[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha feto-protein (AFP) is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. During the second trimester of pregnancy, APF and betahCG serum concentrations are commonly used for screening Down syndrome. AFP deficiency is rare (estimated to be 1/105,000 newborns) and only one sequence alteration has previously been reported in the AFP gene. We report a new mutation in exon 5 of the AFP gene, leading to a total absence of AFP on 2nd-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome, confirmed on the amniotic fluid. Despite this, fetal development and birth were normal. After PCR-amplification, the whole AFP gene was sequenced. The new mutation was a guanine to adenine transition in position 543 creating a premature stop codon in position 181. In order to search for eventual modifications of the amniotic fluid profile, proteins were separated by electrophoresis and compared with 10 normal amniotic fluids sampled at the same developmental age (18 weeks). In the amniotic fluid of our patient albumin rate was reduced whereas alpha1 and beta protein fractions were increased, suggesting that AFP deficiency may modify the distribution of protein fractions. This observation emphasizes the complex molecular mechanisms of compensation of serum protein deficiency. Studies on other families with AFP deficiency are necessary to confirm this observation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I) is a rare and severe metabolic disorder. A recurrent mutation - c.1070A>G in exon 3 - was identified in the Tunisian population, suggesting a founder effect. In 2004, the detection of this mutation in two Kuwaiti Bedouin families has called the Tunisian founder effect in question again. To determine the origin of this mutation, 21 Tunisian and 2 Kuwaiti Bedouin CN-I patients were screened using nine genetic markers. Haplotype analysis confirmed the founder effect hypothesis and dated the appearance of this mutation some 32 generations ago in the Tunisian population. Using the same genetic analysis, the ancestor haplotype was identified in these two families. This result genetically confirms the blending of the Bedouin nomads within today's Tunisian population. After population migration from east to west, this mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population, and then perpetuated, probably because of marriages in isolated communities.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive metabolic disease due to a total deficiency of bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase located on chromosome 2. We report on a child with CN-I due to a phenylalanine residue deletion inherited only from the father carrying this deletion at the heterozygous state. Cytogenetic analyses showed no deletion of the chromosomal 2q37 region. Microsatellite analysis of the child and his parents was consistent with paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2 in the child. This report demonstrates that uniparental disomy may be at the origin of very rare diseases transmitted as autosomal recessive traits and emphasizes the need for parental DNA analysis in such cases.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven patients with glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD Ib) were studied. Using a combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, restriction enzyme digestion and direct sequencing, we were able to identify 21/22 mutant alleles comprising 12 different mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate translocase gene (G6PT). Among these, one is a novel mutation of G6PT: 855T>C (L229P).
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I) is a rare and severe inherited disorder of bilirubin metabolism, caused by the total deficiency of bilirubin-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity. Enzymatic diagnosis cannot be performed in chorionic villi or amniocytes as UGT is not active in these tissues. The cloning of the UGT1 gene and the identification of disease-causing mutations have led to the possibility of performing DNA-based diagnosis. Here we report DNA-based prenatal diagnosis of CN-I in two Tunisian families in whom CN-I patients were diagnosed. As we had previously shown that CN-I was, in Tunisia, associated with homozygosity for the Q357R mutation within the UGT1 gene, we were able to detect this mutation in both families and to show that it was easily recognized by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. In both cases, SSCP analysis of fetal DNA showed that the fetus was heterozygous for the Q357R mutation. In one family, the pregnancy was carried to term and a healthy baby was born, whereas, in the other family, the pregnancy is still continuing. Thus the prenatal diagnosis of CN-I is possible, provided disease-causing mutations have been identified. SSCP analysis of DNA prepared either from amniocytes or from chorionic villi is a simple, reliable and fast method for prenatal diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Prenatal Diagnosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (apo E) is pivotal in lipid metabolism. In women with preeclampsia, an atherogenic state is observed. We hypothesized that a particular genotype of apo E may be associated with preeclampsia.
Genomic DNA was extracted from 55 normotensive and 49 preeclamptic women (defined according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists criteria). DNA was amplified by PCR and digested simultaneously by AflIII and HaeII giving profiles identifying all the possible genotypes of apo E.
The most common isoform apo E3 was found both for normotensive and preeclamptic women (76% and 85%, respectively). The frequency of apo E2 and E4, which are more atherogenic, was not higher in the preeclamptic population.
We were unable to demonstrate that the "atherogenic state" of preeclampsia is associated with a particular genotype of apo E. Familial studies show that shared genetic and environmental factors are involved in lipid variability. However, owing to the diversity of factors contributing to the development of preeclampsia (fetal and paternal genotypes), these data do not allow to rule-out a possible contribution of maternal apo E to preeclampsia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Hypertension in Pregnancy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gilbert syndrome (GS), characterized by mild, chronic and isolated unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is due to a partial deficiency of bilirubin-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1). Recently, the genetic basis of GS has been identified in caucasian populations : it is related to the insertion of a dinucleotide (TA) in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene. In Asian populations, GS is due to missense mutations (either homozygous or heterozygous) in the coding sequence. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method to detect both genetic polymorphisms and mutations. This technique was performed (1) to explore unrelated unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia; (2) to evaluate the frequency of GS in a population of 97 healthy caucasian volunteers: 17% of them were homozygous for the TA7/TA7 polymorphism; (3) to determine the incidence of this syndrome in a population of 105 neonates with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The incidence of GS (15%) was not significantly higher than it was in the control group. A correlation between GS genotype and neonatal jaundice was not established; (4) to seek a relationship between GS and preeclampsia with or without Hellp syndrome. The incidence in the Hellp syndrome group (n = 19) was 26%, two fold higher than in preeclampsia group (n = 22) and control group (n = 50) with only 14% and 13% respectively, (5) to start a study regarding the toxicity of irinotecan treatment in a population of homozygous children for the UGT1A1 polymorphism.
No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Annales de biologie clinique
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-eight patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) were studied. Using a combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, restriction enzyme digestion and direct sequencing, we were able to identify 93/96 mutant alleles, comprising 23 different mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene (G6PC). Among these, 7 are novel mutations of G6PC: M5R, T111I, A241T, C270R, F322L, and two deletions, 793delG and 872delC, resulting in the same mutation at the amino acid level, fs300Ter (300X).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia (glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency), serum triglyceride concentrations are markedly raised, whereas phospholipids and cholesterol levels are only moderately elevated. In addition, both VLDL and LDL lipoprotein fractions are raised. Despite these abnormalities, endothelial vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis seem to be rare in such patients. In view of the crucial role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in lipid metabolism, we studied both apoE polymorphism (40 patients) and serum concentration (20 patients) in patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia. The distribution of each allele at the apoE locus was similar to that reported in the general population, whereas serum apoE concentrations were raised in our patients. Raised apoE levels in the serum could play an important role in counterbalancing the at-risk-for-atherosclerosis lipid profile of patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia. Moreover, E3 and E4 polymorphisms, predominant in our patients, have a high triglyceride binding capacity and are thus able to increase triglyceride clearance. However, the origin of raised concentrations of apoE is not completely clear though, bearing in mind previous reports regarding serum protein concentrations in such patients, increased hepatic synthesis is likely.
No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the cytotoxic effect of copper-oxidized LDL in human primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the immortalized EA.hy 926 cell line. Copper oxidized LDL (50-200 microg apoB/ml) induced concentration-dependent apoptotic cell death in HUVEC but did not induce apoptosis in EA.hy 926 cells. Only necrotic EA.hy 926 cells were evidenced at all copper oxidized LDL concentrations (25-200 microg apoB/ml), oxidation states (lightly, moderately and extensively copper-oxidized LDL) and incubation periods (4, 8 and 20 h). The different mechanisms of cell death induced by copper-oxidized LDL in EA.hy 926 cells and HUVEC may be related to various factors such as cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 may be implicated in this process. The interleukin-8 production was increased in EA.hy 926 cells but not in HUVEC incubated with oxidized LDL. This increase in EA.hy 926 cells was associated with necrosis but not apoptosis. Nevertheless, the addition of interleukin-8 to HUVEC did not inhibit apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL. As the lower antioxidant capacity of EA.hy 926 cells results in higher sensitivity to oxidized LDL cytotoxicity (as we previously described), the redox status of cells may also control the form of endothelial cell death. In atherosclerotic lesions, the formation of apoptotic endothelial cells may result in part from the induction by oxidized LDL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jaundice associated with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was recognised in three patients; previous reports have suggested that this is a possible early manifestation of Gilbert syndrome. Most patients with Gilbert syndrome are homozygous for a (TA)(7)TAA polymorphism in the gene promoter coding for bilirubin glucuronosyltransferase. Two of the reported patients were homozygous for the (TA)(7)TAA polymorphism whereas the third was heterozygous for the same polymorphism. Furthermore, no other factors contributing to jaundice in the three patients were found. These results suggest that jaundice associated with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is due to molecular defects within the gene promoter.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1999 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three novel mutations, Q54P, W70X and T1081, were identified in the gene encoding glucose-6-phosphatase in three patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia. Two sibs of Portuguese origin were homozygous for the Q54P mutation whereas the third patient, originating from both France and Lebanon, was a compound heterozygote for the W70X and T108I mutations. Glycogen storage disease type Ia is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive condition.