[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid diseases are frequently seen in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study is to evaluate thyroid diseases and thyroid cancer in acromegalic patients followed in a single institution. The data of 92 acromegalic (43 male, 49 female) patients followed over 12 years were retrieved retrospectively from the hospital recordings. All available data for gender, age, body weight and height, duration of acromegaly, age at diagnosis of acromegaly, treatment methods for acromegaly and history of thyroid disease, serum GH, IGF-1, thyroid function tests, thyroid ultrasonography (US), thyroid scintigraphy and thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results were recorded for the patients. The mean age of the patients was 43.9 ± 10.8 years and the mean disease duration was 12 ± 6.9 years. Thyroid US was performed in 64 patients who had nodular or diffuse goiter on palpation during the post-treatment follow-up and nodules were found in 44 (47.8 %) patients. Final diagnosis in 64 patients with thyroid US results and thyroid function tests including 26 patients with FNAB were as follows: 31 (48.4 %) benign multinodular goiter (MNG), 6 (9.4 %) simple nodular goiter, 1 (1.6 %) toxic MNG, 1 (1.6 %) Hurthle cell adenoma, and 5 (7.8 %) differentiated thyroid cancer. In addition, 9 (14.1 %) patients had diffuse goiter. One of the patients with diffuse goiter had amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis. Eleven (17.1 %) patients had normal thyroid US and no other thyroid disease. Patients with nodules had longer disease duration than patients without nodules (14.2 ± 6.6 vs. 9.4 ± 3.4 years, p = 0.043). Thyroid volume was positively correlated with post-treatment GH and post-treatment IGF-1 levels (r = 0.309, p = 0.041 and r = 0.423, p = 0.004), respectively. We found that 7.8 % of our acromegalic patients with thyroid US results were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Therefore, acromegalic patients must be considered as a high risk group for the development of thyroid cancer and must be closely followed for thyroid nodules and tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the possible role of Chernobyl disaster on changing clinical features of thyroid carcinoma (TC) in a moderately iodine deficient region.
We retrospectively reviewed demographical features, presenting symptoms, tumor size, histopathological diagnosis and distant metastates in 160 patients with TC diagnosed between 1990-2007. We compared our findings with the database of 118 TC patients diagnosed between 1970-1990 in the same center.
There were 123 female (76.9%) and 37 (23.1%) male patients with a mean age of 44.89±14.84. Sex distribution and age at diagnosis were similar between 1970-1990 and 1990-2007 (P=0.77 and P=0.42, respectively). Histopathological diagnoses were papillary in 114 (73.1%), follicular in 22 (14.1%), medullary in 9 (5.8%), hurthle cell in 7 (4.5%) and anaplastic TC in 4 (2.6%) patients. We observed a marked increase in papillary TC (P<0.001) and marked decreases in follicular (P<0.001) and anaplastic TC (P=0.01) compared to the period between 1970-1990. Thyroid microcarcinomas accounted for 27.1% and 37.1% of carcinomas in 1970-1990 and 1990-2007, respectively (P<0.05).
We showed that incidence of papillary TC increased and incidences of follicular and anaplastic TC decreased in a period that might be affected by Chernobyl fallout in a moderately iodine deficient area. Presenting symptoms of TC have changed and microcarcinomas are diagnosed more frequently compared to past. Further large scale trials are needed to find out whether Chernobyl disaster has role on changing characteristic of TC in countries that are not very near but also not very far from Chernobyl such as Turkey.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Minerva endocrinologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of quantifying salivary gland scintigraphy in correlation to the labial biopsy findings of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Thirty patients suspected of having SS referred to our clinic for salivary gland scintigraphy were included to this study. All patients underwent salivary gland biopsy as well. The severity of histopathologic changes was graded according to the Chisholm and Mason scoring system. Dynamic scintigraphy was performed and region of interests (ROI) were drawn. Time activity curves for salivary glands were generated. Count rates of maximum, minimum activity after lemon juice stimuli, and last minute activities of parotid and submandibular glands were obtained. On the basis of this ROI counts, excretion fraction (EF%) was calculated for all salivary glands. The mean EF% for normal parotid gland and pathologic parotid gland was 54.5 ± 13.9 and 45.8 ± 18.42, respectively, while it was 46.7 ± 11.7 for the normal submandibular gland and 29.3 ± 18.8 for the pathologic submandibular gland. With progression in histopathologic grades from 0 to 4, the EF decreased in all salivary glands. Decreased EF in the salivary glands is correlated with the SS, and salivary gland scintigraphy is a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of the function of the salivary glands.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Clinical Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Guidance Document for structured reporting of diuresis renography in adults was developed by the International Scientific Committee of Radionuclides in Nephro-urology (ISCORN; http://www.iscorn.org). ISCORN chose diuresis renography for its first structured report Guidance Document because suspected obstruction is the most common reason for referral, most radionuclide renal studies are conducted at institutions that perform fewer than 3 studies per week, and a large percentage of studies are interpreted by physicians with limited training in nuclear medicine. Ten panelists were asked to categorize specific reporting elements as essential, recommended, optional (without sufficient data to support a higher ranking), and unnecessary (does not contribute to scan interpretation or quality assurance). The final document was developed through an iterative series of comments and questionnaires with a majority vote required to place an element in a specific category. The Guidance Document recommends a reporting structure organized into indications, clinical history, study procedure, findings and impression and specifies the elements considered essential or recommended in each category. The Guidance Document is not intended to be restrictive but, rather, to provide a basic structure and rationale so that the diuresis renography report will: (1) communicate the results to the referring physician in a clear and concise manner designed to optimize patient care; (2) contain the essential elements required to evaluate and interpret the study; (3) clearly document the technical components of the study necessary for accountability, quality assurance and reimbursement; and (4) encourage clinical research by facilitating better comparison and extrapolation of results between institutions.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Seminars in nuclear medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic amyloidosis may infiltrate the thyroid or other endocrine glands but rarely causes endocrine dysfunction. We describe a 45 years old female patient with diffusely enlarged goiter and hypopituitarism secondary to amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland and possibly pituitary gland, respectively. She was on chronic haemodialysis for 3 years due to systemic amyloidosis. While she was being prepared for thyroidectomy, adrenal failure developed. Her anterior pituitary hormone levels were low and magnetic resonance imaging of the hypophysis showed low signal intensity in right part of the adenohypophysis. She improved with corticosteroid replacement therapy and underwent subtotal thyroidectomy without any complication. Histopathologically, amyloid deposition was demonstrated in the thyroid gland. To our knowledge, this is the first case with amyloid goiter and hypopituitarism secondary to systemic amyloidosis. Amyloid infiltration should be considered in a systemic amyloidosis patient presenting with rapidly enlarged thyroid gland and signs of hypopituitarism.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subtraction ictal single photon emission tomography (SPET) co-registered to magnetic resonance imaging (SISCOM) is an ictal-interictal brain perfusion SPET subtraction method, developed for evaluation of brain perfusion changes applied for the identification of epileptic foci. The aim of this study was to test whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations due to clozapine in schizophrenic patients could also be detected with SISCOM. We have studied the brain perfusion SPET data obtained both before (pre-SPET) and 8 weeks after (post-SPET) clozapine treatment, in 20 patients with schizophrenia. These data were used for SISCOM processing. In order to identify any alterations in the perfusion pattern using SISCOM, pre- and post-SPET data were subtracted from each other. Activation maps were created and merged on either pre- or post-SPET images. Visual interpretation of brain perfusion SPET studies were performed and compared with SISCOM findings. We found that final SISCOM images and visual evaluation of pre- and post-SPET studies were well concordant in 17/20 patients. Discordance was observed in 3 patients. In 1 of these 3 patients alterations observed with SISCOM were confirmed as subtle changes on visual re-evaluation of the images. In the remaining 2 of these 3 patients, SISCOM did not confirm the changes observed by visual analysis. Additionally, SISCOM depicted perfusion alteration in occipital cortex in 5 patients. In conclusion, the algorithm of SISCOM seemed to be useful and complementary to visual evaluation, to assess rCBF changes due to clopazine in outpatient schizophrenic patients who had treatment refractoriness or intolerance of previous antipsychotics and to provide additional information when both pre- and post-SPET data were subtracted from each other.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of clozapine on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and its relationship with response to treatment. In addition, we aimed to study the influence of clozapine on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) findings in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in a subgroup of patients. Psychopathology, neurocognitive functioning, and SPECT imaging of 22 patients were assessed at the baseline and 8 weeks after the initiation of clozapine treatment. In 10 of these patients intermediate-echo (TE: 135 ms) single-voxel (1)H-MRS was also performed at the baseline and after 8 weeks. Clozapine treatment increased the right frontal (superior and medial)/caudate perfusion ratio in the whole group, while it increased bilateral frontal (superior and medial)/caudate perfusion ratios in treatment responders. In addition, percentage changes in left and right frontal (superior and medial)/caudate perfusion ratios compared to the baseline were higher in treatment responders than in non-responders. The improvement in attention was related to the increase in percentage change in the right frontal (superior and medial)/caudate perfusion ratio, while the improvement in verbal fluency was related to the increase in percentage changes in both right and left frontal (superior and medial)/caudate perfusion ratios and to right frontal (superior and medial)/thalamus perfusion. Baseline frontal (superior and medial)/thalamus perfusion could explain 32% of the variability of percentage improvements in psychopathology. (1)H-MRS showed that the baseline PANSS general psychopathology score was inversely correlated with the baseline NAA/Cre ratio. An increased NAA/Cre ratio in DLPFC after 8 weeks of clozapine treatment was also revealed by (1)H-MRS. Our SPECT imaging results suggest the presence of an imbalance in fronto-striato-thalamic circuitry that changes with clozapine, especially in the responders, while (1)H-MRS results indicate a supportive effect of clozapine on neuronal integrity.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Psychiatry Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of serum CA 125 levels for the diagnosis, follow-up, and prognosis in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), 44 children (35 newly diagnosed patients and 9 patients with relapsed or progressive disease, median age 6.5 years, M/F ratio 2.1) with NHL were included in this study. CA 125 levels in serum and/or ascites and effusions were measured by radioimmunoassay. The upper limit of normal was 35 IU/mL. The correlation of CA 125 levels with tumoral location and treatment results were investigated. A total of 27 (61.4%) patients had increased and 17 patients had normal serum CA 125 levels. Fifteen patients with increased CA 125 levels had malignant ascites, pleural effusion, or both, although none with normal CA 125 levels had any serous membrane involvement. The mean CA 125 levels were 72.5 IU/mL in patients with no serosal involvement (ascites or effusion) and, 144.0, 273.7, 324.3 IU/mL in patients with pleural effusion, ascites, and ascites + effusion, respectively. The mean CA 125 levels in ascites and pleural effusion were 202.1 and 156.2 IU/mL, respectively, and were similar to the corresponding serum levels. The increased CA 125 levels returned to normal in 18 patients whose diseases were in remission during the follow-up. One-year survival rate for newly diagnosed patients was 80.2 and 87.5% in patients with increased and normal serum CA 125 levels, respectively. In conclusion, CA 125 levels were significantly higher in patients with serous membrane involvement and there was a correlation between treatment response and marker levels. Little is known about the expression of CA 125 in NHLs. This is the first report suggesting that serum CA 125 levels can be a useful marker for the follow-up of childhood NHL. CA 125 seems to be a promising tumor marker in the assessment of prognosis and therapeutic response in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to document the impact of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms on renal haemodynamics and renal hormones in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Fifty-nine adult patients were studied. Renal haemodynamics were evaluated using 99mTc-MAG3 clearance (MAG3( Cle)) using Bubeck's method and captopril renogram. RAS hormones and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels were measured before and after captopril.ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms were analysed.
Post-captopril MAG3(Cle) values were significantly lower in patients with microalbuminuria compared to nonproteinuric patients. Statistically significant negative correlation was found between clearance percentage change values and HbA(1c) levels (r: -0.42, p=0.009). MAG3(Cle) was relatively lower following captopril administration in DD patients, while a relative increment was observed in I allele carriers (p=0.02).TheAC-CC group had significantly higher mean post-captopril clearance value compared to the AA genotype (480.9+/-56.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) vs. 428.4+/-74.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p=0.022).
Our data indicate that the heterogeneity of patients' response to ACE inhibition is, at least partly, genetically determined, and the genetic polymorphisms in RAS might predict the acute responsiveness to ACE inhibitors.
Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: McCune-Albright syndrome is a rare disorder caused by an activating mutation in the gene (GNAS1) encoding the subunit of the G protein. This syndrome is characterized by polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait pigmentation, and multiple endocrine hyperfunction. A 29-year-old male with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait pigmentations, and pituitary adenoma is presented in this report. The patient had accompanying bipolar affective disorder, which might have been caused by the underlying genetic abnormality.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · European Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors of this work present two patients, diagnosed with lymphoma and prostate cancer, referred to nuclear medicine department for a gallium-67 scan and a bone scan, respectively. The abnormal accumulation of the radioactivity gave rise suspicion for possible other pathologies. Successive computed tomographic imaging revealed that the patients had had Chilaiditi's syndrome. The authors present these cases to draw attention for the possibility of misinterpretation of the scans due to distribution of radioactivity in this syndrome.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to well-known specific conditions for soft-tissue uptake of bone-seeking radiotracers, there is a limited number of reports on intestinal uptake of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) on bone scans.
To describe the incidence of intestinal accumulation of (99m)Tc-MDP on bone scans in adult patients, define the patterns of this unusual finding and review the literature on its causes.
Two thousand, one hundred and forty-four consecutive patients have been evaluated for intestinal (99m)Tc-MDP uptake on bone scans. Intestinal uptake was observed visually 3-4 h after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical. A whole-body bone scan and various spot views of the abdomino-pelvic region were obtained with a dual-headed gamma camera to evaluate the intestinal uptake. Delayed scans were also obtained as well as co-relative imaging and/or colonoscopic studies in some of intestinal uptake patients. Six patients had delayed scans of the abdomino-pelvic region. Fourteen patients had comparable scans either a year before or a year later. The positive intestinal uptake scans were further grouped according to the localization and intensity (mild uptake: lower than iliac bone; moderate uptake: equal to iliac bone; significant uptake: higher than iliac bone).
Twenty-two (17 female, five male) patients out of 2144 with a mean age of 57 years showed intestinal (99m)Tc-MDP uptake. The localization was mainly (20/22) in the right abdomino-pelvic region projecting on and in the configuration of ascending colon while one patient showed intestinal uptake all over the abdomen and one displayed diffuse intestinal radioactivity in his right hemithorax. The majority of the cases showed moderate to intense intestinal uptake (18/22). Six patients showed a decrease, disappearance or alteration in the intestinal uptake on the delayed images. Re-evaluation bone scans in five patients 1 year later showed no intestinal uptake this time. Among nine patients with prior bone scans 1 year before, intestinal uptake was negative in seven at that time. No significant pathology was obtained on the correlative images.
(99m)Tc-MDP uptake can be observed in the intestines in 1% of bone scans with a prominent localization in the ascending colon and rarely all over the intestines or in thorax due to Chilaiditi's syndrome, as well. The mechanism of intestinal uptake is still unclear in some of the patients. Delayed imaging, additional spot views and SPECT studies help in the differentiation of this finding from possible misinterpretation. Intestinal (99m)Tc-MDP uptake on bone scan could be an intermittent process and should be included among other well-known reasons of soft-tissue uptake.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is widely used in the management of neuroendocrine tumors. Somatostatin receptors are present in both neoplastic and normal tissues, which may lead to misinterpretation of the scans. Here, a patient with lung carcinoid imaged with In-111 octreotide is presented. Imaging was performed 4 and 24 hours after an intravenous injection of 185 MBq In-111 octreotide in the post prandial state. Whole body and SPECT images showed accumulation of radioactivity in the gallbladder. Imaging was repeated after fatty meal ingestion to differentiate abnormal activity and physiological uptake in the gallbladder. The abdominal SPECT studies at 28 hours revealed no uptake in the gallbladder, and the scintigraphic study was reported as normal so further excessive diagnostic procedures were prevented. Gallbladder can be visualized on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy even in the post prandial state. Delayed images after fatty meal administration are important for differential diagnosis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Annals of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs), which are known as unusual electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns, are described in a patient who had stroke and seizures. This patient underwent Tc-99m HMPAO (hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging both during PLEDs on EEG and after the cessation of PLEDs. The initial SPECT study revealed increased CBF in the left frontal and parietal cortex extending through the left temporal region and in the left basal ganglium. After the PLEDs disappeared, the second SPECT study showed decreased perfusion on the left frontal and parietal region in the brain. Brain SPECT findings supported the contention that PLEDs may be an ictal phenomenon. Here we also present a review on PLEDs and contributions of brain SPECT as a functional imaging modality to investigate the underlying mechanism of this interesting EEG pattern.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Annals of Nuclear Medicine