[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) frequently harbor mutations in genes involved in the DNA (hydroxy)methylation pathway (DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1 and IDH2). In this study, we measured 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels in 206 clinically and molecularly well-characterized younger adult AML patients (≤60 years) included in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-12 06991 clinical trial, and correlated the 5hmC levels with mutational status and overall survival (OS). In healthy control cells, 5hmC levels were confined to a narrow range (1.5 fold difference), whereas in AML cells, a much wider range was detected (15 fold difference). We identified three 5hmC subpopulations in our patient cohort (low, intermediate and high). The low 5hmC group consisted almost entirely of patients with TET2 or IDH mutations. As expected, TET2 and IDH mutated patients had significantly lower levels of 5hmC compared to patients without mutated TET2 and IDH1/2 (both P<.001). Interestingly, high 5hmC levels correlated with inferior OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P=.047, HR=1.81). Multivariate analysis revealed that high 5hmC is an independent poor prognostic indicator for OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P=.01, HR=2.10). This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT00004128.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Point mutations in genes encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (especially IDH1) are common in lower grade diffuse gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and occur early during tumor development. The contribution of these mutations to gliomagenesis is not completely understood and research is hampered by the lack of relevant tumor models. We previously described the development of the patient-derived high-grade oligodendroglioma xenograft model E478 that carries the commonly occurring IDH1-R132H mutation. We here report on the analyses of E478 xenografts at the genetic, histologic and metabolic level.
LC-MS and in situ mass spectrometric imaging by LESA-nano ESI-FTICR revealed high levels of the proposed oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), the product of enzymatic conversion of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) by IDH1-R132H, in the tumor but not in surrounding brain parenchyma. α-KG levels and total NADP+-dependent IDH activity were similar in IDH1-mutant and -wildtype xenografts, demonstrating that IDH1-mutated cancer cells maintain α-KG levels. Interestingly, IDH1-mutant tumor cells in vivo present with high densities of mitochondria and increased levels of mitochondrial activity as compared to IDH1-wildtype xenografts. It is not yet clear whether this altered mitochondrial activity is a driver or a consequence of tumorigenesis.
The oligodendroglioma model presented here is a valuable model for further functional elucidation of the effects of IDH1 mutations on tumor metabolism and may aid in the rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for the large subgroup of gliomas carrying IDH1 mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebellar hypoplasia and slowly progressive ophthalmological symptoms are common features in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. In a group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I with unknown aetiology, we have previously described a distinct phenotype with severe, early visual impairment and variable eye malformations, including optic nerve hypoplasia, retinal coloboma, congenital cataract and glaucoma. Some of the symptoms overlapped with the phenotype in other congenital disorders of glycosylation type I subtypes, such as vermis hypoplasia, anaemia, ichtyosiform dermatitis, liver dysfunction and coagulation abnormalities. We recently identified pathogenic mutations in the SRD5A3 gene, encoding steroid 5α-reductase type 3, in a group of patients who presented with this particular phenotype and a common metabolic pattern. Here, we report on the clinical, genetic and metabolic features of 12 patients from nine families with cerebellar ataxia and congenital eye malformations diagnosed with SRD5A3-congenital disorders of glycosylation due to steroid 5α-reductase type 3 defect. This enzyme is necessary for the reduction of polyprenol to dolichol, the lipid anchor for N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dolichol synthesis is an essential metabolic step in protein glycosylation. The current defect leads to a severely abnormal glycosylation state already in the early phase of the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. We detected high expression of SRD5A3 in foetal brain tissue, especially in the cerebellum, consistent with the finding of the congenital cerebellar malformations. Based on the overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic data in this large group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation, we define a novel syndrome of cerebellar ataxia associated with congenital eye malformations due to a defect in dolichol metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a specific marker for functional cobalamin deficiency. This deficiency can give rise to non-specific but serious symptoms in childhood such as developmental delay, convulsions and failure to thrive and may even lead to irreversible neurological damage.
To analyse plasma MMA concentrations in Dutch children and to evaluate possible factors influencing its concentration.
A number of 186 Dutch children aged 0-19 years were analysed cross-sectionally. Blood was collected to measure MMA, total homocysteine (tHcy), cobalamin (Cbl) and serum creatinine concentrations. In addition, information about medical history, age and sex was recorded.
The geometric mean (GM) plasma MMA concentration was 0.17 micromol/l (95% CI 0.07-0.42) and the GM tHcy was 6.6 micromol/l (95% CI 3.1-13.9). There is a slight positive correlation between plasma MMA and age in children >1 year (r = 0.211, P < 0.05). Plasma MMA concentrations were significantly higher in children with low Cbl concentrations. No significant difference in MMA, Cbl, tHcy or creatinine concentrations between sexes could be observed. Regression analysis showed that Cbl was the strongest determinant of plasma MMA (regression coefficient -0.414, P < 0.05). The association between MMA and Cbl is stronger at increasing age (P for trend 0.045).
Plasma Cbl is the main determinant of MMA in this group of Dutch children. The strength of the association increased with increasing age.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One pedigree with four patients has been recently described with mitochondrial DNA depletion and mutation in SUCLA2 gene leading to succinyl-CoA synthase deficiency. Patients had a Leigh-like encephalomyopathy and deafness but besides the presence of lactic acidosis, the profile of urine organic acid was not reported. We have studied 14 patients with mild 'unlabelled' methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) from 11 families. Eight of the families are from the Faroe Islands, having a common ancestor, and three are from southern Italy. Since the reaction catalysed by succinyl-CoA synthase in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle represents a distal step of the methylmalonic acid pathway, we investigated the SUCLA2 gene as a candidate gene in our patients. Genetic analysis of the gene in the 14 patients confirmed the defect in all patients and led to the identification of three novel mutations (p.Gly118Arg; p.Arg284Cys; c.534 + 1G --> A). The defect could be convincingly shown at the protein level and our data also confirm the previously described mitochondrial DNA depletion. Defects in SUCLA2 can be found at the metabolite level and are defined by mildly elevated methylmalonic acid and C4-dicarboxylic carnitine concentrations in body fluids in association with variable lactic acidosis. Clinically the diagnosis should be considered in patients with early/neonatal onset encephalomyopathy, dystonia, deafness and Leigh-like MRI abnormalities mainly affecting the putamen and the caudate nuclei. The frequency of the mutated allele in the Faroese population amounted to 2%, corresponding with an estimated homozygote frequency of 1 : 2500. Our data extend knowledge on the genetic defects causing MMA. Our patients present with an early infantile Leigh-like encephalomyopathy with deafness, and later on a progressive dystonia. Mild MMA, lactic acidosis and specific abnormalities in the carnitine ester profile are the biochemical hallmarks of the disease. In view of the frequency of the mutated allele on the Faroe Islands, measures become feasible to prevent the occurrence of the disease on the islands. We confirm and extend the findings on this inborn error of metabolism in the TCA cycle that must be carefully investigated by accurate metabolite analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency is a common clinical phenomenon, in particular among the elderly and possibly also among infants. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is the most sensitive and specific marker of intracellular Cbl status, but its application is hindered by limited methods available for accurate and high-throughput MMA determination.
We developed a non-laborious method for determination of MMA without the need for prior derivatization using HPLC combined with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Stable isotope-labeled methyl-d(3)-malonic acid (MMA-d(3)) was added to 100 microL of plasma as an internal standard. After deproteinization by ultrafiltration, an acidified aliquot of the eluate was injected into the HPLC system and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS monitoring of the carbonyl loss of MMA and MMA-d(3).
Calibrations between 0.1 and 1.0 microM exhibited consistent linearity and reproducibility. The lower limit of detection for plasma MMA was 0.1 microM (signal-to-noise ratio > or = 10). The intra- and inter-assay CVs of ten determinations of a plasma sample were 1.5% and 6.7%, respectively, at a mean concentration of 0.29 microM. Inter-assay CVs for 25 determinations of low, medium and high concentrations (0.22, 0.45 and 0.94 microM MMA) were 8.3%, 5.9% and 4.6%, respectively. The mean recovery of MMA added to plasma was 100%.
By avoiding derivatization, we developed a new, non-laborious, simple and reliable high-throughput method for the determination of MMA that is suitable for automation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that changes in S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), a potent inhibitor of transmethylation, provide a mechanism by which increased homocysteine causes its detrimental effects. We aimed to develop a rapid and sensitive method to measure AdoHcy and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet).
We used stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray injection tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to measure AdoMet and AdoHcy in plasma. Acetic acid was added to prevent AdoMet degradation. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns containing phenylboronic acid were used to bind AdoMet, AdoHcy, and their internal standards and for sample cleanup. An HPLC C(18) column directly coupled to the LC-MS/MS was used for separation and detection.
In plasma samples, the interassay CVs for AdoMet and AdoHcy were 3.9% and 8.3%, and the intraassay CVs were 4.2% and 6.7%, respectively. Mean recoveries were 94.5% for AdoMet and 96.8% for AdoHcy. The quantification limits were 2.0 and 1.0 nmol/L for AdoMet and AdoHcy, respectively. Immediate acidification of the plasma samples with acetic acid prevented the observed AdoMet degradation. In a group of controls (mean plasma total Hcy, 11.2 mumol/L), plasma AdoMet and AdoHcy were 94.5 and 12.3 nmol/L, respectively.
Stable-isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS/MS allows sensitive and rapid measurement of AdoMet and AdoHcy. The SPE columns enable simple cleanup, and no metabolite derivatization is needed. The instability of AdoMet is a serious problem and can be prevented easily by immediate acidification of samples.