[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overall, 4–10% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) present with venous tumour thrombus. It is uncertain which surgical technique is best for these patients. Appraisal of outcomes with differing techniques would guide practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Partial nephrectomy is the treatment of choice for clinical stage 1 renal tumours. Open partial nephrectomy is the standard operative technique. The use of minimally-invasive strategies such as laparoscopic, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy or laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) partial nephrectomy has increased in recent years. Patients/Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, patients undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy between December 2008 and November 2013 were evaluated. All patients presented with renal lesions suspicious for malignancy. Operations were performed as conventional laparoscopic transperitoneal partial nephrectomies (cLPN) or LESS partial nephrectomies (LESS-PN) in SITUS technique (single incision transumbilical surgery). The aim of the study was to compare perioperative outcome parameters such as duration of surgery, time of ischaemia, complications, need for transfusion, conversion rates, changes in renal function and duration of hospital stay in both groups. Results: A total of 85 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies were performed in this study (72 cLPN and 13 LESS-PN). The average tumour size was 2.68±1.47 cm (cLPN) vs. 2.46±1.11 cm (LESS-PN). The mean duration of surgery was 175.17±50.026 min (cLPN) and 185.77±35.991 min (LESS-PN). 45 (62.5%) operations (cLPN) vs. 10 (76.9%) (LESS-PN) were performed in zero-ischaemia technique. There were no significant differences in perioperative outcome parameters between both groups. Postoperative complication rates (Clavien-Dindo≥3) were 11.1% (cLPN) vs. 7.7% (LESS-PN). Conclusions: LESS partial nephrectomy in SITUS technique is an attractive alternative to conventional laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Aktuelle Urologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The era of cytokines, given to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as part of an unspecific immunomodulatory treatment concept, seems to have ended with the introduction of targeted therapies. However, preliminary data from studies on treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (e. g. anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) may point the way to second-generation immunotherapy. The rationale of such immunomodulatory treatment is to stop or interrupt the tumour from "escaping" the body's immune defence. Thompson et al. report that increased protein expression of PD-L1 (CD274/ B7-H1) in tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TILs; lymphocytes and histiocytes) is associated with unfavourable clinical pathological parameters as well as poor survival. In small pilot groups of mRCC patients it was found that increased PD-L1 protein expression in tumours and TILs may be correlated with the objective response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Sometimes, however, a very wide variety of response rates was observed, which raises the question if this can be explained by individual expression levels of PD-L1 (CD 274) or PD-1 (PDCD1).Recently published data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) Network now provide a genome-wide data base that allows us to review or validate the molecular results obtained in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) to date.In this study, we analysed the TCGA KIRC mRNA expression data for PD-L1 and PD-1 for a possible association with clinical pathological parameters and the survival of 417 ccRCC patients.The mRNA expression of PD-L1 in primary nephrectomy specimens revealed no significant association with unfavourable clinical parameters. Interestingly, though, a positive correlation with patient survival was found (HR=0,59, p=0,006).These results, which partly contradict the concept applied to date, point out the necessity to ascertain the characteristics of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression at mRNA and protein level in an appropriately sized patient population and evaluate the clinical significance.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Aktuelle Urologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients after radical cystectomy (RC) frequently complain about bowel disorders (BDs). Reports addressing related long-term complications are sparse. This cross-sectional study assessed changes in bowel habits (BH) after RC.
A total of 89 patients with a minimum follow-up ≥1 year after surgery were evaluated with a questionnaire. Patients with BD prior to surgery were excluded. Symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation, bloating/flatulence, incomplete defecation, uncontrolled stool loss, and impact on quality of life (QoL) were assessed.
A total of 46.1 % of patients reported changes in BH; however, only 25.8 % reported experiencing related dissatisfaction. Primary causes of dissatisfaction were diarrhea and uncontrolled stool loss. The most common complaints were bloating/flatulence and the feeling of incomplete defecation, but these symptoms did not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction or impairment in quality of life. No difference was identified between an orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit, and even patients without bowel surgery were affected. QoL, health status, and energy level were significantly decreased in unsatisfied patients.
About 25 % of patients complain about BDs after RC. More prospective studies assessing symptoms, comorbidities, and dietary habits are necessary to address this issue and to identify strategies for follow-up recommendations.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · World Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Association of Urology renal cancer guidelines have been updated to recommend nivolumab and cabozantinib over the previous standard of care in patients who have failed one or more lines of VEGF targeted therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIM:
The genetic characterization of prostate tumors is important for personalized therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of previously described prostate cancer-related genes in the genetic characterization of prostate tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Forty-two genes were selected for expression analysis (real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction). One normal prostatic epithelial cell line and three standardized prostate cancer cell lines were used. Twenty-eight patients treated with radical prostatectomy were included in the study.
The following genes appeared to be possibly related to the metastatic potential of the tumor: ELOVL fatty acid elongase 7 (ELOVL7), enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2), gastrulation brain homeobox 2 (GBX2), golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1), homeobox C6 (HOXC6), minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6), marker of proliferation Ki-67 (MKI67), mucin 1, cell surface associated (MUC1), MYC binding protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MYCBP2), somatostatin receptor 1 (SSTR1), topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha 170 kDa (TOP2A) and exportin 6 (XPO6). Six genes were differentially expressed in patients with localized and locally advanced cancer (GOLM1, GBX2, XPO6, SSTR1, TOP2A and cell division cycle associated 5, CDCA5) and three genes (HOXC6, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and MYC binding protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, MYCBP2) in patients with a low vs. high Gleason grade/sum.
Some of the investigated genes show promising prognostic and classification features, which might be useful in a clinical setting, warranting for further validation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows a propensity for extending into the tributaries of the renal veins, which poses a notable surgical challenge. In this study we addressed the question as to whether patients with RCC and vein involvement can be identified as having a significant risk of immediate death associated with surgery preoperatively.
Materials and methods:
A total of 118 patients with RCC and vein involvement from February 1999 until November 2012 were evaluated. The association of early mortality within 60 days after the intervention was tested with various covariates including: age, body mass index (BMI), preoperative serum C-reactive protein, preoperative serum creatinine, preoperative hemoglobin level, tumor diameter, suspicion of metastasis on prior computed tomography, documented cardiac insufficiency, extent of vein invasion, prior myocardial infarction, TNM stage, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, New York Heart Association classification and Karnofsky index. A multiple logistic regression model was used to test all risk factors including the combination of an elevated BMI with an impaired Karnofsky index with all covariates.
A total of 17 patients died within 60 days after the operation with most patients dying from cardio-embolic complications during the first two quartiles of the observation, while later deaths were mostly attributable to sequelae of surgical complications. None of the tested risk factors were significantly associated with early mortality in the logistic regression model. The presence of an elevated BMI (≥30 kg/m(2)) in combination with a Karnofsky index ≤70% predicted early death in univariate (p = 0.006) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.023). Death rates for patients with BMI <30 kg/m(2) and Karnofsky index >70%, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) or Karnofsky index ≤70%, BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and Karnofsky index ≤70% were 5%, 14.8% and 37.5%, respectively.
The risk of early death is dramatically elevated to more than one-third of cases with elevated BMI and unfavorable Karnofsky index in patients with RCC and vein involvement. Patients need to be counseled in this regard especially when planning cytoreductive treatment without curative intent.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Advances in Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Follow-up of patients after curative treatment of urological cancer is an important component of the treatment of patients. The aim of the follow-up is to monitor the success of treatment and to identify local or distant recurrences early to be able to initiate further treatment. Investigations used for the monitoring should follow the principle "as much as necessary, as little as possible". The interval and method of follow-up investigations should be based on the risk of recurrence for the individual patient. In recent years follow-up schemes have been improved and, for example in testicular cancer, have been adjusted to the individual risk group. In contrast, for other tumors, such as metastatic bladder carcinoma, recommendations for follow-up do not seem to be individualized. This article therefore gives an overview on current recommendations and evidence for the follow-up of the most important genitourinary tumor types.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: En bloc resection of bladder tumors (ERBT) may improve staging quality and perioperative morbidity and influence tumor recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and recurrence rates of electrical versus laser en bloc resection of bladder tumors.
This European multicenter study included 221 patients at six academic hospitals. Transurethral ERBT was performed with monopolar/bipolar current or holmium/thulium laser energy. Staging quality measured by detrusor muscle involvement, various perioperative parameters, and 12-month follow-up data was analyzed.
Electrical and laser ERBT were used to treat 156 and 65 patients, respectively. Median tumor size was 2.1 cm; largest tumor was 5 cm. Detrusor muscle was present in 97.3 %. A switch to conventional TURBT was significantly more frequent in the electrical ERBT group (26.3 vs. 1.5 %, p < 0.001). Median operation duration (25 min), postoperative irrigation (1 day), catheterization time (2 days), and hospitalization (3 days) were similar. Overall complication rate was low (Clavien ≥ 3, n = 6 [2.7 %]). Hemoglobin was significantly lower after electrical ERBT (p = 0.0013); however, overall hemoglobin loss was not clinically relevant (0.38 g/dl). Patients (n = 148) were followed for 12 months; 33 (22.3 %) had recurrences. In total, 63.6 % recurrences occurred outside the ERBT resection field. No difference was noted between ERBT groups.
ERBT is safe and reliable regardless of the energy source and provides high-quality resections of tumors >1 cm. Recurrence rates did not differ between groups, and the majority of recurrences occurred outside the ERBT resection field.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · World Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Urethral stricture disease is one of the most common problems in urological practice. Some studies show that urethrotomy is the most frequently applied surgical treatment, which is in the arsenal of almost every urologist. The relative easiness of the procedure and direct initial effect in all patients could be the reasons for misuse of urethrotomy. Professional guidelines in general do not recommend urethrotomy for strictures longer than 1 cm and repeated urethrotomy sessions. Aim of the current study was to analyze clinical data from male patients treated with urethrotomy from the period of more than 20 years in a single institution and to develop a relevant and flexible clinical decision algorithm.
MATERIAL & METHODS: Two cohorts of male patients with urethral strictures were included in this retrospective study: a historical cohort (Cohort I, 1985-1995, n=491) and a contemporary cohort (Cohort II, 1996-2006, n=470) with overall 961 patients. Relevant clinical data was obtained from the patient records. All patients were treated by direct vision internal urethrotomy. A substantial part of the patients underwent
repeated treatment sessions (up to 9). A detailed analysis of the outcomes with regard to a variety of clinical factors was performed in the contemporary cohort and used to develop a clinical decision algorithm.
RESULTS: The overall recurrence rate after the first urethrotomy was 32.4% in Cohort I, and 23% in Cohort II with a significant two-fold increase in the recurrence rate after the second procedure. Nevertheless, the analysis demonstrated, that in a defined group of patients a second procedure is as reasonable, as well as a third procedure in highly selected patients. Based on our analysis we were able to develop a branched clinical decision algorithm for strictures with 2 cm of length or less. Thus, patients with strictures < 1 cm should undergo a second urethrotomy except of those with penile strictures, post-TURP strictures and
31-50 years of age. A third treatment could be effective in selected cases of idiopathic bulbar strictures.
In patients with a strictures length of 1-2 cm a second operation is possible for solitary low-grade bulbar strictures, given the age is more than 50 years, and etiology is not post-TURP. For penile strictures with the length of 1-2 cm urethrotomy could be only attempted when the stricture is solitary and not high grade, with acceptable success rate. Moreover, the influence of catheterization time on the clinical outcome is discussed.
CONCLUSIONS: In our study we present the retrospective analysis of 20 years of urethral strictures treatment in male patients at a single university hospital. Based on a statistical analysis a clinical decision algorithm was developed for daily routine treatment decisions.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements