[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee is often performed in patients who have knee symptoms of unclear cause. When meniscal tears are found, it is commonly assumed that the symptoms are attributable to them. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of meniscal damage in the general population and the association of meniscal tears with knee symptoms and with radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis.
We studied persons from Framingham, Massachusetts, who were drawn from census-tract data and random-digit telephone dialing. Subjects were 50 to 90 years of age and ambulatory; selection was not made on the basis of knee or other joint problems. We assessed the integrity of the menisci in the right knee on 1.5-tesla MRI scans obtained from 991 subjects (57% of whom were women). Symptoms involving the right knee were evaluated by questionnaire.
The prevalence of a meniscal tear or of meniscal destruction in the right knee as detected on MRI ranged from 19% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 24) among women 50 to 59 years of age to 56% (95% CI, 46 to 66) among men 70 to 90 years of age; prevalences were not materially lower when subjects who had had previous knee surgery were excluded. Among persons with radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or higher, on a scale of 0 to 4, with higher numbers indicating more definite signs of osteoarthritis), the prevalence of a meniscal tear was 63% among those with knee pain, aching, or stiffness on most days and 60% among those without these symptoms. The corresponding prevalences among persons without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis were 32% and 23%. Sixty-one percent of the subjects who had meniscal tears in their knees had not had any pain, aching, or stiffness during the previous month.
Incidental meniscal findings on MRI of the knee are common in the general population and increase with increasing age.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine whether markers of bone resorption and formation could serve as markers for the presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs).
We conducted an analysis of data from the Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study (BOKS). Knee magnetic resonance images were scored for BMLs using a semiquantitative grading scheme. In addition, a subset of persons with BMLs underwent quantitative volume measurement of their BML, using a proprietary software method. Within the BOKS population, 80 people with BMLs and 80 without BMLs were selected for the purposes of this case-control study. Bone biomarkers assayed included type I collagen N-telopeptide (NTx) corrected for urinary creatinine, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. The same methods were used and applied to a nested case-control sample from the Framingham study, in which BMD assessments allowed evaluation of this as a covariate. Logistic regression models were fit using BML as the outcome and biomarkers, age, sex, and body mass index as predictors. An receiver operating characteristic curve was generated for each model and the area under the curve assessed.
A total of 151 subjects from BOKS with knee OA were assessed. The mean (standard deviation) age was 67 (9) years and 60% were male. Sixty-nine per cent had maximum BML score above 0, and 48% had maximum BML score above 1. The only model that reached statistical significance used maximum score of BML above 0 as the outcome. Ln-NTx (Ln is the natural log) exhibited a significant association with BMLs, with the odds of a BML being present increasing by 1.4-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.0-fold to 2.0-fold) per 1 standard deviation increase in the LnNTx, and with a small partial R2 of 3.05. We also evaluated 144 participants in the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study, whose mean age was 68 years and body mass index was 29 kg/m2, and of whom 40% were male. Of these participants 55% had a maximum BML score above 0. The relationship between NTx and maximum score of BML above 0 revealed a significant association, with an odds ratio fo 1.7 (95% confidence interval = 1.1 to 2.7) after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index.
Serum NTx was weakly associated with the presence of BMLs in both study samples. This relationship was not strong and we would not advocate the use of NTx as a marker of the presence of BMLs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medial and lateral compartment bone marrow lesions (BMLs) have been tied to cartilage loss. We undertook this study to assess 2 types of BMLs in the central region of the knee (type 1 BMLs, which are related anatomically to anterior cruciate ligament [ACL]/posterior cruciate ligament [PCL] insertions, and type 2 BMLs, which encompass both the central region and either the medial or the lateral compartment) and determine their relationship to cartilage loss and ACL tears.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee was performed at baseline and at followup (15 and/or 30 months) in 258 subjects with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA). At baseline, we assessed ACL tears and central BMLs located at or between the tibial spines or adjacent to the femoral notch. Cartilage loss was present if the score in any region of the tibiofemoral joint increased by >or= 1 units at the last available followup, using a modified Whole-Organ MRI Score. We used logistic regression adjusted for alignment, body mass index, Kellgren/Lawrence score, sex, and age.
One hundred thirty-nine knees (53.8%) had central BMLs, of which 129 had type 1 BMLs (96 abutted the ACL and had no coexistent type 2 features) and 25 had type 2 BMLs (often overlapped with type 1). Type 1 lesions were associated with ACL tears (odds ratio [OR] 5.9, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.2-16.2) but not with cartilage loss (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.1), while medial type 2 BMLs were related to medial cartilage loss (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.0-35.2).
Central BMLs that abutted the ACL were highly prevalent and strongly related to ACL pathology, suggesting a role of enthesopathy in OA. Only BMLs with medial extension were related to ipsilateral cartilage loss.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between longitudinal fluctuations in synovitis with change in pain and cartilage in knee osteoarthritis.
Study subjects were patients 45 years of age and older with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis from the Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study. Baseline and follow-up assessments at 15 and 30 months included knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), BMI and pain assessment (VAS) over the last week. Synovitis was scored at 3 locations (infrapatellar fat pad, suprapatellar and intercondylar regions) using a semiquantitative scale (0-3) at all 3 time points on MRI. Scores at each site were added to give a summary synovitis score (0-9).
We assessed 270 subjects whose mean (SD) age was 66.7 (9.2) years, BMI 31.5 (5.7) kg/m(2); 42% were female. There was no correlation of baseline synovitis with baseline pain score (r = 0.09, p = 0.17). The change in summary synovitis score was correlated with the change in pain (r = 0.21, p = 0.0003). An increase of one unit in summary synovitis score resulted in a 3.15-mm increase in VAS pain score (0-100 scale). Effusion change was not associated with pain change. Of the 3 locations for synovitis, changes in the infrapatellar fat pad were most strongly related to pain change. Despite cartilage loss occurring in over 50% of knees, synovitis was not associated with cartilage loss in either tibiofemoral or patellofemoral compartment.
Change in synovitis was correlated with change in knee pain, but not loss of cartilage. Treatment of pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA) needs to consider treatment of synovitis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Annals of the rheumatic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncertainty exists regarding the optimal workup of patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the foot, many of whom have diabetes mellitus. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic test performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for osteomyelitis of the foot and compared this performance with that of technetium Tc 99m bone scanning, plain radiography, and white blood cell studies.
We searched MEDLINE (from 1966 to week 3 of June 2006) and EMBASE (from 1980 to week 3 of June 2006) for English-language studies in which adults suspected of having osteomyelitis of the foot or ankle were evaluated by MRI. We then extracted data using a standard form derived from the Cochrane Methods Group. To summarize the performance of diagnostic tests, we used the summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, which relies on the calculation of the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). We also examined subsets of studies defined by the presence or absence of particular design flaws or populations.
Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. In all studies combined, the DOR for MRI was 42.1 (95% confidence interval, 14.8-119.9), and the specificity at a 90% sensitivity cut point was 82.5%. The DOR did not vary greatly among subsets of studies. In studies in which a direct comparison could be made with other technologies, the DOR for MRI was consistently better than that for bone scanning (7 studies-149.9 vs 3.6), plain radiography (9 studies-81.5 vs 3.3), and white blood cell studies (3 studies-120.3 vs 3.4).
We found that MRI performs well in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot and ankle and can be used to rule in or rule out the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging performance was markedly superior to that of technetium Tc 99m bone scanning, plain radiography, and white blood cell studies.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Archives of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between patellar alignment by using magnetic resonance imaging images and radiographic manifestations of patello-femoral osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects were recruited to participate in a natural history study of symptomatic knee OA. We examined the relation of patellar alignment in the sagittal plane (patellar length ratio (PLR)) and the transverse plane (sulcus angle (SA), lateral patellar tilt angle (LPTA), and bisect offset (BO)) to radiographic features of patello-femoral OA, namely joint space narrowing and patellar osteophytes, using a proportional odds logistic regression model while adjusting for age, sex, and bone mass index (BMI). The study sample consisted of 126 males (average age 68.0 years, BMI 31.2) and 87 females (average age 64.7 years, BMI 31.6), 75% of whom had tibiofemoral OA (a Kellgren-Lawrence score of 2 or more). PLR showed a statistically significant association with joint space narrowing and osteophytosis in the lateral compartment. SA showed significant association with medial joint space narrowing and with lateral and medial patellar osteophytosis. LPTA and BO showed significant association with both radiographic indices of the lateral compartment. Clear linear trends were found in association between PLR, LPTA and BO, and with outcomes associated with lateral patello-femoral OA. SA, LPTA, and BO showed linear trends of association with medial joint space narrowing. Results of our study clearly suggest the association between indices of patellar alignment and such features of patello-femoral OA as osteophytosis and joint space narrowing. Additional studies will be required to establish the normal and abnormal ranges of patellar alignment indices and their longitudinal relation to patello-femoral OA.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Arthritis research & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are powerful predictors of joint space loss as visualized on radiographs, the natural history of these lesions, their relationship to cartilage loss, and the association between change in these lesions and cartilage loss are unknown. These questions were tested using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in a natural history study of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA).
MRI of the knee was performed at baseline, 15 months, and 30 months in 217 patients with primary knee OA (122 men, 95 women; mean +/- SD age 66.4 +/- 9.4 years). To assess mechanical alignment, long-limb films were obtained at 15 months. Subchondral bone marrow abnormalities, graded in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral joints, were defined as poorly marginated areas of increased signal intensity in the marrow on fat-suppressed, T2-weighted images. Cartilage morphologic features in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral joints were scored at all time points using a semiquantitative scale. For each of the medial and lateral compartments, generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the longitudinal relationship of tibiofemoral BMLs to the tibiofemoral cartilage score, with adjustment for malalignment.
Fifty-seven percent of knees had BMLs at baseline, of which 99% remained the same or increased in size at followup. Knee compartments with a higher baseline BML score had greater cartilage loss. An increase in BMLs was strongly associated with further worsening of the cartilage score. Enlarging or new BMLs occurred mostly in malaligned limbs, on the side of the malalignment (e.g., new medial BMLs in varus-aligned knees). The association of BML change with medial tibiofemoral cartilage loss was not significant after adjusting for alignment.
Lesions of the bone marrow are unlikely to resolve and often get larger over time. Compared with BMLs that stay the same, enlarging BMLs are strongly associated with more cartilage loss. Furthermore, any change in BML is mediated by limb alignment.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of tibiofemoral (TF) narrowing on lateral radiographic views.
In a natural history study of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), both lateral view and fluoroscopically positioned posteroanterior (PA) semiflexed view radiographs of the knee in 30 degrees of flexion and with weight bearing were obtained at baseline and at 30 months. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using repeat radiographs, with joint space width measured using electronic calipers. All radiographs were scored on a 0-3 scale, and progression of joint space loss was defined as narrowing of the joint space by 1 grade. We evaluated sensitivity to change compared with the PA view. We evaluated validity by examining whether knees with progression showed expected malalignment on full-limb films.
Test-retest reliability of the TF joint space using the lateral view had a root mean square error of 0.303 mm, with 92.5% of repeats within 1 mm. More knees showed progression on the lateral view alone (n = 41) than on the PA view alone (n = 27). Compared with knees without joint space loss, knees with medial compartment loss on the lateral view only were more varus malaligned (P < 0.001), while those with lateral compartment loss were more valgus malaligned (P = 0.008).
In the assessment of TF joint space loss, lateral view radiographs are reliable, valid, and more sensitive to change than fluoroscopically positioned PA radiographs.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial condition. The progression of knee OA is determined in part by mechanical effects on local structures. One of the mechanical influences on cartilage loss is limb alignment. We explored the structural factors associated with malalignment in subjects with symptomatic OA.
We conducted a cross-sectional assessment using The Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study, a natural history study of symptomatic knee OA. Baseline assessments included knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and information on weight and height. Long-limb radiographs to assess mechanical alignment were obtained at 15 months. Subarticular bone attrition, meniscal degeneration, anterior and posterior cruciate ligament integrity, medial and lateral collateral ligament integrity, marginal osteophytes, and cartilage morphology were assessed on MRI using a semiquantitative, multi-feature scoring method (Whole-Organ MRI Score) for whole-organ evaluation of the knee that is applicable to conventional MRI techniques. We also quantified the following meniscal position measures on coronal MRI images in both medial and lateral compartments: subluxation, meniscal height, and meniscal covering of the tibial plateau. Using the long-limb radiographs, mechanical alignment was measured in degrees on a continuous scale. The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine the individual and relative contribution of various structural factors to alignment of the lower extremity. We assessed the cross-sectional association between various structural factors and alignment of the lower extremity using a linear regression model.
The 162 subjects with all measures acquired had a mean age of 67.0 years (SD 9.2), body mass index 31.4 (SD 5.6); 30% were female and 77% of knees had a Kellgren-Lawrence grade > or = 2. The main univariate determinants of varus alignment in decreasing order of influence were medial bone attrition, medial meniscal degeneration, medial meniscal subluxation, and medial tibiofemoral cartilage loss. Multivariable analysis revealed that medial bone attrition and medial tibiofemoral cartilage loss explained more of the variance in varus malalignment than other variables. The main univariate determinants of valgus malalignment in decreasing order of influence were lateral tibiofemoral cartilage loss, lateral osteophyte score, and lateral meniscal degeneration.
Cartilage loss has been thought to be the major determinant of alignment. We found that other factors including meniscal degeneration and position, bone attrition, osteophytes, and ligament damage contribute to the variance of malalignment. Further longitudinal analysis is required to determine cause and effect relationships. This should assist researchers in determining strategies to ameliorate the potent effects of this mechanical disturbance.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the relationship between radiographic progression of joint space narrowing and cartilage loss on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), and to investigate the location of MRI-based cartilage loss in the knee and its relation to radiographic progression.
Two hundred twenty-four men and women (mean age 66 years) were studied. Radiographs and MRI of the more symptomatic knee were obtained at baseline and at 15- and 30-month followup. Radiographs of the knee (with weight-bearing) were read for joint space narrowing (scale 0-3), with progression defined as any worsening in score. We used a semiquantitative method to score cartilage morphology in all 5 regions of the tibiofemoral joint, and defined cartilage loss as an increase in score (scale 0-4) at any region. We examined the relationship between progression of joint space narrowing on radiographic images and cartilage loss on MRI, using a generalized estimating equation proportional odds logistic regression, adjusted for baseline cartilage score, age, body mass index, and sex. The medial and lateral compartments were analyzed separately.
In the medial compartment, 104 knees (46%) had cartilage loss detected by MRI. The adjusted odds ratio was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2-6.3) for radiographic progression being predictive of cartilage loss on MRI. However, there was still a substantial proportion of knees (80 of 189 [42%]) with cartilage loss visible on MRI when no radiographic progression was apparent. Cartilage loss occurred frequently in the central regions of the femur and tibia as well as the posterior femur region, but radiographic progression was less likely to be observed when posterior femur regions showed cartilage loss. Radiographic progression appeared specific (91%) but not sensitive (23%) for cartilage loss. Overall findings were similar for the lateral compartment.
While our results provide longitudinal evidence that radiographic progression of joint space narrowing is predictive of cartilage loss assessed on MRI, radiography is not a sensitive measure, and if used alone, will miss a substantial proportion of knees with cartilage loss.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) rupture in knees with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) compared with those without OA, and the relationship to pain and recalled injury.
MRI and plain radiography of the knee were performed in a group of 360 subjects with painful knee OA (cases; 66.7% male, mean age 67.1 years) and 73 without knee pain (controls; 57.5% male, mean age 66.1 years). MRIs were read for the presence or absence of complete or partial ACL or PCL tear. Subjects with knee pain were asked to quantify severity of pain on a visual analog scale and to report whether they could recall a significant knee injury (requiring use of a cane or crutches). We compared the prevalence of ACL and PCL rupture in those with and those without knee pain and also evaluated whether, in cases, there was any association with recalled knee injury.
The proportion of cases who had complete ACL rupture was 22.8%, compared with 2.7% of controls (P = 0.0004). PCL rupture was rare both in cases (0.6%) and in controls (0%). Cases with ACL rupture had more severe radiologic OA (P < 0.0001) and were more likely to have medial joint space narrowing (P < 0.0001) than cases with intact ACLs, but did not have higher pain scores. Among cases, only 47.9% of those with complete ACL tears reported a previous knee injury, compared with 25.9% of those without complete ACL tears (P = 0.003).
ACL rupture is more common among those with symptomatic knee OA compared with those without knee OA. Fewer than half of subjects with ACL rupture recall a knee injury, suggesting that this risk factor for knee OA is underrecognized.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteophytes are thought to stabilize an osteoarthritic joint, thereby preventing structural progression. Meagre longitudinal data suggest, however, that they are associated with an increased risk of structural progression. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of osteophyte size on radiographic progression in osteoarthritis (OA).
Using data from a natural history study of persons with symptomatic knee OA, we obtained fluoroscopically positioned postero-anterior (PA) radiographs at baseline, 15 and 30 months. Using an atlas, osteophyte size was scored on a scale of 0-3 at each of four sites on the PA film and, for each knee, both compartment-specific (i.e. medial; lateral) and overall osteophyte scores were computed. Progression was defined as an increase over follow-up in medial or lateral joint space narrowing, based on a semiquantitative grading. Mechanical alignment was assessed using long limb films at the 15 month examination. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relation of osteophyte size with progression, adjusting for age, gender and body mass index, and with and without adjustment for alignment.
Of 270 subjects who had 470 eligible knees with follow-up, 104 (22%) knees showed progression. Overall, osteophyte score modestly increased the risk of progression [odds ratio (OR) per S.D. increase of osteophyte score=1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.8, P=0.02)], but this effect weakened and became non-significant after adjustment for limb alignment (OR=1.3). Compartment osteophyte score was strongly associated with malalignment to the side of the osteophyte (e.g. medial osteophyte and varus). Compartment-specific osteophyte score markedly increased the risk of ipsilateral progression (e.g. medial osteophytes --> medial progression) [OR per S.D.=1.9 (95% CI 1.5, 2.5, P<0.001)] and decreased the risk of contralateral progression [OR per S.D.= 0.6 (95% CI 0.5, 0.8, P=0.002)], but these associations diminished when we adjusted for limb alignment (OR=1.5 and 0.7 respectively).
Large osteophytes do not affect the risk of structural progression. They are strongly associated with malalignment to the side of the osteophyte, and any relation they have with progression is partly explained by the association of malalignment with progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While factors affecting the course of knee osteoarthritis are mostly unknown, lesions on bone scan and mechanical malalignment increase risk for radiographic deterioration. Bone marrow edema lesions on magnetic resonance imaging correspond to bone scan lesions.
To determine whether edema lesions in the subarticular bone in patients with knee osteoarthritis identify knees at high risk for radiographic progression and whether these lesions are associated with limb malalignment.
Natural history study.
A Veterans Administration hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
Persons 45 years of age and older with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.
Baseline assessments included magnetic resonance imaging of the knee and fluoroscopically positioned radiography. During follow-up at 15 and 30 months, patients underwent repeated radiography; at 15 months, long-limb films were obtained to assess mechanical alignment. Progression was defined as an increase over follow-up in medial or lateral joint space narrowing, based on a semi-quantitative grading. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the relation of medial bone marrow edema lesions to medial progression and lateral lesions to lateral progression, before and after adjustment for limb alignment.
Of 256 patients, 223 (87.1%) participated in at least one follow-up examination. Medial bone marrow lesions were seen mostly in patients with varus limbs, and lateral lesions were seen mostly in those with valgus limbs. Twenty-seven of 75 knees with medial lesions (36.0%) showed medial progression versus 12 of 148 knees without lesions (8.1%) (odds ratio for progression, 6.5 [95% CI, 3.0 to 14.0]). Approximately 69% of knees that progressed medially had medial lesions, and lateral lesions conferred a marked risk for lateral progression. These increased risks were attenuated by 37% to 53% after adjustment for limb alignment.
Bone marrow edema is a potent risk factor for structural deterioration in knee osteoarthritis, and its relation to progression is explained in part by its association with limb alignment.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the prevalence of periarticular lesions in older persons with or without knee pain, and to assess the association of these lesions with knee pain.
Subjects ages 45 years and older, with or without knee pain, were recruited from Veterans Affairs medical centers and from the community. Weight-bearing posteroanterior, skyline, and lateral radiographs were obtained in all subjects. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: those with radiographic OA (ROA) and knee pain (n = 376), those with ROA and no knee pain (n = 51), and those with neither ROA nor knee pain (n = 24). A single knee (the more symptomatic one in subjects with knee pain) was imaged with a 1.5T scanner using T1- and T2-weighted and proton-density spin-echo imaging sequences. MRIs were read for the presence of periarticular lesions, which were categorized (according to their general location) as being either peripatellar (prepatellar, superficial infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar) or "other periarticular lesions" (semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament bursitis, anserine bursitis, iliotibial band syndrome, tibiofibular cyst).
Patients with knee pain had more severe radiographic disease than did subjects who were asymptomatic. Peripatellar lesions (prepatellar or superficial infrapatellar) were present in 12.1% of the patients with knee pain and ROA, in 20.5% of the patients with ROA and no knee pain, and in 0% of subjects with neither ROA nor knee pain (P = 0.116). However, other periarticular lesions were present in 14.9% of patients with both ROA and knee pain, in only 3.9% of patients with ROA but no knee pain, and in 0% of the group with no knee pain and no ROA (P = 0.004).
Although peripatellar lesions are equally common among subjects with knee pain and those without knee pain, other periarticular lesions (including bursitis and iliotibial band syndrome) are significantly more common among subjects with knee pain and may contribute to pain in these individuals.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meniscal tears are frequently found during magnetic resonance imaging of osteoarthritic knees. However, the prevalence and clinical relevance of these tears have not been determined. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between meniscal tears and osteoarthritis and between such tears and pain in patients with osteoarthritis.
Magnetic resonance imaging and plain radiography of the knee were performed in a group of 154 patients with clinical symptoms of knee osteoarthritis and a group of forty-nine age-matched asymptomatic controls. Pain scores (according to a 100-mm visual analog scale) and functional scores (according to the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]) were determined for ninety-one of the patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Meniscal tears were defined as tears extending to an articular surface as seen on magnetic resonance imaging.
A medial or lateral meniscal tear was a very common finding in the asymptomatic subjects (prevalence, 76%) but was more common in the patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (91%) (p < 0.005). In the group with symptomatic osteoarthritis, a higher Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grade was correlated with a higher frequency of meniscal tears (r = 0.26, p < 0.001), and men had a higher prevalence of meniscal tears than did women (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference with regard to the pain or WOMAC score between the patients with and those without a medial or lateral meniscal tear in the osteoarthritic group (p = 0.8 to 0.9 for all comparisons). The power of the study was 80% to detect a difference in the WOMAC scores of 15 points and a difference in the scores on the visual analog scale of 16 mm.
Meniscal tears are highly prevalent in both asymptomatic and clinically osteoarthritic knees of older individuals. However, osteoarthritic knees with a meniscal tear are not more painful than those without a tear, and the meniscal tears do not affect functional status. These data do not support the routine use of magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation and management of meniscal tears in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
Diagnostic study, Level I-1 (testing of previously developed diagnostic criteria in series of consecutive patients [with universally applied reference "gold" standard]). See p. 2 for complete description of levels of evidence.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently reported that, despite their thinness, elderly subjects in Beijing, China had an equal prevalence (in men) or higher prevalence (in women) of both radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared with that in the Framingham, Massachusetts cohort of elderly subjects. Our objective was to evaluate whether Chinese subjects might have more medial disease than do Caucasians, given a report of varus alignment in the knee joints of Chinese elderly.
We compared the prevalence of medial and lateral radiographic knee OA and measured anatomic alignment in the knees of elderly subjects from the Beijing and Framingham cohorts. Both studies recruited a random sample of the population. The Beijing OA Study used the Framingham OA Study protocol for radiographs. Anteroposterior weight-bearing films were read for Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L) grade and joint space narrowing (JSN; 0-3 scale) in each compartment. Medial disease was defined when radiographs showed a K/L grade >or=2 and medial JSN >or=1, and lateral disease was assessed in a comparable manner. Using knee-specific analyses, we compared the prevalence of medial and lateral knee OA after adjusting for age, body mass index, and the correlation between the 2 knees. Restricting the analyses to knees with JSN >or=2 and comparing the proportion of OA knees with medial disease and lateral disease yielded similar results. We assessed alignment in knees from 100 persons without OA, measuring the angle subtended by the femoral and tibial anatomic axes.
We studied 1,781 Chinese subjects ages 60-88 years, and 1,084 Framingham subjects ages 63-93 years. Whereas medial OA was less prevalent among the Beijing men, lateral OA was more than twice as prevalent among the Beijing men and women, compared with that in the Framingham elderly. For example, of all knees with radiographic OA, 28.5% of Beijing women's knees had lateral OA versus 11% of Framingham women's knees (P < 0.001), and among men, 32.3% of Beijing men's knees versus 8.8% of Framingham men's knees (P < 0.001) had lateral OA. Alignment was more valgus in the Beijing men than in the Framingham men (mean 4.5 degrees versus 2.7 degrees valgus, respectively; P < 0.001), but no differences in alignment were evident in the women.
In this first attempt to compare the characteristics of OA in different racial groups, we conclude that, opposite to expectations, Chinese subjects have much more lateral OA than do Caucasian subjects in the Framingham cohort, a predilection possibly explained in the men by differences in anatomic alignment.
Preview · Article · May 2002 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cause of pain in osteoarthritis is unknown. Bone has pain fibers, and marrow lesions, which are thought to represent edema, have been noted in osteoarthritis.
To determine whether bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with pain in knee osteoarthritis.
Cross-sectional observational study.
Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
401 persons (mean age, 66.8 years) with knee osteoarthritis on radiography who were drawn from clinics in the Veterans Administration health care system and from the community. Of these persons, 351 had knee pain and 50 had no knee pain.
Knee radiography and MRI of one knee were performed in all participants. Those with knee pain quantified the severity of their pain. On MRI, coronal T(2)-weighted fat-saturated images were used to score the size of bone marrow lesions, and each knee was characterized as having any lesion or any large lesion. The prevalence of lesions and large lesions in persons with and without knee pain was compared; in participants with knee pain, the presence of lesions was correlated with severity of pain.
Bone marrow lesions were found in 272 of 351 (77.5%) persons with painful knees compared with 15 of 50 (30%) persons with no knee pain (P < 0.001). Large lesions were present almost exclusively in persons with knee pain (35.9% vs. 2%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for severity of radiographic disease, effusion, age, and sex, lesions and large lesions remained associated with the occurrence of knee pain. Among persons with knee pain, bone marrow lesions were not associated with pain severity.
Bone marrow lesions on MRI are strongly associated with the presence of pain in knee osteoarthritis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The failure to image the patellofemoral joint or the posterior knee compartment when evaluating persons for knee osteoarthritis may result in missed cases. While the skyline view has been recommended due to more reproducible assessment of the patellofemoral joint space, the lateral view may be easier to acquire and provides different information. We evaluated the sensitivity of different combinations of X-ray views (anteroposterior and lateral; anteroposterior and skyline; all three views) in 377 persons with knee symptoms who had all three views available and had a definite osteophyte on at least one view.
Of the different views, skylines had to be excluded most often because the image of the patellofemoral joint was technically unsatisfactory. In the remaining knees, adding either a lateral or a skyline view to an anteroposterior view yielded roughly equal and high sensitivity (94-97%) when compared with the gold standard of a positive X-ray on any of the three views.
As long as at least an anteroposterior view and one image of the patellofemoral joint is obtained (either skyline or lateral), few cases with radiographic disease will be missed. For clinical or epidemiological studies the lateral view may be easier to acquire with high quality than the skyline view.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development and acceptance of the digital communication in medicine (DICOM) standard has become a basic requirement for the implementation of electronic imaging in radiology. DICOM is now evolving to provide a standard for electronic communication between radiology and other parts of the hospital enterprise. In a completely integrated filmless radiology department, there are 3 core computer systems, the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), the hospital or radiology information system (HIS, RIS), and the acquisition modality. Ideally, each would have bidirectional communication with the other 2 systems. At a minimum, a PACS must be able to receive and acknowledge receipt of image and demographic data from the modalities. Similarly, the modalities must be able to send images and demographic data to the PACS. Now that basic DICOM communication protocols for query or retrieval, storage, and print classes have become established through both conformance statements and intervendor testing, there has been an increase in interest in enhancing the functionality of communication between the 3 computers. Historically, demographic data passed to the PACS have been generated manually at the modality despite the existence of the same data on the HIS or RIS. In more current sophisticated implementations, acquisition modalities are able to receive patient and study-related data from the HIS or RIS. DICOM Modality Worklist is the missing electronic link that transfers this critical information between the acquisition modalities and the HIS or RIS. This report describes the concepts, issues, and impact of DICOM Modality Worklist implementation in a PACS environment.
Preview · Article · Sep 2000 · Journal of Digital Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Interface design is a key element in the efficient use of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstation. In many cases, multiple mouse clicks or keyboard commands are required to open and close a case, to mark it as complete, and to retrieve and allocate screen positions to the next case. We evaluated the work flow effect of software designed for automated image display in which all of these operations are consolidated in a single mouse click. CONCLUSION: Automated image display increases efficiency in image interpretation and remedies the normally cluttered presentation environment. At our institution, acceptance of automated image display has been overwhelmingly positive. In fact, automated image display has improved radiologist productivity.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · American Journal of Roentgenology