated from the filamentous fungus Penicillium oxalicum by Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). It consisted of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1) followed by a linker connected to a family 45 endoglucanase-like domain. Using the cellobiohydrolase I promoter, recombinant POSWOI was efficiently produced in T. reesei with a yield of 105 mg/L, and showed significant disruptive activity on crystalline cellulose. Simultaneous reaction with both POSWOI and cellulases enhanced the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose Avicel by approximately 50%. Using a POSWOI-pretreatment procedure, cellulases can produce nearly twice as many reducing sugars as without pretreatment. The mechanism by which POSWOI facilitates the saccharification of cellulose was also studied using a cellulase binding assay. Conclusion We present a novel fungal swollenin with considerable disruptive activity on crystalline cellulose, and develop a better procedure for using swollenin in facilitating cellulosic hydrolysis. We thus provide a new approach for the effective bioconversion of cellulosic biomass.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to establish an efficient RNA interference (RNAi) system in the industrially important filamentous fungus Trichoderma koningii using the DsRed protein as a reporter of the silencing process. To accomplish this, a DsRed expression cassette was transformed into T. koningii, and a recombinant strain that stably expressed DsRed was obtained. Next, a vector-directing expression of a DsRed hairpin RNA was constructed and transformed into the T. koningii recipient strain. Approximately 79 % of transformants displayed a decrease in DsRed fluorescence, and expression of DsRed in some transformants appeared to be fully suppressed. Characterization of randomly selected transformants by genomic DNA PCR analysis, real-time PCR quantification, and western blot confirmed downregulation of gene expression at different levels. The RNA silencing approach described here for T. koningii is effective, and the DsRed reporter gene provides a convenient tool for identification of silenced fungal transformants by their DsRed fluorescence compared to the control strain. The results of this study demonstrate the power of RNAi in T. koningii, which supports the use of this technology for strain development programs and functional genomics studies in industrial fungal strains.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether enzyme production can be enhanced in the Trichoderma reesei industrial hyperproducer strain RUT C30 by manipulation of cellulase regulation, the positive regulator Xyr1 was constitutively expressed under the control of the strong T. reesei pdc promoter, resulting in significantly enhanced cellulase activity in the transformant during growth on cellulose. In addition, constitutive expression of xyr1 combined with downregulation of the negative regulator encoding gene ace1 further increased cellulase and xylanase activities. Compared with RUT C30, the resulting transformant exhibited 103, 114, and 134 % greater total secreted protein levels, filter paper activity, and CMCase activity, respectively. Surprisingly, strong increases in xyr1 basal expression levels resulted in very high levels of CMCase activity during growth on glucose. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving cellulase production by modifying regulator expression, and suggest an attractive new single-step approach for increasing total cellulase productivity in T. reesei.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) inhibits the expression of target genes in a sequence-specific manner, and shows potential for gene knockdown in filamentous fungi, in which the locus-specific gene knockout occurs in low frequency. In this study, the function of the repressor of cellulase expression I (ACEI) was verified in Trichoderma koningii (T. koningii) YC01 through RNAi, and ace1- silenced strains with improved cellulase productivity were obtained. An expression cassette that transcribed the interfering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of ace1 was constructed and transformed into T. koningii, and the transformants, in which the expression of ace1 was successfully silenced, were selected. As a result of the ace1 gene silencing, the expression levels of the main cellulase and xylanase genes were elevated, and the enhanced production of total proteins, cellulase, and xylanase was observed in the cultivation. In addition, the downregulation of ace1 resulted in an increasing expression of xyr1, but no clear variation in the expression of cre1, which suggested that ACEI acted as a repressor of the xyr1 transcription, but was not involved in the regulation of the cre1 expression. The results of this work indicate that ace1 is a valid target gene for enhancing enzyme production in T. koningii, and RNAi is an appropriate tool for improving the properties of industrial fungi.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) and eno (encoding enolase) genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter) and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter), approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An effective approach to greatly enhancing the selective secretion and expression of recombinant cytoplasmic enzymes in Escherichia coli was successfully developed through the synergistic effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and lysozyme. The method was applied to two endoglucanases (EGs) and an amylase. The optimal culture conditions of temperature and concentration of isopropyl-β-D: -1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) were 23-30 °C and 0.2 mM, respectively, under which the three enzymes could be expressed in active form. Among all the chemicals tested, EDTA was found to be most suitable for enhancing the secretion of EG-I-1A into the medium. Addition of lysozyme alone had little influence on the secretion and expression. In contrast, on the basis of the addition of 5 g EDTA/L at the induction time of 12 h, the simultaneous addition of 0.15 g lysozyme/L further significantly increased the secretion and expression of the three enzymes, demonstrating the synergistic effect of EDTA and lysozyme. The production of EG-I-1A in the culture medium by adding 5 g EDTA/L and 0.15 g lysozyme/L under the optimal culture conditions of 23 °C and 0.2 mM IPTG was over 260-fold higher than that without EDTA and lysozyme under the standard conditions of 37 °C and 1 mM IPTG. In summary, the advantage of this novel cultivation approach for secretion was that not only did it selectively enhance the secretion of the proteins of interest, but also greatly increased the expression of the three enzymes by over 80 %.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alkaliphilic bacterium strain I-2, which was isolated from soda lakes, was identified as Bacillus akibai by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and suggested to be a new subspecies of genus Bacillus. Two novel thermotolerant alkaline endoglucanases I-2-A and I-2-B were produced by this alkaliphilic strain. The purified I-2-A and I-2-B had molecular mass of approximately 60 and 90 kDa, respectively. The optimum pH of I-2-A was about 9.0, while that of I-2-B was about 8.0. Both enzymes exhibited maximum activity at around 50 °C and were stable up to 50 °C.The two enzymes were resistant to most metal ions and reagents examined. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that I-2-A was probably different from the endoglucanases reported. I-2-B showed homology with those of family A5 endoglucanases but low similarity was found in C-terminal amino acid sequence.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, a novel cDNA encoding a serine/arginine (SR)-rich protein, designated PSR, was isolated from the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence reveals that PSR contains RS repeats at its C-terminus, similar to the conventional PSRPK substrate ASF/SF2. To study the novel protein, we generated a variety of mutant constructs by PCR and site-directed mutagenesis. Our analysis indicated that the purified recombinant PSR was phosphorylated by PSRPK in vitro and the SR-rich domain (amino acids 460–469) in the PSR protein was required for phosphorylation. In addition, removal of the docking motif (amino acids 424–450) from PSR significantly reduced the overall catalytic efficiency of the phosphorylation reaction. We also found that the conserved ATP-binding region 62LGWGHFSTVWLAIDEKNGGREVALK86 and the serine/threonine protein kinases active-site signature 184IIHTDLKPENVLL196 of PSRPK played a crucial role in substrate phosphorylation and Lys86 and Asp188 were crucial for PSRPK phosphorylation of PSR. These results suggest that PSR is a novel SR-related protein that is phosphorylated by PSRPK.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An alkaline endoglucanase from Bacillus akibai III-3A was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli in active form, and secretion was greatly enhanced by addition of 5 g/l ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the culture medium at the induction time of 12 h. Under the optimal culture conditions, extracellular and total endoglucanase activities were 18.5 and 31.2 U/ml, respectively. Both the recombinant and native enzymes exhibited similar properties with respect to broad pH stability, good thermostability, and resistibility to various metal ions and reagents examined. However, unlike the native endoglucanase that was partly inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the recombinant enzyme had good resistibility to SDS, being very stable in the commercial detergents, and no decrease in residual activity was observed in 0.2% (w/v) laundry detergent, indicating that it was suitable for application in detergents industry.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of 14-3-3 proteins in the lower eukaryotes are still elusive. We isolated a cDNA encoding the 14-3-3 protein (P14-3-3) from the lower eukaryote Physarum polycephalum. This P14-3-3 gene was then inserted downstream of the Gal4 DNA-binding domain in the yeast expression vector pGBKT7. The recombinant vector was transformed into auxotrophic AH109 and Y187 yeast cells to detect the activation of Gal4-regulated gene expression mediated by P14-3-3. The results showed that three reporter genes (ADE2, HIS3, and lacZ) could be normally expressed, indicating that the transcriptional activation function of P14-3-3 was retained. We subsequently used a truncated P14-3-3 peptides and mutant peptides to study the activation of the Gal4-regulated genes ADE2, HIS3, and lacZ. We found that deletion of the N-terminal second dimer-binding motif (DBM2) sequence or the C-terminal coil sequence led to the loss of P14-3-3's transcriptional activation function. Specifically, any mutation at the potential phosphorylation sites (Ser62 and Ser67) on DBM2 or at the C-terminal potential phosphorylation site (235ThrSer236) led to the loss of the transcriptional activation function of P14-3-3. Taken together, these observations suggest that the transcriptional activation function of P14-3-3 in lower eukaryotes is related to DBM2 and the C-terminal coil structures.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serine/arginine (SR) protein-specific kinases (SRPKs) are conserved in a wide range of organisms, from humans to yeast. Studies showed that SRPKs can regulate the nuclear import of SR proteins in cytoplasm, and regulate the sub-localization of SR proteins in the nucleus. But no nuclear localization signal (NLS) of SRPKs was found. We isolated an SRPK-like protein PSRPK (GenBank accession No. DQ140379) from Physarum polycephalum previously, and identified a NLS of PSRPK in this study. We carried out a thorough molecular dissection of the different domains of the PSRPK protein involved in its nuclear localization. By truncation of PSRPK protein, deletion of and single amino acid substitution in a putative NLS and transfection of mammalian cells, we observed the distribution of PSRPK fluorescent fusion protein in mammalian cells using confocal microscopy and found that the protein was mainly accumulated in the nucleus; this indicated that the motif contained a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Further investigation with truncated PSPRK peptides showed that the NLS (318PKKGDKYDKTD328) was localized in the alkaline Omega-loop of a helix-loop-helix motif (HLHM) of the C-terminal conserved domain. If the 318PKKGDK322 sequence was deleted from the loop or K320 was mutated to T320, the PSRPK fluorescent fusion protein could not enter and accumulate in the nucleus. This study demonstrated that the 318PKKGDKYDKTD328 peptides localized in the C-terminal conserved domain of PSRPK with the Omega-loop structure could play a crucial role in the NLS function of PSRPK.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 1591-bp cDNA of a serine-rich protein kinase (SRPK)-like protein has been identified in Physarum polycephalum (GenBank accession No. DQ140379). The cDNA contains two repeat sequences at bp 1-153 and bp 395-547. The encoding sequence is 56% homologous to human SRPK1 and is named Physarum SRPK (PSRPK). Consistent with other SRPKs, the consensus motifs of PSRPK are within the two conserved domains (CDs). However, divergent motifs between the N-terminal and CDs are much shorter than the corresponding sequences of other SRPKs. To study the structure and function of this protein, we performed co-expression experiment in Escherichia coli and in vitro phosphorylation assay to investigate the phosphorylation effect of recombinant PSRPK on the human SR protein, ASF/SF2. Western blot analysis showed that PSRPK could phosphorylate ASF/SF2 in E. coli cells. Autoradiographic examination showed that both recombinant PSRPK and a truncated form of PSRPK with a 28-aa deletion at the N-terminus could phosphorylate ASF/SF2 and a truncated form of ASF/SF2 that contains the RS domain. However, these two forms of PSRPK could not phosphorylate a truncated form ASF/SF2 that lacks the RS domain. A truncated form of PSRPK that lacks either of CDs does not have any phosphorylation activity. These results indicated that, like other SRPKs, the phosphorylation site in PSRPK is located within the RS domain of the SR protein and that its phosphorylation activity is closely associated with the two CDs. This study on the structure and function of PSRPK demonstrates that it is a new member of the SRPK family.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a suitable eukaryotic cell for cell cycle investigation, but there is no compatible transient expression system for the plasmodium. Using the promoter and terminator of ardC actin of Physarum polycephalum substituted the CMV IE and SV40 polyA of plasmid pDsRedl-N1, using cassette PardC-MCS-DsRed1-TardC substituted the cassette PardC-hph-TardC of plasmid pTB38, we constructed plasmids pXM1 and pXM2 for transient expression of red fluorescent protein (RFP) in Physarum polycephalum respectively. After reconstituting the transcription elongation factor homologous gene (pelf1) of Physarum polycephalum into the pXM2, we generated a plasmid pXM2-pelf1. After the plasmid pXM1, pXM2 and pXM2-pelf1 were electroporated into the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, we observed optimum RFP and PELF1-RFP expression under fluoroscope and confocal microscope between 24-48 h after electroporation, and found that ELF1-RFP expression was accumulated in nucleus of microplasmodium, the optimum electroporation parameters were 40 V/cm electric field, 1 ampere current, and 70 micros electric shock time. The results suggest that this expression system is qualified for transient expression of specific protein in plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity and stability of mushroom tyrosinase were studied in ionic liquid (IL)-containing aqueous systems. The effect of three ILs ([BMIm][PF6], [BMIm][BF4]), and [BMIm][MeSO4], where [BMIm] = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and their inorganic salts (KMeSO4, KPF6, and NaBF4) on the enzyme performance was investigated by comparing the kinetic (such as Km, Vmax, optimal pH and temperature, and activation energy) and thermostability parameters (including half-lives, deactivation constants, activation energies for enzyme deactivation, ΔG*, ΔH*, and ΔS*) of the enzyme in the absence and presence of the ILs and their anions. Both the three ILs and their inorganic salts were able to trigger enzyme activation. The enzyme could be stabilized by addition of KMeSO4 and NaBF4 but destabilized by the presence of all the three ILs. The substrate selectivity of the enzyme was unchanged. The effect of ILs on enzyme performance can be largely attributed to their ionic nature via interaction with the enzyme structure, the substrate, and the water molecules associated with the enzyme, depending on their kosmotropocity, nucleophilicity, and H-bond basicity. The different influences brought from the ILs and their associated ions indicate the cooperative functioning of both cation and anion of the IL in affecting the enzyme performance.
Article: Tyrosinase activity in ionic liquids[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activity of mushroom tyrosinase was studied in three ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF(6)]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF(4)]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate ([BMIm][MeSO(4)]), and was compared to that in chloroform. Kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined and the results indicate that the enzyme in ionic liquids basically follows the same catalytic mechanism as in water, and that the ionic liquids may affect the enzyme activity by direct interacting with the enzyme and thus hindering the E-S binding due to their high hydrophilicity and polarity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comprehensive analysis of the mechanism of metabolite synthesis in filamentous fungi is important for optimization of the filamentous fungus related industrial fermentation processes. In this work, the mechanism of cellulase synthesis in Trichoderma reesei was analyzed with red fluorescent protein (DsRed) as the reporting protein. The expression cassette for heterologous protein expression in T. reesei was constructed, through which the DsRed gene was inserted into the chromosomal DNA of T. reesei. The recombinant T. reesei strain, in which expression of DsRed was controlled by the promoter of cellobiohydrolase gene, was designated as T. reesei TR2. Expression of DsRed in T. reesei TR2 under different culture conditions was analyzed by using a fluorescent microscopy, and thereby the mechanism of cellulase gene expression in T. reesei could be interpreted. With induction of lactose, the pattern of change of red fluorescence in T. reesei TR2 was similar to that of the cellulase activity in the cultivation supernatant. As the culture aged, the red fluorescence in the mycelial increased. This was followed by a reduction in the end of the culture period because of death and autolysis of the mycelial. In the spatial aspect, the red fluorescence was distributed uniformly in the whole hypha after induction, indicating that all the three morphology including apical compartment, subapical compartment and hyphal compartment played a same role in cellulase synthesis. When T. reesei TR2 was cultivated without induction, faint red fluorescence appeared after a relative long period of cultivation, indicating that a small amount of cellulase was still synthesized without induction. This result was useful in explaining the mechanism of cellulase induction by insoluble cellulose.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A relatively high β-glucanase-producing strain Bacillus sp. III-3 was isolated from soda lakes in Neimenggu, China. This alkaliphilic strain was found to produce two thermostable β-glucanases including a novel neutral β-glucanase III-3-A and an alkaline β-glucanase III-3-B. The β-glucanases were purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant with a two-step column chromatographic procedure. III-3-A and III-3-B had molecular mass of approximately 45 and 85kDa, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that III-3-A was probably different from the β-glucanases reported, whereas III-3-B showed high homology with those of family A5 alkaline β-glucanases from alkaliphilic bacilli. The optimum pH of III-3-A was about 7.0, while that of III-3-B was 8.0–10.0. Both enzymes exhibited maximum activity at 45°C and were stable up to 50°C. Ca2+ ion stimulated the activity of III-3-A but enhanced the thermostability of III-3-B. The two enzymes were resistant to most metal ions and reagents examined.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modular structure of the T. reesei endoglucanase IV (EGIV) was reconstructed by fusing EGIV with an additional catalytic module (EGIV-CM). The genes eg4 and eg4-cm were obtained through RT-PCR and gene fusion, and were respectively expressed in recombinant Pichia strains (P. pastoris EGIV1 and P. pastoris EGIV-CM1). The CMC activities of cultivation supernatant of P. pastoris EGIV1 and P. pastoris EGIV-CM1 were 2.4U/ml and 4.3U/ml, respectively. Modification of the EGIV structure with an additional catalytic module improved the specific activity about 4-fold.
Shenzhen, Guangdong Sheng, China
- College of Life Sciences