[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular profiling has uncovered genetic subtypes of glioblastoma (GBM), including tumors with IDH1 mutations that confer increase survival and improved response to standard-of-care therapies. By mapping the genetic landscape of brain tumors in routine clinical practice, we enable rapid identification of targetable genetic alterations.
A 29-year-old male presented with new onset seizures prompting neuroimaging studies, which revealed an enhancing 5 cm intra-axial lesion involving the right parietal lobe. He underwent a subtotal resection and pathologic examination revealed glioblastoma with mitoses, microvascular proliferation and necrosis. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed diffuse expression of GFAP, OLIG2 and SOX2 consistent with a tumor of glial lineage. Tumor cells were positive for IDH1(R132H) and negative for ATRX. Clinical targeted-exome sequencing (DFBWCC Oncopanel) identified multiple functional variants including IDH1 (p.R132H), TP53 (p.Y126_splice), ATRX (p.R1302fs*), HNF1A (p.R263H) and NF1 (p.H2592del) variants and a NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion event involving NAB2 exon 3 and STAT6 exon 18. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) further revealed a focal amplification of NAB2 and STAT6. IHC analysis demonstrated strong heterogenous STAT6 nuclear localization (in 20 % of tumor cells).
While NAB2:STAT6 fusions are common in solitary fibrous tumors (SFT), we report this event for the first time in a newly diagnosed, secondary-type GBM or any other non-SFT. Our study further highlights the value of comprehensive genomic analyses in identifying patient-specific targetable mutations and rearrangements.
Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Diagnostic Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiocentric gliomas are pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) without known recurrent genetic drivers. We performed genomic analysis of new and published data from 249 PLGGs, including 19 angiocentric gliomas. We identified MYB-QKI fusions as a specific and single candidate driver event in angiocentric gliomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies show that MYB-QKI rearrangements promote tumorigenesis through three mechanisms: MYB activation by truncation, enhancer translocation driving aberrant MYB-QKI expression and hemizygous loss of the tumor suppressor QKI. To our knowledge, this represents the first example of a single driver rearrangement simultaneously transforming cells via three genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in a tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapy development for adult diffuse glioma is hindered by incomplete knowledge of somatic glioma driving alterations and suboptimal disease classification. We defined the complete set of genes associated with 1,122 diffuse grade II-III-IV gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and used molecular profiles to improve disease classification, identify molecular correlations, and provide insights into the progression from low- to high-grade disease. Whole-genome sequencing data analysis determined that ATRX but not TERT promoter mutations are associated with increased telomere length. Recent advances in glioma classification based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion status were recapitulated through analysis of DNA methylation profiles, which identified clinically relevant molecular subsets. A subtype of IDH mutant glioma was associated with DNA demethylation and poor outcome; a group of IDH-wild-type diffuse glioma showed molecular similarity to pilocytic astrocytoma and relatively favorable survival. Understanding of cohesive disease groups may aid improved clinical outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults. Identification of SMO and AKT1 mutations in meningiomas has raised the possibility of targeted therapies for some patients. The frequency of such mutations in clinical cohorts and the presence of other actionable mutations in meningiomas are important to define.
We used high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization to prospectively characterize copy-number changes in 150 meningiomas and then characterized these samples for mutations in AKT1, KLF4, NF2, PIK3CA, SMO, and TRAF7.
Similar to prior reports, we identified AKT1 and SMO mutations in a subset of non-NF2-mutant meningiomas (ie, ∼9% and ∼6%, respectively). Notably, we detected oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA in ∼7% of non-NF2-mutant meningiomas. AKT1, SMO, and PIK3CA mutations were mutually exclusive. AKT1, KLF4, and PIK3CA mutations often co-occurred with mutations in TRAF7. PIK3CA-mutant meningiomas showed limited chromosomal instability and were enriched in the skull base.
This work identifies PI3K signaling as an important target for precision medicine trials in meningioma patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms in adults. Current histopathological grading schemes do not consistently predict their natural history. Classic cytogenetic studies have disclosed a progressive course of chromosomal aberrations, especially in high-grade meningiomas. Furthermore, the recent application of unbiased next-generation sequencing approaches has implicated several novel genes whose mutations underlie a substantial percentage of meningiomas. These insights may serve to craft a molecular taxonomy for meningiomas and highlight putative therapeutic targets in a new era of rational biology-informed precision medicine.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An unbiased genome-scale screen for unmutated genes that drive cancer growth when overexpressed identified methyl cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) binding protein 2 (MECP2) as a novel oncogene. MECP2 resides in a region of the X-chromosome that is significantly amplified across 18% of cancers, and many cancer cell lines have amplified, overexpressed MECP2 and are dependent on MECP2 expression for growth. MECP2 copy-number gain and RAS family member alterations are mutually exclusive in several cancer types. The MECP2 splicing isoforms activate the major growth factor pathways targeted by activated RAS, the MAPK and PI3K pathways. MECP2 rescued the growth of a KRASG12C-addicted cell line after KRAS downregulation, and activated KRAS rescues the growth of an MECP2-addicted cell line after MECP2 downregulation. MECP2 binding to the epigenetic modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is required for efficient transformation. These observations suggest that MECP2 is a commonly amplified oncogene with an unusual epigenetic mode of action. Significance:MECP2 is a commonly amplified oncogene in human malignancies with a unique epigenetic mechanism of action.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Cancer Discovery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which accounts for 15 to 20% of renal-cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that consists of various types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal-cell carcinoma, and no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization of 161 primary papillary renal-cell carcinomas, using whole-exome sequencing, copy-number analysis, messenger RNA and microRNA sequencing, DNA-methylation analysis, and proteomic analysis. Results Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups on the basis of molecular differences associated with patient survival. Type 1 tumors were associated with MET alterations, whereas type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was observed in a distinct subgroup of type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas that was characterized by poor survival and mutation of the gene encoding fumarate hydratase (FH). Conclusions Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway were associated with type 1, and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway was associated with type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in type 2 conveyed a poor prognosis. Furthermore, type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinoma consisted of at least three subtypes based on molecular and phenotypic features. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPEs) are rare spinal tumors in children. The natural history and clinical course of pediatric MPEs are largely unknown and the indication for adjuvant therapy remains to be clarified. We performed an IRB-approved, retrospective review of children with MPEs treated at the Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorder Center between 1982 and 2013. Eighteen children (age range 8-21 years, median age 14 years) met inclusion criteria. We reviewed the histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging, tumor location and stage, surgical management, adjuvant therapy, and clinical outcomes. The median follow-up duration was 9.4 years (range 1-30 years). Children most commonly presented with pain, scoliosis, and urinary symptoms. All primary tumors were located in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine. Nine children (50 %) had leptomeningeal tumor seeding at presentation, most commonly located within the distal thecal sac. A gross-total resection was achieved in nine children (50 %). Three children were treated with irradiation following initial surgery. No child received adjuvant chemotherapy at diagnosis. The 10-year event-free survival (EFS) was 26 % ± 14.8. Children with disseminated disease trended towards inferior EFS compared to those with localized disease (10-year EFS 12.7 % ± 12 vs. 57 ± 25 %, p value 0.07). The 10-year overall survival was 100 %. The efficacy of adjuvant irradiation could not be assessed due to the small sample size. Although children with MPEs frequently present with disseminated tumor and/or develop recurrent or progressive disease, their overall survival is excellent. Treatment should aim to minimize both tumor- and therapy-related morbidity.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphoma is the most common hematological malignancy in developed countries. Outcome is strongly determined by molecular subtype, reflecting a need for new and improved treatment options. Dogs spontaneously develop lymphoma, and the predisposition of certain breeds indicates genetic risk factors. Using the dog breed structure, we selected three lymphoma predisposed breeds developing primarily T-cell (boxer), primarily B-cell (cocker spaniel), and with equal distribution of B and T-cell lymphoma (golden retriever), respectively. We investigated the somatic mutations in B- and T-cell lymphomas from these breeds by exome sequencing of tumor and normal pairs. Strong similarities were evident between B-cell lymphomas from golden retrievers and cocker spaniels, with recurrent mutations in TRAF3-MAP3K14 (28% of all cases), FBXW7 (25%), and POT1 (17%). The FBXW7 mutations recurrently occur in a specific codon; the corresponding codon is recurrently mutated in human cancer. In contrast, T-cell lymphomas from the predisposed breeds, boxers and golden retrievers, show little overlap in their mutation pattern, sharing only one of their 15 most recurrently mutated genes. Boxers, which develop aggressive T-cell lymphomas, are typically mutated in the PTEN-mTOR pathway. T-cell lymphomas in golden retrievers are often less aggressive and their tumors typically showed mutations in genes involved in cellular metabolism. We identify genes with known involvement in human lymphoma and leukemia, genes implicated in other human cancers, as well as novel genes that could allow new therapeutic options.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mig6 is a feedback inhibitor that directly binds, inhibits and drives internalization of ErbB-family receptors. Mig6 selectively targets activated receptors. Here we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylates Mig6 on Y394 and that this phosphorylation is primed by prior phosphorylation of an adjacent residue, Y395, by Src. Crystal structures of human EGFR-Mig6 complexes reveal the structural basis for enhanced phosphorylation of primed Mig6 and show how Mig6 rearranges after phosphorylation by EGFR to effectively irreversibly inhibit the same receptor that catalyzed its phosphorylation. This dual phosphorylation site allows Mig6 to inactivate EGFR in a manner that requires activation of the target receptor and that can be modulated by Src. Loss of Mig6 is a driving event in human cancer; analysis of 1,057 gliomas reveals frequent focal deletions of ERRFI1, the gene that encodes Mig6, in EGFR-amplified glioblastomas.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND
Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas.
We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes.
Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma.
The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation were molecularly and clinically similar to glioblastoma.
(Funded by the National Institutes of Health)
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the landscape of genomic alterations in cutaneous melanomas through DNA, RNA, and protein-based analysis of 333 primary and/or metastatic melanomas from 331 patients. We establish a framework for genomic classification into one of four subtypes based on the pattern of the most prevalent significantly mutated genes: mutant BRAF, mutant RAS, mutant NF1, and Triple-WT (wild-type). Integrative analysis reveals enrichment of KIT mutations and focal amplifications and complex structural rearrangements as a feature of the Triple-WT subtype. We found no significant outcome correlation with genomic classification, but samples assigned a transcriptomic subclass enriched for immune gene expression associated with lymphocyte infiltrate on pathology review and high LCK protein expression, a T cell marker, were associated with improved patient survival. This clinicopathological and multi-dimensional analysis suggests that the prognosis of melanoma patients with regional metastases is influenced by tumor stroma immunobiology, offering insights to further personalize therapeutic decision-making.