Lynette A Fouser

Pfizer, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (36)

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that pathogenic T helper type 17 (Th17) cells differentiated from naive CD41 T cells of BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by interleukin (IL)-23 plus IL-6 produce IL-17, IL-22 and induce type 1 diabetes (T1D). Neutralizing interferon (IFN)-g during the polarization process leads to a significant increase in IL-22 production by these Th17 cells. We also isolated IL-22-producing Th17 cells from the pancreas of wild-type diabetic NOD mice. IL-27 also blocked IL-22 production from diabetogenic Th17 cells. To determine the functional role of IL-22 produced by pathogenic Th17 cells in T1D we neutralized IL-22 in vivo by using anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody. We found that blocking IL-22 did not alter significantly adoptive transfer of disease by pathogenic Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-22 is not required for T1D pathogenesis. The IL-22Ra receptor for IL-22 however, increased in the pancreas of NOD mice during disease progression and based upon our and other studies we suggest that IL-22 may have a regenerative and protective role in the pancreatic islets.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2016 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that pathogenic Th17 cells differentiated from naive CD4+ T cells of BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic NOD mice by IL-23 plus IL-6 produce IL-17, IL-22 and induce type 1 diabetes (T1D). Neutralizing IFN-γ during the polarization process leads to a significant increase in IL-22 production by these Th17 cells. We also isolated IL-22-producing Th17 cells from the pancreas of wild type diabetic NOD mice. IL-27 also blocked IL-22 production from diabetogenic Th17 cells. To determine the functional role of IL-22 produced by pathogenic Th17 cells in T1D we neutralized IL-22 in vivo by using anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody. We found that blocking IL-22 did not significantly alter adoptive transfer of disease by pathogenic Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-22 is not required for T1D pathogenesis. The IL-22Rα receptor for IL-22 however, increased in the pancreas of NOD mice during disease progression and based upon our and other studies we suggest that IL-22 may have a regenerative and protective role in the pancreatic islets.
    Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that pathogenic Th17 cells differentiated from naive CD4+ T cells of BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic NOD mice by IL-23 plus IL-6 produce IL-17, IL-22 and induce type 1 diabetes (T1D). Neutralizing IFN-γ during the polarization process leads to a significant increase in IL-22 production by these Th17 cells. We also isolated IL-22-producing Th17 cells from the pancreas of wild type diabetic NOD mice. IL-27 also blocked IL-22 production from diabetogenic Th17 cells. To determine the functional role of IL-22 produced by pathogenic Th17 cells in T1D we neutralized IL-22 in vivo by using anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody. We found that blocking IL-22 did not significantly alter adoptive transfer of disease by pathogenic Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-22 is not required for T1D pathogenesis. The IL-22Rα receptor for IL-22 however, increased in the pancreas of NOD mice during disease progression and based upon our and other studies we suggest that IL-22 may have a regenerative and protective role in the pancreatic islets.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 17 helper T cell cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, a chronic condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract, but information regarding their contribution to pathology in different regions of the gut is lacking. By using a murine model of bacteria-induced typhlocolitis, we investigated the role of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 in cecal versus colonic inflammation. Cecal, but not colonic, pathology in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with Helicobacter hepaticus plus anti-IL-10 receptor monoclonal antibody was exacerbated by co-administration of anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody, suggesting a disease-protective role for IL-17A in the cecum. In contrast, anti-IL-17F had no effect on H. hepaticus-induced intestinal pathology. Neutralization of IL-22 prevented the development of colonic, but not cecal, inflammation in H. hepaticus-infected anti-IL-10 receptor (R)-treated mice, demonstrating a pathogenic role for IL-22 in the colon. Analysis of transcript levels revealed differential expression of IL-22R, IL-22 binding protein, and IL-23R between cecum and colon, a finding that may help explain why these tissues respond differently after anti-IL-22 treatment. Analysis of microarray data from healthy human intestine further revealed significant differences in cytokine receptor transcript levels (including IL-22RA1 and IL-23R) in distinct parts of the human gut. Together, our findings demonstrate that individual type 17 helper T-cell cytokines can have proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects in different regions of the intestine, an observation that may have implications for interventions against human inflammatory bowel disease.
    Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal Of Pathology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical for maintaining epithelial barrier integrity at mucosal surfaces; however, the tissue-specific factors that regulate ILC responses remain poorly characterized. Using mice with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletions in either inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK)α or IKKβ, two critical regulators of NFκB activation, we demonstrate that IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression selectively regulates group 3 ILC (ILC3)-dependent antibacterial immunity in the intestine. Although IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice efficiently controlled Citrobacter rodentium infection, IKKα(ΔIEC) mice exhibited severe intestinal inflammation, increased bacterial dissemination to peripheral organs, and increased host mortality. Consistent with weakened innate immunity to C. rodentium, IKKα(ΔIEC) mice displayed impaired IL-22 production by RORγt(+) ILC3s, and therapeutic delivery of rIL-22 or transfer of sort-purified IL-22-competent ILCs from control mice could protect IKKα(ΔIEC) mice from C. rodentium-induced morbidity. Defective ILC3 responses in IKKα(ΔIEC) mice were associated with overproduction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by IECs, which negatively regulated IL-22 production by ILC3s and impaired innate immunity to C. rodentium. IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression was similarly critical for regulation of intestinal inflammation after chemically induced intestinal damage and colitis. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for epithelial cell-intrinsic IKKα expression and TSLP in regulating ILC3 responses required to maintain intestinal barrier immunity.
    Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The series of events leading to tertiary lymphoid organ (TLO) formation in mucosal organs following tissue damage remain unclear. Using a virus-induced model of autoantibody formation in the salivary glands of adult mice, we demonstrate that IL-22 provides a mechanistic link between mucosal infection, B-cell recruitment, and humoral autoimmunity. IL-22 receptor engagement is necessary and sufficient to promote differential expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 in epithelial and fibroblastic stromal cells that, in turn, is pivotal for B-cell recruitment and organization of the TLOs. Accordingly, genetic and therapeutic blockade of IL-22 impairs and reverses TLO formation and autoantibody production. Our work highlights a critical role for IL-22 in TLO-induced pathology and provides a rationale for the use of IL-22-blocking agents in B-cell-mediated autoimmune conditions.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal homeostasis requires a complex balance of interactions between diverse resident microbial communities, the intestinal epithelium, and the underlying immune system. We show that the Lyn tyrosine kinase, a critical regulator of immune cell function and pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) responses, has a key role in controlling gastrointestinal inflammation. Lyn(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, whereas Lyn gain-of-function (Lyn(up)) mice exhibited attenuated colitis during acute and chronic models of disease. Lyn(up) mice were hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), driving enhanced production of cytokines and factors associated with intestinal barrier function, including interleukin (IL)-22. Oral administration of LPS was sufficient to protect antibiotic-treated Lyn(up) but not wild-type mice from DSS, highlighting how Lyn-dependent changes in the nature/magnitude of PRR responses can impact intestinal health. Furthermore, protection from DSS-induced colitis and increased IL-22 production in response to LPS did not depend on the adaptive immune system, with increased innate lymphoid cell-derived IL-22 correlating with Lyn activity in dendritic cells. These data reveal a key role for Lyn in the regulation of innate immune responses and control of intestinal inflammation.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 18 September 2013; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.60.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · Mucosal Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell Regeneration 2013; 2(2):1-11. Background In Type 1 diabetes, the insulin-producing β-cells within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are destroyed. We showed previously that immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can prevent disease process and pancreatic β-cell loss. This was associated with increased islet Regenerating (Reg) genes expression, and elevated IL-22-producing Th17 T-cells in the pancreas. Results We hypothesized that IL-22 was responsible for the increased Reg gene expression in the pancreas. We therefore quantified the Reg1, Reg2, and Reg3δ (INGAP) mRNA expression in isolated pre-diabetic NOD islets treated with IL-22. We measured IL-22, and IL-22 receptor(R)-α mRNA expression in the pancreas and spleen of pre-diabetic and diabetic NOD mice. Our results showed: 1) Reg1 and Reg2 mRNA abundance to be significantly increased in IL-22-treated islets in vitro; 2) IL-22 mRNA expression in the pre-diabetic mouse pancreas increased with time following CFA treatment; 3) a reduced expression of IL-22Rα following CFA treatment; 4) a down-regulation in Reg1 and Reg2 mRNA expression in the pancreas of pre-diabetic mice injected with an IL-22 neutralizing antibody; and 5) an increased islet β-cell DNA synthesis in vitro in the presence of IL-22. Conclusions We conclude that IL-22 may contribute to the regeneration of β-cells by up-regulating Regenerating Reg1 and Reg2 genes in the islets.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2013
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    P.J. Morrison · D Bending · L.A. Fouser · [...] · M C Kullberg
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial-induced intestinal inflammation is crucially dependent on interleukin (IL)-23 and is associated with CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses. However, the relative contributions of these subsets during the induction and resolution of colitis in T-cell-sufficient hosts remain unknown. We report that Helicobacter hepaticus-induced typhlocolitis in specific pathogen-free IL-10-/- mice is associated with elevated frequencies and numbers of large intestinal interferon (IFN)-γ+ and IFN-γ+IL-17A+ CD4+ T cells. By assessing histone modifications and transcript levels in IFN-γ+, IFN-γ+IL-17A+, and IL-17A+ CD4+ T cells isolated from the inflamed intestine, we show that Th17 cells are predisposed to upregulate the Th1 program and that they express IL-23R but not IL-12R. Using IL-17A fate-reporter mice, we further demonstrate that H. hepaticus infection gives rise to Th17 cells that extinguish IL-17A secretion and turn on IFN-γ within 10 days post bacterial inoculation. Together, our results suggest that bacterial-induced Th17 cells arising in disease-susceptible hosts contribute to intestinal pathology by switching phenotype, transitioning via an IFN-γ+IL-17A+ stage, to become IFN-γ+ ex-Th17 cells.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 6 March 2013; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.11.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2013 · Mucosal Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is central to host protection against bacterial infections at barrier sites. Both innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T cells produce IL-22. However, the specific contributions of CD4(+) T cells and their developmental origins are unclear. We found that the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induced sequential waves of IL-22-producing ILCs and CD4(+) T cells that were each critical to host defense during a primary infection. Whereas IL-22 production by ILCs was strictly IL-23 dependent, development of IL-22-producing CD4(+) T cells occurred via an IL-6-dependent mechanism that was augmented by, but not dependent on, IL-23 and was dependent on both transcription factors T-bet and AhR. Transfer of CD4(+) T cells differentiated with IL-6 in the absence of TGF-β ("Th22" cells) conferred complete protection of infected IL-22-deficient mice whereas transferred Th17 cells did not. These findings establish Th22 cells as an important component of mucosal antimicrobial host defense.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2012 · Immunity
  • Casey T Weaver · Charles O Elson Iii · Lynette A Fouser · Jay K Kolls
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of a new CD4(+) T cell subset, Th17, has transformed our understanding of the pathogenetic basis of an increasing number of chronic immune-mediated diseases. Particularly in tissues that interface with the microbial environment-such as the intestinal and respiratory tracts and the skin-where most of the Th17 cells in the body reside, dysregulated immunity to self (or the extended self, the diverse microbiota that normally colonize these tissues) can result in chronic inflammatory disease. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the biology of the Th17 pathway and on genome-wide association studies that implicate this immune pathway in human disease involving these tissues. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 8 is January 24, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Article · Nov 2012 · Annual Review of Pathology Mechanisms of Disease
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the maintenance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and progenitors during immune-mediated tissue damage or about the susceptibility of transplant recipients to tissue damage mediated by the donor immune system during graft versus host disease (GVHD). We demonstrate here that deficiency of recipient-derived IL-22 increased acute GVHD tissue damage and mortality, that ISCs were eliminated during GVHD, and that ISCs as well as their downstream progenitors expressed the IL-22 receptor. Intestinal IL-22 was produced after bone marrow transplant by IL-23-responsive innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) from the transplant recipients, and intestinal IL-22 increased in response to pretransplant conditioning. However, ILC frequency and IL-22 amounts were decreased by GVHD. Recipient IL-22 deficiency led to increased crypt apoptosis, depletion of ISCs, and loss of epithelial integrity. Our findings reveal IL-22 as a critical regulator of tissue sensitivity to GVHD and a protective factor for ISCs during inflammatory intestinal damage.
    Article · Aug 2012 · Immunity
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-22 (IL-22)–producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals. Depletion of ILCs resulted in peripheral dissemination of commensal bacteria and systemic inflammation, which was prevented by administration of IL-22. Disseminating bacteria were identified as Alcaligenes species originating from host lymphoid tissues. Alcaligenes was sufficient to promote systemic inflammation after ILC depletion in mice, and Alcaligenes-specific systemic immune responses were associated with Crohn’s disease and progressive hepatitis C virus infection in patients. Collectively, these data indicate that ILCs regulate selective containment of lymphoid-resident bacteria to prevent systemic inflammation associated with chronic diseases.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2012 · Science
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    Full-text Article · Feb 2012 · Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common chronic autoimmune skin disease of unknown cause that involves dysregulated interplay between immune cells and keratinocytes. IL-22 is a cytokine produced by the TH1, TH17, and TH22 subsets that are functionally implicated in the psoriatic pathology. We assessed the role of IL-22 in a mouse model where psoriasiform skin inflammation is triggered by topical application of the TLR7/8 agonist imiquimod. At the macroscopic level, scaly skin lesions induced by daily applications of imiquimod in wild-type mice were almost totally absent in IL-22-deficient mice or in mice treated with a blocking anti-IL-22 Ab. At the microscopic level, IL-22-deficient mice showed a dramatic decrease in the development of pustules and a partial decrease in acanthosis. At the molecular level, the absence or inhibition of IL-22 strongly decreased the expression of chemotactic factors such as CCL3 and CXCL3 and of biomarkers such as S100A8, S100A7, and keratin 14, which reflect the antimicrobial and hyperproliferative responses of keratinocytes. IL-22 also played a major role in neutrophil infiltration after imiquimod treatment. IL-23 was required for IL-22 production, and γδ TCR lymphocytes represented the major source of IL-22 in lymph nodes from imiquimod-treated mice. However, T cells were not absolutely required for IL-22 production because imiquimod-induced IL-22 expression in the skin is still preserved in Rag2(-/-) mice. Taken together, our data show that IL-22 is required for psoriasis-like lesions in the mouse imiquimod model and is produced by both T cells and innate immune cells.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
  • Article · Oct 2011 · Cytokine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that IL-1 family members and Th17 cytokines have a pathogenic role in psoriasis. We investigated the regulatory interactions of the IL-1-like IL-36 cytokine family and the Th17 cytokines in the context of skin inflammation. We observed increased gene expression of all three IL-36 cytokines in a Th17-dominant psoriasis-like animal model. The induction was downregulated by neutralizing IL-22. Expression of the IL-36s was also induced in cultured primary human keratinocytes (KC) by IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-22 synergized with IL-17A and TNF-α. Furthermore, the IL-36s directly induced their own expression and the production of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8) in KC. These functions were markedly enhanced with the addition of IL-17A or TNF-α to the cultures. Similarly, IL-36α and IL-36β augmented IL-17A-mediated induction of antibacterial peptides. Finally, we show that the increased gene expression of IL-36 correlated with Th17 cytokines in the lesions of psoriatic patients. Our results indicate that the IL-36 cytokines are not only regulated by Th17 cytokines, but that they themselves can regulate the expression and enhance the function of Th17 cytokines. We propose that a feedback loop between the IL-36 and Th17 cytokines is involved in driving cytokine expression in psoriatic tissues.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
  • Gregory F Sonnenberg · Lynette A Fouser · David Artis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The maintenance of barrier function at exposed surfaces of the mammalian body is essential for limiting exposure to environmental stimuli, preventing systemic dissemination of commensal and pathogenic microbes and retaining normal homeostasis of the entire body. Indeed, dysregulated barrier function is associated with many infectious and inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, influenza, inflammatory bowel disease and human immunodeficiency virus, which collectively afflict millions of people worldwide. Studies have shown that interleukin 22 (IL-22) is expressed at barrier surfaces and that its expression is dysregulated in certain human diseases, which suggests a critical role in the maintenance of normal barrier homeostasis. Consistent with that, studies of mouse model systems have identified a critical role for signaling by IL-22 through its receptor (IL-22R) in the promotion of antimicrobial immunity, inflammation and tissue repair at barrier surfaces. In this review we will discuss how the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R is regulated, the functions of the IL-22-IL-22R pathway in regulating immunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis, and the therapeutic potential of targeting this pathway in human disease.
    Article · May 2011 · Nature Immunology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells play a critical role in the development of lymphoid tissues. Recent studies identified that LTi cells persist in adults and are related to a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cells that have been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, whether LTi cells contribute to protective immunity remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that after infection with Citrobacter rodentium, CD4(+) LTi cells were a dominant source of interleukin-22 (IL-22) early during infection. Infection-induced CD4(+) LTi cell responses were IL-23 dependent, and ablation of IL-23 impaired innate immunity. Further, depletion of CD4(+) LTi cells abrogated infection-induced expression of IL-22 and antimicrobial peptides, resulting in exacerbated host mortality. LTi cells were also found to be essential for host protective immunity in lymphocyte-replete hosts. Collectively these data demonstrate that adult CD4(+) LTi cells are a critical source of IL-22 and identify a previously unrecognized function for CD4(+) LTi cells in promoting innate immunity in the intestine.
    Article · Jan 2011 · Immunity
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    Spencer C Liang · Cheryl Nickerson-Nutter · Debra D Pittman · [...] · Lynette A Fouser
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-22 is made by a unique set of innate and adaptive immune cells, including the recently identified noncytolytic NK, lymphoid tissue-inducer, Th17, and Th22 cells. The direct effects of IL-22 are restricted to nonhematopoietic cells, its receptor expressed on the surface of only epithelial cells and some fibroblasts in various organs, including parenchymal tissue of the gut, lung, skin, and liver. Despite this cellular restriction on IL-22 activity, we demonstrate that IL-22 induces effects on systemic biochemical, cellular, and physiological parameters. By utilizing adenoviral-mediated delivery of IL-22 and systemic administration of IL-22 protein, we observed that IL-22 modulates factors involved in coagulation, including fibrinogen levels and platelet numbers, and cellular constituents of blood, such as neutrophil and RBC counts. Furthermore, we observed that IL-22 induces thymic atrophy, body weight loss, and renal proximal tubule metabolic activity. These cellular and physiological parameters are indicative of a systemic inflammatory state. We observed that IL-22 induces biochemical changes in the liver including induction of fibrinogen, CXCL1, and serum amyloid A that likely contribute to the reported cellular and physiological effects of IL-22. Based on these findings, we propose that downstream of its expression and impact in local tissue inflammation, circulating IL-22 can further induce changes in systemic physiology that is indicative of an acute-phase response.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2010 · The Journal of Immunology