[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI) increased following Helicobacter pylori eradication in several Japanese cohorts, which requires further investigation.
To determine the impact of H. pylori eradication on BMI in a European population.
A total of 10,537 unselected people aged 20-59 years were screened for H. pylori; 1558 of the 1634 infected participants were randomised to intervention (eradication therapy: ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily) or placebo for 2 weeks with follow-up at 6 months (92%) for weight and dyspepsia symptoms (epigastric pain).
The mean weight of participants in the intervention group increased from 77.7 kg at baseline to 78.4 kg at 6 months (unadjusted increase of 0.7 kg) and from 76.8 to 77.2 kg (0.5 kg) in the placebo group. The adjusted difference between randomised groups was statistically significant at 0.6 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31, 0.88]. Significantly, more participants gained ≥3 kg in the intervention group (138/720, 19%) compared with the placebo group (92/706, 13%) [odds ratio (OR) 1.57 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.12)]. The mean BMI increased from 27.5 to 27.8 kg/m(2) at 6 months in the intervention group compared with the increase from 27.0 to 27.2 kg/m(2) in the placebo group [adjusted difference between groups was statistically significant at 0.2 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.11, 0.31)]. Dyspepsia was less frequently reported by intervention group participants (168/736, 23%, placebo group 209/711, 29%), OR 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93).
Body mass index increased significantly following randomisation to H. pylori eradication therapy, possibly due to resolution of dyspepsia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is widespread throughout the world and is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Short-term benefit results from community programmes to eradicate the infection, but there is little information on cumulative long-term benefit.
To determine whether a community programme of screening for and eradication of H. pylori infection produces further benefit after an initial 2-year period, as judged by a reduction in GP consultations for dyspepsia.
A total of 1517 people aged 20-59 years, who were registered with seven general practices in Frenchay Health District, Bristol, had a positive (13)C-urea breath test for H. pylori infection and were entered into a randomized double-blind trial of H. pylori eradication therapy. After 2 years, we found a 35% reduction in GP consultations for dyspepsia (previously reported). In this extension to the study, we analysed dyspepsia consultations between two and 7 years after treatment.
Between two and 7 years after treatment, 81/764 (10.6%) of participants randomized to receive active treatment consulted for dyspepsia, compared with 106/753 (14.1%) of those who received placebo, a 25% reduction, odds ratio 0.84 (0.71, 1.00), P = 0.042.
Eradication of H. pylori infection in the community gives cumulative long-term benefit, with a continued reduction in the development of dyspepsia severe enough to require a consultation with a general practitioner up to at least 7 years. The cost savings resulting from this aspect of a community H. pylori eradication programme, in addition to the other theoretical benefits, make such programmes worthy of serious consideration, particularly in populations with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of a community based Helicobacter pylori screening and eradication programme on the incidence of dyspepsia, resource use, and quality of life, including a cost consequences analysis.
H pylori screening programme followed by randomised placebo controlled trial of eradication.
Seven general practices in southwest England.
10,537 unselected people aged 20-59 years were screened for H pylori infection (13C urea breath test); 1558 of the 1636 participants who tested positive were randomised to H pylori eradication treatment or placebo, and 1539 (99%) were followed up for two years.
Ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for two weeks or placebo.
Primary care consultation rates for dyspepsia (defined as epigastric pain) two years after randomisation, with secondary outcomes of dyspepsia symptoms, resource use, NHS costs, and quality of life.
In the eradication group, 35% fewer participants consulted for dyspepsia over two years compared with the placebo group (55/787 v 78/771; odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.94; P = 0.021; number needed to treat 30) and 29% fewer participants had regular symptoms (odds ratio 0.71, 0.56 to 0.90; P = 0.05). NHS costs were 84.70 pounds sterling (74.90 pounds sterling to 93.91 pounds sterling) greater per participant in the eradication group over two years, of which 83.40 pounds sterling (146 dollars; 121 euro) was the cost of eradication treatment. No difference in quality of life existed between the two groups.
Community screening and eradication of H pylori is feasible in the general population and led to significant reductions in the number of people who consulted for dyspepsia and had symptoms two years after treatment. These benefits have to be balanced against the costs of eradication treatment, so a targeted eradication strategy in dyspeptic patients may be preferable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on heartburn and gastro-oesophageal reflux.
Cross sectional study, followed by a randomised placebo controlled trial.
Seven general practices in Bristol, England.
10,537 people, aged 20-59 years, with and without H pylori infection (determined by the (13)C-urea breath test).
Prevalence of heartburn and gastro-oesophageal acid reflux at baseline and two years after treatment to eradicate H pylori infection.
At baseline, H pylori infection was associated with increased prevalence of heartburn (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.23) but not reflux (1.05, 0.97 to 1.14). In participants with H pylori infection, active treatment had no effect on the overall prevalence of heartburn (0.99, 0.88 to 1.12) or reflux (1.04, 0.91 to 1.19) and did not improve pre-existing symptoms of heartburn or reflux.
H pylori infection is associated with a slightly increased prevalence of heartburn but not reflux. Treatment to eradicate H pylori has no net benefit in patients with heartburn or gastro-oesophageal reflux.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between body mass and gastro-oesophageal reflux in a large population-representative sample from the UK.
Cross-sectional population-based study, as part of a randomized controlled trial of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, in Southwest England. Subjects In all, 10 537 subjects, aged 20-59 years, were recruited from seven general practices. Subjects provided data on frequency and severity of dyspeptic symptoms and anthropometric measurements were taken.
Relationship between overweight (body mass index [BMI] >/=25 kg/m(2) and </=30 kg/m(2)) or obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) and frequency and severity of heartburn and acid regurgitation.
Body mass index was strongly positively related to the frequency of symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for frequency of heartburn and acid regurgitation occurring at least once a week in overweight participants compared with those of normal weight were 1.82 (95% CI: 1.33-2.50) and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.13-1.99) respectively. Corresponding OR (95% CI) relating to obese patients were 2.91 (95% CI: 2.07-4.08) and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.44-3.45) respectively. The OR for moderate to severe reflux symptoms were raised in overweight and obese subjects but not to the same extent as frequency of symptoms and only the relationship between obesity and severity of heartburn reached conventional statistical significance: OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07-1.33.
Being above normal weight substantially increases the likelihood of suffering from heartburn and acid regurgitation and obese people are almost three times as likely to experience these symptoms as those of normal weight.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2003 · International Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood infections may be necessary to prime the developing immune system in an appropriate manner. In developed countries, the incidence of childhood infections is decreasing, which might explain the observed rise in the prevalence of asthma and other atopic disorders in recent years.
To determine whether Helicobacter pylori gastritis, a chronic bacterial infection that is usually acquired in early childhood and then persists throughout life, affects the risk of developing asthma and other atopic disorders.
Cross-sectional study of the prevalence of three atopic disorders in 3244 subjects participating in a community-based, prospective, randomized, controlled trial of H. pylori eradication, the Bristol Helicobacter Project. The presence or absence of active H. pylori infection was determined by the 13C-urea breath test. The prevalence of asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis was measured by assessing the use of appropriate medications as surrogate markers for these conditions.
There was a 30% reduction in the prevalence of all three atopic disorders in people who had active H. pylori infection, although for each individual atopic disorder the numbers were not quite large enough to reach statistical significance.
H. pylori infection is associated with a substantially reduced risk of three common atopic disorders. This is further indirect evidence of the importance of childhood infections in influencing the development of a normal immune response. As such infections become progressively less common in developed countries such as the UK, other methods will need to be developed to try to reduce the risk of atopic disorders.
No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking or consumption of alcohol or coffee is associated with active Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection.
This was a cross-sectional population study conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial of H. pylori infection eradication in southwest England. A total of 10,537 subjects, recruited from seven general practices, underwent 13C-urea breath testing for active infection with H. pylori and provided data on smoking, usual weekly consumption of alcohol, and daily intake of coffee.
Smoking or coffee consumption were not related to active H. pylori infection. Total alcohol consumption was associated with a small, but not statistically significant, decrease in the odds of infection. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnic status, childhood and adult social class, smoking, coffee consumption, and intake of alcoholic beverages other than wine, subjects drinking 3-6 units of wine/wk had an 11% lower risk of H. pylori infection compared with those who took no wine: OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-0.99. Higher wine consumption was associated with a further 6% reduction in the risk of infection: OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.64-1.07. Intake of 3-6 units of beer (but no greater intake) was associated with a similar reduction in the risk of infection when compared to no beer intake (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.75-0.91).
This study indicates that modest consumption of wine and beer (approximately 7 units/wk) protects against H. pylori infection, presumably by facilitating eradication of the organism.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2002 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter-pylori-related duodenal ulcer (DU) is an important cause of dyspepsia.
To determine the relationship between the pattern of H. pylori infection and the epidemiology of duodenal ulcer in a single population.
Prospective two-part study of (i) patients with DU referred for endoscopy because of dyspepsia, and (ii) the incidence of H. pylori infection in the general population of the same area.
Details of 533 DU patients were recorded, and related to the pattern of H. pylori infection among 10 537 adults in the same community, determined by the (13)C-urea breath test.
In patients with DU, birth year was more important than age in determining the rate of presentation for endoscopy (the 'birth cohort' effect). H. pylori infection showed a similar birth cohort effect, and the prevalence decreased steadily in those born in successive years, from 28.8% in the 1930s to 3.5% in the 1970s. The proportion of dyspeptic patients who had duodenal ulcers also fell progressively, from 22.2% in 1979 to 5.7% in 1998. H. pylori prevalence and duodenal ulcer incidence were closely correlated at all ages.
Duodenal ulcer prevalence (as judged by the rate of referral of duodenal ulcer patients for endoscopy) is determined principally by the distribution of H. pylori infection in the local population. The birth cohort effect seen in adult duodenal ulcer patients reflects the acquisition of H. pylori in childhood. In Bristol, H. pylori prevalence and duodenal ulcer incidence are both declining to very low levels.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bristol Helicobacter Project is an ongoing, pragmatic, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on symptoms of dyspepsia, health utilization and costs, and quality of life in the adult population. Commencing in 1996, 27,536 individuals ages 20-59 years who were registered with seven primary care centers in Bristol and the surrounding areas in southwest England were invited to undergo a 13C urea breath test. There was no selection on the basis of symptoms and 23.5% had dyspepsia on entry to the study. A total of 10,537 people were tested (38.3% of those invited), 1636 tested positive (15.5% of those tested), and 1558 (95.2% of those who tested positive) were randomized to H. pylori eradication therapy or placebo. The rate of participation in the screening phase increased with age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.42 per decade, 95% CI: 1.31 to 1.54) and female gender (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.27 to 1.43) but decreased with lower socioeconomic status (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.86 comparing lowest with highest category). H. pylori prevalence increased with age (OR: 1.69 per decade, 95% CI: 1.51 to 1.89) and lower socioeconomic status (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.69) but was lower in women (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.00). Population-based trials of H. pylori eradication are feasible but necessitate screening large numbers of people to identify those who are infected and who may benefit from eradication. In the Bristol Helicobacter Project the rate of participation varied inversely with both social deprivation and the prevalence of the infection.