R.-C. Dai

Central South University, Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China

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Publications (11)9.37 Total impact

  • L. Zhang · R.-C. Dai · F. Xie · L. Cheng · Z.-F. Sheng · Y. Jin · X.-P. Wu · E.-Y. Liao
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the femoral head trabecular heterogeneity in Chinese male patients with osteoporotic fracture and their effects on osteoporotic fracture. Methods: Human femoral heads were obtained from 11 male osteoporotic fracture (OP) patients ranged from 51 to 82 years old[average age (65±9) years old], and 7 male trauma (TM) patients ranged from 46 to 75 years old[average age (61±11) years old] who underwent total hip arthroplasty within two hours after either osteoporotic or trauma hip fracture. The OP was defined as having a fragility fracture. After laying femoral head as living body position and locating mark, nine trabecular specimens were obtained from femoral heads, each of 6 mm×6 mm×7 mm. The cortical shell was not included in each specimen. One cube was selected as the primary compressive trabecular region and the other 8 specimens as non-primary compressive trabecular region. These cubes were scanned using high-resolution microcomputed tomography scanner (μGT). After scanning, the data of total cubes, primary compressive trabecular region and non-compressive trabecular region were used for analysis by t test. Results: In OP group volumetric bone mineral density(vBMD)[(182.15±66.00) mg/mm 3 vs (223.97±70.92) mg/mm 3, t = 3.041], tissue bone mineral density (tBMD)[(538.76±64.72) mg/mm 3 vs (580.01±63.86) mg/mm 3, t = 3.160], bone volume fraction (TV/BV)[(0.22±0.06)% vs (0.26±0.07)%, t = 2.821], trabecular thickness (Tb. Th.)[(161.07±42.75) μm vs (205.47±74.44) (μm, t = 3.233] were significantly decreased while bone surface/bone volume (BS/BV)[(13.75±2.55) mm -1 vs (12.28±2.70) mm -1, t = -2.777] was significantly increased in the non-primary compressive trabecular region than that in the primary compressive trabecular region (P<0.05). vBMD[(182.15±66.00) mg/mm 3 vs (248.05±105.48) mg/mm 3, t = -3.598], tBMD[(538.76±64.72) mg/mm 3 vs (570.54±100.32) mg/mm 3, t = -2.108], TV/BV[(0.22±0.06) % vs (0.28±0.12) %, t = -3.466], Tb. Th.[(161.07±42.75) μm vs (200.31±96.63) μm, t = -2.866], trabecular number (Tb. N.)[(1.46±0.23)/mm 3 vs (1.57±0.29)/mm 3, t = -2.396] were significantly decreased while trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.) [(780.82±144.85) μm vs (653.09±119.64) μm, t =5.470], degree of anisotropy (DA) (1.57±0.20 vs 1.47±0.18, t = 2.930) were significantly increased in OP than in TM in the non-compressive trabecular region (P<0.05). No significant differents were found between OP and TM for any of the parameters measured in the primary compressive trabecular region. Tb. Th.[(199.37±68.22) μm vs (176.33±71.21) μm, t = 2.060, P<0.05] were significantly increased in the primary compressive trabecular region than that in the non-primary compressive trabecular region and no significant differences were found in the other parameters in the all 18 specimens. Conclusions: The femoral head trabeculae had a heterogenic distribution in OP. Bone loss in OP primarily takes place in non-compressive trabecular region. Femoral neck fracture cannot be prevented though the bone microstructure do not loss in the primary compressive trabecular region. Tb. Th. in the femoral head could be an interesting parameter which is closely related to the femoral neck fracture.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010
  • S P Liu · E Y Liao · J Chen · S M Yang · J W Li · Z F Sheng · H Mo · X P Wu · L Yao · R C Dai
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    ABSTRACT: Little research exists on the dynamic effects of glucocorticoids on bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture of trabecular bones of rats assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). To investigate time-related changes in the BMD and microarchitecture of trabeculae in rats exposed to glucocorticoid. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were recruited into a baseline group, glucocorticoid-treated groups, or control groups. Glucocorticoid-treated rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of methylprednisolone at a dosage of 3.5 mg/kg for 1 or 9 weeks. A high-resolution micro-CT was used to identify the densitometric and microarchitectural properties of trabeculae in both the proximal metaphysis of tibiae and the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6). Compared with baseline rats, volumetric BMD, tissue BMD, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and degree of anisotropy of trabeculae from tibiae or L6 increased in control rats and glucocorticoid-treated rats with time; however, changes in the latter group were smaller. Compared with control rats at each time point, a decrease occurred in volumetric BMD, tissue BMD, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, degree of anisotropy, and trabecular connectivity density in trabecular bones from tibiae or L6 in glucocorticoid-treated rats. The decrease was greater in week 9 compared to week 1. Contrarily, an increase was noted in trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and structure model index in glucocorticoid-treated rats. A time-related analysis within glucocorticoid-treated groups in both skeletal regions showed a decline in bone volume fraction, trabecular connectivity density, trabecular number, and degree of anisotropy with time, but trabecular thickness and trabecular separation were elevated. Methylprednisolone can inhibit bone mineralization and bone mass gain with growth in rats. It can also deteriorate microarchitecture of trabeculae in a time-dependent or an accumulative dose-dependent manner. Further, the remaining trabeculae appear to thicken in order to adapt to altered stress.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To observe and compare the changes of bone mass and microarchitecture in ovariectomized rat left tibia by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and microCT (μCT). Methods: Forty seven-month-old SD rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) groups, twenty in each group. After killed at 3 weeks and 15 weeks post-surgery, DXA scanning were performed in the left tibia in vitro. The images of left tibia were divided into seven, isometric regions of interest (ROI1-7). When analysis finished, bone density (BD) of each ROI and the total bone were determined. The samples were fixed by 4% paraformaldehyde and then placed in the specimen holder filled with deionized water. The sensitive regions for bone mass changes were selected for scanning by Fluro. After scanning, the regions involving 0. 4mm slice thickness and 2.5mm distance far end from tibial growth plate were selected as the ROI of cortical bone analysis. The regions selected as ROI of cancellous analysis, were involved in 1.2mm slice thickness and 0.7mm distance at the far end from tibial growth plate. After three dimension reconstruction, 2D images of the maximum intensity projection and pictures of 3D microarchitecture were obtained, and BD and microarchitectural parameters were quantitatively identified. All data was statistically processed with SPSS for Windows. Results: At the 3rd week, BD of ROI1 in rat left tibia in OVX (0.2346 ± 0.0280) g/cm2 was much lower than that (0.2660 ± 0.01990) g/cm2 in SHAM (P <0.05). While at the 15th week, BD of ROI1 (0.2527 ± 0.0161) and R0I2 (0.1862 ± 0.0052) g/cm2 in OVX were both lower than SHAM (0.2793 ± 0.0229) and (0.1986 ± 0.0102) g/cm2 respectively, P <0.01 for both). Compared with SHAM rat [cortical area (Ct-Ar) = (0.3138 ± 0.0621) mm2, marrow area (Ma-Ar) = 8.44 ± 1.25) mm2, total area (T-Ar) = 8.75 ± 1.26) mm2, moment of inertia (Mm) = (3.485 ± 0.373) mm4], there were significant increases in Ct-Ar (0.4306 ± 0.1308) mm2, Ma-Ar (10.31 ± 1.98) mm2, T-Ar (10.74 ± 2.05) mm2, and Mm (4.101 ± 0.726) mm4 in OVX mice at the 3rd week (P <0.05 for all). While at the 15th week, only cortical thickness (Ct-Th) (0.0235 ± 0.0024) mm showed a decrease in OVX group (P <0.05). In OVX group, Ct-Th (0.0235 ± 0.0024) mm and Ct-Ar (0.2528 ± 0.0367) mm at 15 weeks were lower than that [Ct-Th = (0.0377 ± 0.0098)mm, Ct-Ar = (0.4306 ± 0.1308) mm2 at 3 weeks (P <0.01 for both)]. In SHAM group, inner perimeter (In-Pm) (13.38 ± 0.54) mm, outer perimeter (Ot-Pm) (13.59 ± 0.56) mm and Mm (4.096 ± 0.364) mm4 at 15 weeks were higher than that [In-Pm = 12.41 ± 0.74) mm, Ot-Pm = 12.63 ± 0.75) mm, Mm = (3.485 ± 0.373) mm4 at 3 weeks (P <0.01 for all)]. OVX rats had much lower volume BD(vBD) (288.2 ± 48.2) mg/mm3, tissue BD(tBD) (604.5 ± 45.3) mg/mm3, bone volume fraction (BVF) (25.1 ± 5.1)%, and trabecular mumeer(Tb-N) (6.04 ± 2.94) mm-1 (P <0.01 for all), but higher structure model index (SMI) 3.09 ± 0.27 and trabecular separation (Tb-Sp) (0.186 ± 0.129) mm than SHAM 2. 63 ± 0.21 and (0.078 ± 0.038) mm respectively at the 3rd week (P <0.01 and P <0.05 respectively). At the 15th week, vBD (271.2 ± 50.9) mg/mm3, BVF (21.6 ± 5.2)% and Tb-N (3.21 ± 1.92) mm-1 in OVX were still lower than SHAM [vBD = (389.8 ± 77.0) mg/mm3, BVF = (30.9 ± 6.0)%, Tb-N = (7.44 ± 3.53) mm-1 respectively (P <0.01 for all)], SMI 3.11 ± 0.36 and Tb-Sp (0.370 ± 0.215) mm in OVX were also higher than SHAM 2.58 ± 0.36 and (0.141 ± 0.104) mm (P <0.01 for both), but no significant difference of tBD could be found. In OVX group, the scores of tBD (691.0 ± 36.7) mg/mm, Tb-Th (0.040 ± 0.009) mm, Tb-N (3.21 ± 1.92) mm-1, Tb-Sp (0.370 ± 0.215) mm in the 15th week were higher than that [tBD = (604.5 ± 45.3) mg/mm, Tb-Th = (0.030 ± 0.002) mm, Tb-N = (6.04 ± 2.94) mm-1, Tb-Sp = (0.186 ± 0.129) mm respectively] in the 3rd week (P <0.05 for all), while there were no differences between the 3rd and the 15th week in SHAM group. Conclusions: DXA is weak in detecting the tiny changes of BD though it is convenient and non-invasive. μCT is suitable to detect the changes of bone mass and microarchitecture.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008
  • Z F Sheng · R C Dai · X P Wu · L N Fang · H J Fan · EY Liao
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    ABSTRACT: Bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructural variations have been extensively investigated in recent years; however, the compensation for bone loss between different regions is still unclear. To fully characterize regional variations in bone mineral density (BMD) as well as the microstructure and dynamic changes of rat tibial trabeculae that occur with bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX), sham-operated (sham), or left unoperated (baseline control). The left tibiae were harvested at baseline, and at postoperative weeks 3 and 15. High-resolution micro-computed tomography (microCT) was used to identify the densitometric and microstructural properties of trabeculae in the proximal ends of the rat tibia, specifically the epiphysis and metaphysis. Volumetric BMDs at the organ (organ BMD) and tissue (tissue BMD) levels were significantly higher for trabeculae at the epiphysis than metaphysis. Moreover, trabeculae at the epiphysis were thicker, and fewer in number and connectivity than those at the metaphysis, which were more rod like. Trabeculae at the metaphysis were more susceptible to bone loss induced by estrogen deprivation than at the epiphysis, and the regions varied greatly in their adaptation to this loss. At the metaphysis, trabecular tissue BMD and thickness were unexpectedly higher at postoperative week 15 than week 3 or baseline. In contrast, at the epiphysis, tissue BMD did not change with time, but trabecular thickness significantly increased at week 15 compared to baseline and was also greater in OVX compared to sham rats. Metaphyseal and epiphyseal trabeculae show regionally specific variations in BMD and microstructure. The former are more susceptible to bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and would be strengthened by either hypertrophy or hypermineralization, while epiphyseal trabeculae are mainly strengthened by thickening.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Acta Radiologica
  • X.H. Xiao · E.Y. Liao · H.D. Zhou · R.C. Dai · L.Q. Yuan · X.P. Wu
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    ABSTRACT: Ascorbic acid (AA) plays a key role in the regulation of differentiation and activation of osteoclast (OCL). It was reported that AA might induce the formation of OCL in cocultures of mouse bone marrow cells and ST2 cells, but it is not clear whether AA has a direct impact on the OCL precursors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of AA on the differentiation of OCL precursor RAW264.7 cells, cultured with receptor-activated nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL). The results showed that AA remarkably inhibited the cell proliferation at a higher concentration and RANKL alone is sufficient for osteoclastogenesis. The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CAII) mRNA and protein, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells (MNCs), and the percentage area of resorption lacunae induced by RANKL were decreased when AA was added to the cultures. The results demonstrate that AA inhibits RANKL-induced differentiation of OCL precursor cells into mature OCL and reduces the formation of bone resorption pits in vitro.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • S.-P. Liu · X.-P. Wu · E.-Y. Liao · R.-C. Dai · J. Peng
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the relationship between body surface area (BSA) and speed of sound (SOS) and the relative risk of osteoporosis (OP). Methods: One thousand five hundred and ninty-six females ranging from 12 to 96 years of age were measured the speed of sound (SOS) at the midshaft of the non-dominant tibia with a quantitative ultrasound device. Data were analyzed in age groups divided by intervals of 5 years to determine the peak SOS and the age of peak SOS. BSA related variations in tibial SOS were assessed with regression analysis. Partial correlation coefficients (controlling for age) were calculated and multiple regression analysis was used between tibial SOS and parameters of height, mass, index of body mass and BSA. Data after the age of peak SOS were analyzed in groups divided by the Mean ± SD of BSA to examine the impact of BSA on tibial SOS in our middle-aged and elderly women. The prevalence of osteoporosis was compared among different BSA groups. The relative risk and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and compared. Results: Significant dependency was found between tibial SOS and height, body mass and BSA. The peak SOS at the tibia [(3 991 ± 68)m/s] occurred in the 35 to 39 year old group. The curve representing the SOS change according to BSA in women aged 40 years was the best fitting, using regression analysis of the quadratic model; SOS=914.28 + 3 498.91 (BSA) -1013.20 (BSA) 2(R2 = 0.131, P=0.000). Multiple regression analyses showed that body mass, BSA and body mass index were significant determinants of tibial SOS (R2 = -1.759, 1.250, 0.740 respectively). The differences of tibial SOS and prevalence of osteoporosis were statistically significant between the large BSA group and the small BSA group. Relative risks (RR) and 95% CI for osteoporosis increased with BSA declining (RR = 3.16, 95% CI 3.15 to 6.51, (1.403 m2 vs 1.403 to 1.649 m2; RR = 5.31, 95% CI 4.26 to 15.13, (1.403 m2 vs (1.649 m2). Compared with the total reference population (after the age of peak value of tibial SOS), the small and intermediate BSA groups, the likelihood of suffering from osteoporosis declined by 53%, 81% and 41% respectively in the large BSA group. Conclusion: The parameters of height including mass, BSA and body mass index have significant impact on bone strength and are the strongest predictors of bone strength in middle and old age women. Small BSA is indicated as an important risk factor for osteoporosis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To observe the changes in the histological features of hippocampal structure and the number of neurons in ovarietomized rats with long-term estrogen deficiency, and to observe the effect of long-term oral medication of low-dose 17 beta(β) -estradiol and compound nilestriol tablet on the histological features of hippocampal structure and the number of neurons. Methods: Fifty 7-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups randomly: normal control group (normal group), sham operated group (sham group), ovarietomized (OVX) group, OVX plus 17β-estradiol (OVX/ERT) group and OVX plus compound nylestriol tablet (OVX/NL) group. All the rats were killed 35 weeks after being ovarietomized, the brain and hippocampal formation were observed, and then the cerebrum mass was measured. HE staining and Nissl staining were performed, the histological features of hippocampal formation were observed under light microscopy, and the number of nerve cells in all subregions was counted. Results: Normal form of sulci and gyri was observed on the surface of cerebrum, and the size and form of hippocampus with arcuate eminence on the coronal cut were also normal, and there was no obvious atrophy in rats of all groups. There was no difference in cerebrum mass among all groups. The results of HE and Nissl stainings showed that there was no obvious difference in the cell form, size and arrangement of neurons among all group. The number, cross-sectional area and perimeters of neurons in all subregions of hippocampal formation were not significantly different among all groups. Conclusion: No significant gross morphological changes of Alzheimer disease such as brain atrophy, decreases of cerebrum mass and neuron loss are observed in ovarietomized rats.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation
  • EY Liao · H J Liao · L J Guo · H D Zhou · X P Wu · R C Dai · X H Luo
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that estrogen stimulates membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MT1-MMP) production in osteoblastic cells culture, but has no effect on MMP-2 and TIMP-2 synthesis. Osteoblast-derived MT1-MMP have been recently implied to play a role in bone metabolism by degrading tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), resolving extracellular matrix and activating proMMP-2, which requires the process of activation mediated by MT1-MMP/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) complex on the cell surface. To investigate the mechanism of bone loss following estrogen deficiency, we examined the effects of estrogen on osteoblast synthesis of MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and TIMP-2. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of rat bone samples were used to document the synthesis of MT1-MMP, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein. Osteoblasts from distal femoral head showed an increase in the pattern of MT1-MMP mRNA and protein production in sham-operated controls and 17beta-estradiol (E2)-treated rats, compared with the ovariectomized group; the synthesis of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein was unaffected. Our data show a down-regulation of MT1-MMP synthesis by osteoblast in vivo following estrogen withdrawal, and treatment with E2 resulted in induced MT1-MMP expression in vivo. There is evidence suggesting a role for MT1-MMP in the process of bone loss during the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • R.-C. Dai · E.-Y. Liao · L.-Q. Yuan · L.-L. Wu · X.-P. Wu
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To set up a method to observe microcrack using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Methods: Compress fatigue damage test was performed on pig(8 months old) iliac bone(a regular rectangle with the size of 0.90 cm × 0.81 cm × 1.89 cm) along the longer axis direction with a loading frequency of 2.33 Hz, a loading number of 300 000 times and a loading strength of 40 N. Section of 0.2 cm thickness was obtained after test, and then stained by 0.5 mmol/L alizarin, acridine orange, calcein, xylenol and 10 g/L basic fuchsin. Three 1.5 cm × 1.0 cm × 0.25 cm sections were sectioned from a human femoral head and stained by 0.5 mmol/L alizarin, calcein and 10 g/L basic fuchsin. After routine plastic embedding, all the sections were grounded to 40-100 μm and observed under LSCM. Results: Microcracks were observed in bone trabeculae under LSCM in fatigue damage pig iliac bone and human femoral head after staining. Calcein staining was the best selective method to identify microcracks and the green fluorescence was observed under 522 nm laser wavelength. Red fluorescence was observed under 605 nm wavelength after alizarin staining. Consclusion: Bone microcrack can be stained with calcein and alizarin and observed clearly under LSCM.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation
  • X.P. Wu · E.Y. Liao · G Huang · R.C. Dai · H Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the differences among reference curves for bone mineral density (BMD) for Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women, we measured the BMD at the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine (L1–L4), lateral lumbar spine (L2–L4), hip (including the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, Ward’s triangle, and total hip), and ultradistal forearm by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a total of 2728 healthy Chinese women, aged 5–96 years. Documented BMD data for Japanese women and device manufacturer’s BMD new reference databases (including the NHANES III dataset) for American Caucasian women were also used in this study. The cubic regression model was found to fit best in analyzing the age-associated variations of BMD at various sites in Chinese women, i.e., the equations had the largest coefficient of determination (R 2). At the AP/Lat spine, trochanter, intertrochanter, and Ward’s triangle, BMD reference curves for Chinese women were lower than those for Japanese or Caucasian women, while at the femoral neck, total hip, and ultradistal forearm, the reference curves for Chinese women were higher than those for Japanese women, with overlaps and crossing of the curves for some age spans in comparing the Chinese and Caucasian women. There were significant differences in the peak BMD (PBMD) at various sites among the Chinese, Japanese, and Caucasian women (P = 0.000). The PBMDs for Chinese women at the lumbar spine and various sites of the hip were 5.7% ± 2.1% (mean ± SD, range, 2.7–7.9%) lower than those for Japanese women and 5.1% ± 2.7% (range, 0.5–7.2%) lower than those for Caucasian women; however, the PBMDs for Chinese women were 26.2% higher than those for Japanese women and 10% higher than those for Caucasian women at the ultradistal forearm. After the PBMD, average T-scores of Chinese women for losses at the AP lumbar spine with increasing age were nearly identical to those for Japanese women, but both were greater than those for Caucasian women. The average T-scores for BMD loss at various sites in Chinese women were higher than those for both Japanese and Caucasian women except at the femoral neck, where the T-scores of Chinese women were exceeded by those of both Japanese and Caucasian women. Estimated from the T-score curve of BMD loss, the age of osteoporosis occurrence at the femoral neck in Chinese women was about 10 years later than that in Japanese or Caucasian women; at the AP spine, Chinese women were similar to Japanese women; at the other sites, the age for occurrence of osteoporosis in Chinese women was about 5–15 years earlier than that in either Japanese or Caucasian women. There are differences in prevalence or odds ratio (OR) of osteoporosis at the same skeletal region for Chinese, Japanese, and Caucasian women aged ≥50 years or at different skeletal regions in women of the same race. The prevalences of osteoporosis at various regions of the hip in Chinese women are 10.1–19.8% and ORs are 22.0–32.3, of which prevalence at the femoral neck is the lowest (10.1%); the prevalences of osteoporosis in Japanese women are 11.6–16.8% and ORs are 21.1–26.3, of which prevalence at the femoral neck is the lowest (11.6%); and the prevalences of osteoporosis in Caucasian women are 13.0–20.0% and ORs are 19.4–48.9, of which prevalence at the femoral neck is the highest (20%). In conclusion, racial differences in BMD reference curves, prevalences, and risks of osteoporosis at various skeletal sites exist among native Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2003 · Calcified Tissue International
  • E Y Liao · C Yang · R C Dai · W B Wang · X G Deng
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    ABSTRACT: The laser scanning confocal microscope(LSCM) is the new high distinguishing microscope, which can be used in observation on fluorescence, since 1990. The bone morphometry is an important way to study metabolic bone diseases. Our study on research combination of LSCM with bone morphometry in observing microarchitecture of bone found that LSCM could make the photo of bone trabecula distinctly and its location accurately. Because of its technical advantages, LSCM could link histochemical or immunohistochemical method for the bone morphometry and bone cells at the same time and obserrate the thick-slide. It is a new method and way to study and diagnose metabolic bone diseases.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2000 · Hunan yi ke da xue xue bao = Hunan yike daxue xuebao = Bulletin of Hunan Medical University

Publication Stats

147 Citations
9.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2009
    • Central South University
      • Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
  • 2007
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Engineering Mechanics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2005
    • The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
  • 2000
    • Hunan University
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China