[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consumption of hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet is considered a major factor to promote obesity and the consumption of food with antioxidant properties, like Juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart), could be a tool to prevent the deleterious effect of high white adipose deposition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of administration of juçara pulp in mice fed a high-fat, high-calorie diet on glucose tolerance and adipose tissue inflammatory status.
Mice were distributed into the following groups: control diet; control diet plus 0.5 % of juçara; control diet plus 2 % of juçara; hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet; hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet plus 0.5 % of juçara and hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet plus 2 % of juçara. Treatments started when mice were 8 weeks old and carried on for a total period of 10 weeks. The serum glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin, lipopolysaccharides and free fatty acids concentrations were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed. TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 protein level were determined by ELISA on mesenteric and epididymal white adipose tissues. Determination of catalase activity was realized in the same tissues. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc analysis was performed with the Tukey’s test.
The addition of 0.5 % juçara improved glycemic response in animals that consumed normocaloric as well as hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diets (HC). Supplementation with 0.5 and 2 % did not change the body composition of animals that received the HC diet; however, the animals fed the normocaloric diet with 2 % juçara gained body mass. An intake of 2 % juçara in the HC diet promoted a reduction of catalase activity and IL-10 level in epididymal adipose tissue.
These results suggest that with the administration of 0.5 % juçara, the beneficial effects of polyphenols overcome the deleterious effects of macronutrient composition of juçara, whereas with the administration of 2 % juçara promotes damage by the composition of the fruit and overshadows the beneficial effects of polyphenols on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, higher juçara supplementation improves the inflammatory status targeted by the HC diet.
Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may program metabolic alterations affecting physiological functions and lead to diseases in later life. The adipose tissue is an important organ influencing energy homeostasis. The present study was aimed at exploring the consequences of IUGR on the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of adult male and female rats, using a proteomic approach.
Methods and Results
Pregnant Wistar rats were fed with balanced chow, either ad libitum (control group) or restricted to 50 % of control intake (restricted group) during the whole gestation. The offspring were weaned to ad libitum chow and studied at 4 months of age. Retroperitoneal fat was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry.
Both male and female restricted groups had low body weight at birth and at weaning but normal body weight at adulthood. The restricted males had normal fat pads weight and serum glucose levels, with a trend to hyperinsulinemia. The restricted females had increased fat pads weight with normal glucose and insulin levels.
The restricted males showed up-regulated levels of proteasome subunit α type 3, branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, elongation 1- alpha 1, fatty acid synthase levels, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase subunit alpha. These alterations point to increased proteolysis and lipogenesis rates and favoring of ATP generation.
The restricted females showed down-regulated levels of L-lactate dehydrogenase perilipin-1, mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase E1, and transketolase. These findings suggest impairment of glycemic control, stimulation of lipolysis and inhibition of proteolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and lipogenesis rates.
In both genders, several proteins involved in oxidative stress and inflammation were affected, in a pattern compatible with impairment of these responses.
The proteomic analysis of adipose tissue showed that, although IUGR affected pathways of substrate and energy metabolism in both males and females, important gender differences were evident. While IUGR males displayed alterations pointing to a predisposition to later development of obesity, the alterations observed in IUGR females pointed to a metabolic status of established obesity, in agreement with their increased fat pads mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been determined to aid in the prevention of obesity. Decaffeinated green tea extract appears to restore a normal hepatic metabolic profile and attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced effects, thereby preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 16 weeks and supplemented with either water or green tea extract (50 mg/kg/day). The body mass increase, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profile were measured over the course of the treatment. Furthermore, the AMPK pathway protein expression in the liver was measured. From the fourth week, the weight gain in the CD + green tea extract (CE) group was lower than that in the CD + water (CW) group. From the eighth week, the weight gain in the HFD + water (HFW) group was found to be higher than that in the CW group. Moreover, the weight gain in the HFD + green tea extract (HFE) group was found to be lower than that in the HFW group. Carcass lipid content was found to be higher in the HFW group than that in the CW and HFE groups. Serum analysis showed reduced non-esterified fatty acid level in the CE and HFE groups as compared with their corresponding placebo groups. Increased adiponectin level was observed in the same groups. Increased VLDL-TG secretion was observed in the HFW group as compared with the CW and HFE groups. Increased protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, pLKB1, and pAMPK was observed in the HFE group, which explained the reduced expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1, and ChREBP in this group. These results indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract may be related to the activation of AMPK via LKB1 in the liver of HFD-fed mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered tissue fatty acid (FA) composition may affect mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis, including central insulin actions. In rats fed either standard chow or a lard-enriched chow (high in saturated/low in polyunsaturated FA, HS-LP) for eight weeks, we examined the FA composition of blood, hypothalamus, liver, and retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissues. Insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling were evaluated after intracerebroventricular insulin injection. HS-LP feeding increased saturated FA content in adipose tissues and serum while it decreased polyunsaturated FA content of adipose tissues, serum, and liver. Hypothalamic C20:5n-3 and C20:3n-6 contents increased while monounsaturated FA content decreased. HS-LP rats showed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The results showed that, upon HS-LP feeding, peripheral tissues underwent potentially deleterious alterations in their FA composition, whist the hypothalamus was relatively preserved. However, hypothalamic insulin signaling and hypophagia were drastically impaired. These findings suggest that impairment of hypothalamic insulin actions by HS-LP feeding was not related to tissue FA composition.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6Rα, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increase in maternal trans fatty acid (TFAs) consumption during pregnancy and/or lactation leads to a pro-inflammatory state in the offspring. In contrast, polyphenol-rich fruit are promising modulators of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to verify whether supplementation of the maternal diet with jussara pulp changes the pro-inflammatory state in offspring exposed to TFAs during the intrauterine and lactation periods. Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups and fed a control diet (C), the C diet with 0.5% jussara supplementation (CJ), a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fats rich in TFAs (T) or the T diet supplemented with 0.5% jussara (TJ). The diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Our data demonstrated that maternal intake of TFAs resulted in increased IL-6 protein expression in the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RET), MyD88 in the liver and a reduction in Bifidobacterium spp. in the colon of 21-day-old offspring. However, jussara supplementation (TJ group) restored the fecal content of Bifidobacterium spp., increased colonic ZO-1 mRNA expression and reduced NFκB pathway activation by decreasing MyD88, NFkB p65 phosphorylated (p-NFkB p65) subunit and TNFα receptor I (TNFR1) in the liver. These effects reduced IL-6 and TNF-α expression in the liver and IL-6 and TNFα mRNA expression in the RET. Additionally, jussara supplementation of the maternal diet increased the IL-10 profile in the RET and the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the offspring's liver relative to the T group. The 0.5% jussara supplementation prevented the adverse effects of TFAs reducing low-grade inflammation via down-regulation of the NFkB signaling pathway. These effects are possibly associated with the better intestinal barrier integrity in the colon of 21-day-old offspring mediated by the gut microbiota. Thus, maternal diet supplementation could contribute to reduce chronic disease development in later life.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Food Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterised by low-grade inflammation, which increases the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risks. The aim of the present study was to verify the role of multicomponent therapy in controlling the MetS, inflammation and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in obese adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the relationships between adipokines, the MetS parameters and cIMT. A total of sixty-nine obese adolescents participated in the present study and completed 1 year of multicomponent therapy (a combination of strategies involving nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy), and were divided according to their MetS diagnosis as follows: MetS (
19); non-MetS (
50). Blood analyses of glucose, lipid and adipokine concentrations (adiponectin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and C-reactive protein) were collected. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment-adiponectin. cIMT and visceral and subcutaneous fat were estimated using ultrasonography. At baseline, the MetS group presented higher waist circumference, glucose and insulin levels, and systolic and median blood pressures compared with the non-MetS group. After therapy, both groups showed improvements in the anthropometric profile, body composition, insulin level, insulin resistance, insulin sensibility, TAG and VLDL-cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin and PAI-1 levels, blood pressure and cIMT. The prevalence of the MetS was reduced from 27·5 to 13·0 %. Metabolic syndrome patients showed resistance in the attenuation of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and leptin:adiponectin and adiponectin:leptin ratios. In the MetS group, the variation in the adiponectin:leptin ratio was correlated with variations in glucose, insulin sensibility, total cholesterol, LDL-c and systolic blood pressure. Additionally, the number of MetS parameters was correlated with the carotid measurement. Moreover, the variation in cIMT was correlated with the variations in insulin sensibility, total cholesterol and LDL-c. For the entire group, the number of MetS alterations was correlated with the leptin level and leptin:adiponectin ratio and adiponectin:leptin ratio after therapy. In conclusion, multicomponent therapy was effective in controlling the MetS, inflammation and cIMT in the obese adolescents. However, the MetS patients showed resistance in the attenuation of the atherogenic lipid profile and leptin:adiponectin ratio and adiponectin:leptin ratio. These results suggest that the MetS patients have increased cardiovascular risks, and that it is important to attempt to control the inflammatory process that occurs due to obesity in clinical practice in order to improve the health of adolescents.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During pregnancy and/or lactation, maternal nutrition is related to the adequate development of the fetus, new-born and future adult, likely by modifications in fetal programming and epigenetic regulation. Fetal programming is characterised by adaptive responses to specific environmental conditions during early life stages, which may alter gene expression and permanently affect the structure and function of several organs and tissues, thus influencing the susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Regarding lipid metabolism during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, the maternal body accumulates fat, whereas in late pregnancy, the lipolytic activity in the maternal adipose tissue is increased. However, an excess or deficiency of certain fatty acids may lead to adverse consequences to the fetuses and new-borns. Fetal exposure to trans fatty acids appears to promote early deleterious effects in the offspring’s health, thereby increasing the individual risk for developing metabolic diseases throughout life. Similarly, the maternal intake of saturated fatty acids seems to trigger alterations in the liver and adipose tissue function associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA-AA, EPA and DHA), play an important and beneficial physiologic role in the offspring who receive this fatty acid during critical periods of development. Therefore, the maternal nutritional condition and fatty acid intake during pregnancy and/or lactation are critical factors that are strongly associated with normal fetal and postnatal development, which influence the modifications in fetal programming and in the individual risk for developing metabolic diseases throughout life.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives
Obesity is related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease. The increase in saturated fatty acid intake (SFA) can potentiate cardiovascular risks. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of change in SFA on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), metabolic profile and anti/pro-inflammatory adipokines in obese adolescents.Methods
Sixty obese adolescents were subjected to 1 year of interdisciplinary intervention (nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy). Blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and adiponectin were analysed. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. cIMT was measured by ultrasonography. Dietetic intake was calculated by 3-day dietary record. Volunteers were analysed according to tertiles of change (Δ) in SFA intake: Low-SFA reduction < 3.68 g; Moderate-SFA reduction 3.68-13.67 g; and High-SFA reduction > 13.67 g.ResultsModerate and High-SFA tertiles presented reduction in insulin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, cIMT and increase in adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adiponectin/leptin ratio was predictor of cIMT. HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol reduced only in High-SFA tertile, and was associated with SFA independent of visceral fat. Negative correlations between Δ of SFA and adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio were observed.Conclusion
Obese adolescents with moderate and high reduction in SFA presented improvements on pro/anti-inflammatory biomarkers and cIMT, leading to reduction in cardiovascular risks.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate possible mechanisms of green tea’s anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in the hypothalamus, the central regulator of metabolism, of mice fed with high-fat diet, we analysed proteins of the toll-like receptor 4 pathway and serotoninergic proteins involved in energy homeostasis. Thirty days old male Swiss mice were fed with high-fat diet rich in saturated fat and green tea extract for eight weeks. After that, body weight and mass of fat depots were evaluated. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed three days prior to euthanasia; serum glucose, insulin and adiponectin were measured in fasted mice. Hypothalamic toll-like receptor 4 pathway proteins, serotonin receptors 1B and 2C, and serotonin transporter were analysed by Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A second set of animals was used to measure food intake in response to fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Mice fed with high-fat diet had increased body weight and mass of fat depots, impaired oral glucose tolerance, elevated glucose and insulin, and decreased adiponectin serum levels. Toll-like receptor 4, IκB-α, nuclear factor κB p50, and interleukin-6 were increased by high-fat diet. Concomitant green tea extract treatment ameliorated these parameters. The serotoninergic system remained functional after high-fat diet treatment, despite a few alterations in protein content of serotonin receptors 1B and 2C, and serotonin transporter. In summary, the green tea extract attenuated the deleterious effects of the high-fat diet investigated in this study, partially due to reduced hypothalamic inflammation.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal intake of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) in the perinatal period triggers a proinflammatory state in offspring. Anthocyanins contained in fruit are promising modulators of inflammation. This study investigated the effect of Jussara supplementation in the maternal diet on the proinflammatory state of the colon in offspring exposed to perinatal TFAs. On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet with 0.5% Jussara supplementation (CJ), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFAs (T), or T diet supplemented with 0.5% Jussara (TJ) during pregnancy and lactation. We showed that Jussara supplementation in maternal diet (CJ and TJ groups) reduced carcass lipid/protein ratios, serum lipids, glucose, IL-6, TNF-α, gene expression of IL-6R, TNF-αR (P < 0.05), TLR-4 (P < 0.01), and increase Lactobacillus spp. (P < 0.05) in the colon of offspring compared to the T group. The IL-10 (P = 0.035) and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (P < 0.01) was higher in the CJ group than in the T group. The 0.5% Jussara supplementation reverses the adverse effects of perinatal TFAs, improving lipid profiles, glucose levels, body composition, and gut microbiota and reducing low-grade inflammation in the colon of 21-day-old offspring, and could contribute to reducing chronic disease development.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue and glucose intolerance. High-fat diets (HFDs) are known to induce obesity and increase proinflammatory adipokines. The consumption of green tea may improve the health of obese individuals because it contains a potent antioxidant that has effects on body weight, energy expenditure and serum cholesterol concentrations.
We examined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (50 mg/kg body weight per day) or saline after 30 or 60 days of treatment. Mice were distributed into four groups: 1) NS: normolipidic diet receiving saline; 2) NE: normolipidic diet receiving EGCG; 3) HFS: high-fat diet receiving saline; 4) HFE: high-fat diet receiving EGCG.
We observed that administration of a HFD plus EGCG treatment for 60 days reduced delta weight, the relative weights of the mesenteric adipose tissue (MES), retroperitonial adipose tissue (RET), epididymal adipose tissue (EPI), the sum of the adipose tissues (SAT), reduced triacylglycerol (TG) and improved both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the adiponectin/STA ratio when compared with HFS.
Our results suggest that the chronic administration of EGCG (60 days) promoted a significant improvement in glucose tolerance, decreased adipose tissue deposits, weight mass, TG and HDL-C only when associated with high-fat diet treatment.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet.
Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 mg protein/kg of body weight) or tap water for four weeks [groups: normolipidic diet plus water (C); normolipidic diet and coacervate (CC); high-fat diet and water (H); and high-fat diet and coacervate (HC)].
The high-fat diet promoted inflammation, possibly by decreased adiponectin/sum of adipose tissues ratio and increased phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p50. In HC we observed a positive correlation between IL-10 and TNF-alpha in mesenteric adipose tissue, retroperitoneal adipose tissue and liver tissue. We also observed a positive correlation between lipopolisaccharide with IL-10 in the liver tissue.
High-fat diet treatment promoted metabolic alterations and inflammation, and chitosan coacervate whey protein modulated inflammatory milieu.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Nutrition & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that the intake of trans fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation triggers a pro-inflammatory status in the offspring. On the other hand, prebiotics can alter the intestinal environment, reducing serum lipopolysaccharides (LPS) concentrations. This study evaluated the effect of the oligofructose 10% diet supplementation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat during pregnancy and lactation on the development, endotoxemia and bacterial composition of 21-d-old offspring.
On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFA (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, 7th, 14th and 21th, pups were weighed and length was measured. Serum concentrations of LPS and free fatty acids (FFA) were performed by specific kits. Bacterial DNA present in faeces was determined by real-time PCR. Data were expressed as mean +/- standard error of the mean and the statistical analysis was realized by ANOVA two-way and ANOVA for repeated measures. p < 0.05 was considered significant.
We observed that the oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation reduced body weight, body weight gain, length and serum FFA in the CF and TF group compared to C and T group respectively, of the 21-day-old offspring, accompanied by an increase in serum LPS and genomic DNA levels of lactobacillus spp. on faeces of the CF group in relation to C group.
In conclusion, dam's diet supplementation with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of addition with hydrogenated vegetable fat, harms the offspring development, alters the bacterial composition and increases the serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharides in 21d-old pups.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The low-grade systemic inflammation seen in obesity may affect the actions of some adipose tissue-derived adipokines that are involved in the regulation of vascular function. We sought to verify whether hyperleptinemia may influence the inflammatory and atherogenic responses in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary therapy. Thirty-four obese adolescents underwent interdisciplinary therapy for 1 year. Subjects were considered hyperleptinemic if they had baseline values of leptin above 20 ng/mL for boys and 24 ng/mL for girls. Both groups showed an improvement in body composition and a reduction in carotid intima-media thickness. However, only subjects in the non-hyperleptinemic group showed an increase in adiponectin concentration after therapy. Moreover, leptin concentration was positively correlated with adiponectin and inversely correlated with PAI-1 in this group. Hyperleptinemic state may impair the attenuation of inflammation in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary therapy, particularly by impeding the increase in adiponectin concentration, which is directly involved in vascular protection.