[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell shape can influence cell behavior. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bud emergence can influence cell cycle progression via the morphogenesis checkpoint. This surveillance pathway ensures that mitosis always follows bud formation by linking degradation of the mitosis-inhibitory kinase Swe1p (Wee1) to successful bud emergence. A crucial component of this pathway is the checkpoint kinase Hsl1p, which is activated upon bud emergence and promotes Swe1p degradation. We have dissected the large nonkinase domain of Hsl1p by using evolutionary conservation as a guide, identifying regions important for Hsl1p localization, function, and regulation. An autoinhibitory motif restrains Hsl1p activity when it is not properly localized to the mother-bud neck. Hsl1p lacking this motif is active as a kinase regardless of the assembly state of cytoskeletal septin filaments. However, the active but delocalized Hsl1p cannot promote Swe1p down-regulation, indicating that localization is required for Hsl1p function as well as Hsl1p activation. We also show that the septin-mediated Hsl1p regulation via the novel motif operates in parallel to a previously identified Hsl1p activation pathway involving phosphorylation of the Hsl1p kinase domain. We suggest that Hsl1p responds to alterations in septin organization, which themselves occur in response to the local geometry of the cell cortex.
Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Molecular biology of the cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing in the outdoor environment must adapt to sudden changes in temperature and other variables. Many such changes trigger stress responses that delay bud emergence until the cells can adapt. In such circumstances, the morphogenesis checkpoint delays mitosis until a bud has been formed. Mitotic delay is due to the Wee1 family mitotic inhibitor Swe1p, whose degradation is linked to bud emergence by the checkpoint kinase Hsl1p. Hsl1p is concentrated at the mother-bud neck through association with septin filaments, and it was reported that Hsl1p activation involved relief of autoinhibition in response to septin interaction. Here we challenge the previous identification of an autoinhibitory domain and show instead that Hsl1p activation involves the phosphorylation of threonine 273, promoted by the septin-associated kinase Elm1p. We identified elm1 mutants in a screen for defects in Swe1p degradation and show that a phosphomimic T273E mutation in HSL1 bypasses the need for Elm1p in this pathway.
Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Molecular biology of the cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several checkpoint pathways employ Wee1-mediated inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to restrain cell-cycle progression. Whereas in vertebrates this strategy can delay both DNA replication and mitosis, in yeast cells only mitosis is delayed. This is particularly surprising because yeasts, unlike vertebrates, employ a single family of cyclins (B type) and the same CDK to promote both S phase and mitosis. The G2-specific arrest could be explained in two fundamentally different ways: tyrosine phosphorylation of cyclin/CDK complexes could leave sufficient residual activity to promote S phase, or S phase-promoting cyclin/CDK complexes could somehow be protected from checkpoint-induced tyrosine phosphorylation.
We demonstrate that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several cyclin/CDK complexes are protected from inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation, allowing Clb5,6p to promote DNA replication and Clb3,4p to promote spindle assembly, even under checkpoint-inducing conditions that block nuclear division. In vivo, S phase-promoting Clb5p/Cdc28p complexes were phosphorylated more slowly and dephosphorylated more effectively than were mitosis-promoting Clb2p/Cdc28p complexes. Moreover, we show that the CDK inhibitor (CKI) Sic1p protects bound Clb5p/Cdc28p complexes from tyrosine phosphorylation, allowing the accumulation of unphosphorylated complexes that are unleashed when Sic1p is degraded to promote S phase. The vertebrate CKI p27(Kip1) similarly protects Cyclin A/Cdk2 complexes from Wee1, suggesting that the antagonism between CKIs and Wee1 is evolutionarily conserved.
In yeast cells, the combination of CKI binding and preferential phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of different B cyclin/CDK complexes renders S phase progression immune from checkpoints acting via CDK tyrosine phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many environmental stresses trigger cellular responses by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Once
activated, these highly conserved protein kinase cascades can elicit cellular responses such as transcriptional activation
of response genes, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell cycle arrest. The mechanism of pathway activation by environmental
stresses is in most cases unknown. We have analyzed the activation of the budding yeast “cell integrity” MAPK pathway by heat
shock, hypoosmotic shock, and actin perturbation, and we report that different stresses regulate this pathway at different
steps. In no case can MAPK activation be explained by the prevailing view that stresses simply induce GTP loading of the Rho1p
GTPase at the “top” of the pathway. Instead, our findings suggest that the stresses can modulate at least three distinct kinases
acting between Rho1p and the MAPK. These findings suggest that stresses provide “lateral” inputs into this regulatory pathway,
rather than operating in a linear “top-down” manner.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Swe1p, the sole Wee1-family kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is synthesized during late G1 and is then degraded as cells proceed through the cell cycle. However, Swe1p degradation is halted by the morphogenesis checkpoint, which responds to insults that perturb bud formation. The Swe1p stabilization promotes cell cycle arrest through Swe1p-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc28p until the cells can recover from the perturbation and resume bud formation. Swe1p degradation involves the relocalization of Swe1p from the nucleus to the mother-bud neck, and neck targeting requires the Swe1p-interacting protein Hsl7p. In addition, Swe1p degradation is stimulated by its substrate, cyclin/Cdc28p, and Swe1p is thought to be a target of the ubiquitin ligase SCF(Met30) acting with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34p. The basis for regulation of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint remains unclear, and in order to elucidate that regulation we have dissected the Swe1p degradation pathway in more detail, yielding several novel findings. First, we show here that Met30p (and by implication SCF(Met30)) is not, in fact, required for Swe1p degradation. Second, cyclin/Cdc28p does not influence Swe1p neck targeting, but can directly phosphorylate Swe1p, suggesting that it acts downstream of neck targeting in the Swe1p degradation pathway. Third, a screen for functional but nondegradable mutants of SWE1 identified two small regions of Swe1p that are key to its degradation. One of these regions mediates interaction of Swe1p with Hsl7p, showing that the Swe1p-Hsl7p interaction is critical for Swe1p neck targeting and degradation. The other region did not appear to affect interactions with known Swe1p regulators, suggesting that other as-yet-unknown regulators exist.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the beginning of the budding yeast cell cycle, the GTPase Cdc42p promotes the assembly of a ring of septins at the site of future bud emergence. Here, we present an analysis of cdc42 mutants that display specific defects in septin organization, which identifies an important role for GTP hydrolysis by Cdc42p in the assembly of the septin ring. The mutants show defects in basal or stimulated GTP hydrolysis, and the septin misorganization is suppressed by overexpression of a Cdc42p GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Other mutants known to affect GTP hydrolysis by Cdc42p also caused septin misorganization, as did deletion of Cdc42p GAPs. In performing its roles in actin polarization and transcriptional activation, GTP-Cdc42p is thought to function by activating and/or recruiting effectors to the site of polarization. Excess accumulation of GTP-Cdc42p due to a defect in GTP hydrolysis by the septin-specific alleles might cause unphysiological activation of effectors, interfering with septin assembly. However, the recessive and dose-sensitive genetic behavior of the septin-specific cdc42 mutants is inconsistent with the septin defect stemming from a dominant interference of this type. Instead, we suggest that assembly of the septin ring involves repeated cycles of GTP loading and GTP hydrolysis by Cdc42p. These results suggest that a single GTPase, Cdc42p, can act either as a ras-like GTP-dependent "switch" to turn on effectors or as an EF-Tu-like "assembly factor" using the GTPase cycle to assemble a macromolecular structure.
Preview · Article · Feb 2002 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many cells the timing of entry into mitosis is controlled by the balance between the activity of inhibitory Wee1-related kinases (Swe1p in budding yeast) and the opposing effect of Cdc25-related phosphatases (Mih1p in budding yeast) that act on the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2 (Cdc28p in budding yeast). Wee1 and Cdc25 are key elements in the G2 arrest mediated by diverse checkpoint controls. In budding yeast, a 'morphogenesis checkpoint' that involves Swe1p and Mih1p delays mitotic activation of Cdc28p. Many environmental stresses (such as shifts in temperature or osmolarity) provoke transient depolarization of the actin cytoskeleton, during which bud construction is delayed while cells adapt to environmental conditions. During this delay, the morphogenesis checkpoint halts the cell cycle in G2 phase until actin can repolarize and complete bud construction, thus preventing the generation of binucleate cells. A similar G2 delay can be triggered by mutations or drugs that specifically impair actin organization, indicating that it is probably actin disorganization itself, rather than specific environmental stresses, that triggers the delay. The G2 delay involves stabilization of Swe1p in response to various actin perturbations, although this alone is insufficient to produce a long G2 delay.
No preview · Article · May 2001 · Nature Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In budding yeast cells, the cytoskeletal polarization and depolarization events that shape the bud are triggered at specific
times during the cell cycle by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28p. Polarity establishment also requires the small GTPase Cdc42p
and its exchange factor, Cdc24p, but the mechanism whereby Cdc28p induces Cdc42p-dependent polarization is unknown. Here we
show that Cdc24p becomes phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, triggered by Cdc28p. However, the role of Cdc28p
is indirect, and the phosphorylation appears to be catalyzed by the p21-activated kinase family member Cla4p and also depends
on Cdc42p and the scaffold protein Bem1p. Expression of GTP-Cdc42p, the product of Cdc24p-mediated GDP/GTP exchange, stimulated
Cdc24p phosphorylation independent of cell cycle cues, raising the possibility that the phosphorylation is part of a feedback
regulatory pathway. Bem1p binds directly to Cdc24p, to Cla4p, and to GTP-bound Cdc42p and can mediate complex formation between
these proteins in vitro. We suggest that Bem1p acts to concentrate polarity establishment proteins at a discrete site, facilitating polarization
and promoting Cdc24p phosphorylation at specific times during the cell cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entry into mitosis is regulated by the Cdc2 kinase complexed to B-type cyclins. We and others recently reported that cyclin
B1/Cdc2 complexes, which appear to be constitutively cytoplasmic during interphase, actually shuttle continually into and
out of the nucleus, with the rate of nuclear export exceeding the import rate (1-3). At the time of entry into mitosis, the import rate is increased, whereas the export rate is decreased, leading to rapid
nuclear accumulation of Cdc2/cyclin B1. Although it has recently been reported that phosphorylation of 4 serines within cyclin
B1 promotes the rapid nuclear translocation of Cdc2/cyclin B1 at G2/M, the role that individual phosphorylation sites play in this process has not been examined (3, 4). We report here that phosphorylation of a single serine residue (Ser113 ofXenopus cyclin B1) abrogates nuclear export of cyclin B1. This serine lies directly within the cyclin B1 nuclear export sequence
and, when phosphorylated, prevents binding of the nuclear export factor, CRM1. In contrast, analysis of phosphorylation site
mutants suggests that coordinate phosphorylation of all 4 serines (94, 96, 101, and 113) is required for the accelerated nuclear
import of cyclin B1/Cdc2 characteristic of G2/M. Additionally, binding of cyclin B1 to importin-β, the factor known to be responsible for the slow interphase nuclear entry
of cyclin B1, appears to be unaffected by the phosphorylation state of cyclin B. These data suggest that a distinct import
factor must be recruited to enhance nuclear entry of Cdc2/cyclin B1 at the G2/M transition.
Preview · Article · Mar 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In
, the Wee1 family kinase Swe1p is normally stable during G
and S phases but is unstable during G
and M phases due to ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. However, perturbations of the actin cytoskeleton lead to a stabilization and accumulation of Swe1p. This response constitutes part of a morphogenesis checkpoint that couples cell cycle progression to proper bud formation, but the basis for the regulation of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint remains unknown. Previous studies have identified a protein kinase, Hsl1p, and a phylogenetically conserved protein of unknown function, Hsl7p, as putative negative regulators of Swe1p. We report here that Hsl1p and Hsl7p act in concert to target Swe1p for degradation. Both proteins are required for Swe1p degradation during the unperturbed cell cycle, and excess Hsl1p accelerates Swe1p degradation in the G
-M phase. Hsl1p accumulates periodically during the cell cycle and promotes the periodic phosphorylation of Hsl7p. Hsl7p can be detected in a complex with Swe1p in cell lysates, and the overexpression of Hsl7p or Hsl1p produces an effective override of the G
arrest imposed by the morphogenesis checkpoint. These findings suggest that Hsl1p and Hsl7p interact directly with Swe1p to promote its recognition by the ubiquitination complex, leading ultimately to its destruction.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1999 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast delays cell cycle progression in G(2) when the actin cytoskeleton is perturbed, providing time for cells to complete bud formation prior to mitosis. Checkpoint-induced G(2) arrest involves the inhibition of the master cell cycle regulatory cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28p, by the Wee1 family kinase Swe1p. Results of experiments using a nonphosphorylatable CDC28(Y19F) allele suggested that the checkpoint stimulated two inhibitory pathways, one that promoted phosphorylation at tyrosine 19 (Y19) and a poorly characterized second pathway that did not require Cdc28p Y19 phosphorylation. We present the results from a genetic screen for checkpoint-defective mutants that led to the repeated isolation of the dominant CDC28(E12K) allele that is resistant to Swe1p-mediated inhibition. Comparison of this allele with the nonphosphorylatable CDC28(Y19F) allele suggested that Swe1p is still able to inhibit CDC28(Y19F) in a phosphorylation-independent manner and that both the Y19 phosphorylation-dependent and -independent checkpoint pathways in fact reflect Swe1p inhibition of Cdc28p. Remarkably, we found that a Swe1p mutant lacking catalytic activity could significantly delay the cell cycle in vivo during a physiological checkpoint response, even when expressed at single copy. The finding that a Wee1 family kinase expressed at physiological levels can inhibit a nonphosphorylatable cyclin-dependent kinase has broad implications for many checkpoint studies using such mutants in other organisms.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1999 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a cell cycle checkpoint coordinates mitosis with bud formation. Perturbations that transiently depolarize the actin cytoskeleton cause delays in bud formation, and a 'morphogenesis checkpoint' detects the actin perturbation and imposes a G2 delay through inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28p. The tyrosine kinase Swe1p, homologous to wee1 in fission yeast, is required for the checkpoint-mediated G2 delay. In this report, we show that Swe1p stability is regulated both during the normal cell cycle and in response to the checkpoint. Swe1p is stable during G1 and accumulates to a peak at the end of S phase or in early G2, when it becomes unstable and is degraded rapidly. Destabilization of Swe1p in G2 and M phase depends on the activity of Cdc28p in complexes with B-type cyclins. Several different perturbations of actin organization all prevent Swe1p degradation, leading to the persistence or further accumulation of Swe1p, and cell cycle delay in G2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the Cyclin B/Cdc2 kinase complex triggers entry into mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. Cyclin B1 localization changes dramatically during the cell cycle, precipitously transiting from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the beginning of mitosis. Presumably, this relocalization promotes the phosphorylation of nuclear targets critical for chromatin condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown. We show here that the previously characterized cytoplasmic retention sequence of Cyclin B1, responsible for its interphase cytoplasmic localization, is actually an autonomous nuclear export sequence, capable of directing nuclear export of a heterologous protein, and able to bind specifically to the recently identified export mediator, CRM1. We propose that the observed cytoplasmic localization of Cyclin B1 during interphase reflects the equilibrium between ongoing nuclear import and rapid CRM1-mediated export. In support of this hypothesis, we found that treatment of cells with leptomycin B, which disrupted Cyclin B1-CRM1 interactions, led to a marked nuclear accumulation of Cyclin B1. In mitosis, Cyclin B1 undergoes phosphorylation at several sites, a subset of which have been proposed to play a role in Cyclin B1 accumulation in the nucleus. Both CRM1 binding and the ability to direct nuclear export were affected by mutation of these phosphorylation sites; thus, we propose that Cyclin B1 phosphorylation at the G2/M transition prevents its interaction with CRM1, thereby reducing nuclear export and facilitating nuclear accumulation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1998 · Genes & Development