Scott D Emr

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States

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Publications (236)2357.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The requirement of Vps34p, the sole phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for protein sorting to the vacuole in yeast has exemplified the essential role for phosphoinositides, phosphorylated derivatives of PI, in membrane trafficking. To better understand mechanisms that regulate PI 3-phosphate [PI(3)P]-mediated signaling, the role of the yeast myotubularin-related PI(3)P phosphatase Ymr1p was investigated. We found that Ymr1p and the synaptojanin-like phosphatase Sjl3p function as key regulators of the localization and levels of PI(3)P. Our data indicated that the ymr1Delta sjl3Delta double mutant aberrantly accumulated PI(3)P and demonstrated a steady-state redistribution of this lipid that leads to enrichment on the vacuolar membrane. This resulted in vacuole protein sorting defects, vacuolar fragmentation, and the misregulation of PI(3)P-specific effectors. Triple deletion of YMR1, SJL2, and SJL3 was lethal, suggesting an essential requirement for phosphatase-mediated PI(3)P regulation. Consistent with this, growth was restored to a ymr1Delta sjl2Delta sjl3Delta triple mutant by a PI(3)P-targeted Sac1p domain chimera (GFP-Sac1DeltaC-FYVE(EEA1)) that returned PI(3)P to levels comparable with wild-type cells. Together, this study demonstrated that Ymr1p, a myotubularin phosphatase family member, functions in the control of PI(3)P-dependent signaling and the maintenance of endosomal system integrity. In addition, this work defined an essential overlapping role for lipid phosphatases in the regulation of 3' phosphoinositides in yeast.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin (Ub) functions in many different biological pathways, where it typically interacts with proteins that contain modular Ub recognition domains. One such recognition domain is the Npl4 zinc finger (NZF), a compact zinc-binding module found in many proteins that function in Ub-dependent processes. We now report the solution structure of the NZF domain from Npl4 in complex with Ub. The structure reveals that three key NZF residues (13TF14/M25) surrounding the zinc coordination site bind the hydrophobic 'Ile44' surface of Ub. Mutations in the 13TF14/M25 motif inhibit Ub binding, and naturally occurring NZF domains that lack the motif do not bind Ub. However, substitution of the 13TF14/M25 motif into the nonbinding NZF domain from RanBP2 creates Ub-binding activity, demonstrating the versatility of the NZF scaffold. Finally, NZF mutations that inhibit Ub binding by the NZF domain of Vps36/ESCRT-II also inhibit sorting of ubiquitylated proteins into the yeast vacuole. Thus, the NZF is a versatile protein recognition domain that is used to bind ubiquitylated proteins during vacuolar protein sorting, and probably many other biological processes.
    Full-text · Article · May 2004 · The EMBO Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains are small protein modules known for their ability to bind phosphoinositides and to drive membrane recruitment of their host proteins. We investigated phosphoinositide binding (in vitro and in vivo) and subcellular localization, and we modeled the electrostatic properties for all 33 PH domains encoded in the S. cerevisiae genome. Only one PH domain (from Num1p) binds phosphoinositides with high affinity and specificity. Six bind phosphoinositides with moderate affinity and little specificity and are membrane targeted in a phosphoinositide-dependent manner. Although all of the remaining 26 yeast PH domains bind phosphoinositides very weakly or not at all, three were nonetheless efficiently membrane targeted. Our proteome-wide analysis argues that membrane targeting is important for only approximately 30% of yeast PH domains and is defined by binding to both phosphoinositides and other targets. These findings have significant implications for understanding the function of proteins that contain this common domain.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · Molecular Cell
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    ABSTRACT: The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway provides a mechanism for delivering transmembrane proteins into the lumen of the lysosome/vacuole. Recent studies demonstrated that ubiquitin modification acts in cis as a signal for the sorting of cargoes into this pathway. Here, we present results from a genetic selection designed to identify mutants that missort MVB cargoes. This selection identified a point mutation in ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 (Rsp5-326). At the permissive temperature, this mutant is specifically defective for ubiquitination and sorting of the ubiquitin-dependent MVB cargo precursor carboxypeptidase S (pCPS), but not ligand-induced ubiquitination of Ste2. A previous study implicated Tul1 as the ubiquitin ligase responsible for MVB sorting of pCPS. However, we detected no defect in either the sorting or ubiquitination of pCPS in tul1 mutants. We had previously shown that Fab1 phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase is also required for MVB sorting of pCPS, but not Ste2. However, our analyses reveal that fab1 mutants do not exhibit a defect in ubiquitination of pCPS. Thus, both Rsp5 and Fab1 play distinct and essential roles in the targeting of biosynthetic MVB cargoes. However, whereas Rsp5 seems to be responsible for cargo ubiquitination, the precise role for Fab1 remains to be elucidated.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
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    Simon A Rudge · Deborah M Anderson · Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is synthesized by a single phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase, Fab1. Cells deficient in PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis exhibit a grossly enlarged vacuole morphology, whereas increased levels of PtdIns(3,5)P2 provokes the formation of multiple small vacuoles, suggesting a specific role for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in vacuole size control. Genetic studies have indicated that Fab1 kinase is positively regulated by Vac7 and Vac14; deletion of either gene results in ablation of PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis and the formation of a grossly enlarged vacuole. More recently, a suppressor of vac7Delta mutants was identified and shown to encode a putative phosphoinositide phosphatase, Fig4. We demonstrate that Fig4 is a magnesium-activated PtdIns(3,5)P2-selective phosphoinositide phosphatase in vitro. Analysis of a Fig4-GFP fusion protein revealed that the Fig4 phosphatase is localized to the limiting membrane of the vacuole. Surprisingly, in the absence of Vac14, Fig4-GFP no longer localizes to the vacuole. However, Fig4-GFP remains localized to the grossly enlarged vacuoles of vac7 deletion mutants. Consistent with these observations, we found that Fig4 physically associates with Vac14 in a common membrane-associated complex. Our studies indicate that Vac14 both positively regulates Fab1 kinase activity and directs the localization/activation of the Fig4 PtdIns(3,5)P2 phosphatase.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses the structural basis of a specialized zinc finger that binds PtdIns 3-phosphate [PI(3)P], termed the FYVE domain, and the roles played by several proteins harboring this motif in membrane trafficking and cell signaling. The recruitment of cytoplasmic proteins to specific membrane compartments is important for a diverse spectrum of cellular processes including intracellular protein trafficking, cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling, actin cytoskeleton organization and apoptosis. The identification of the FYVE domain as a specific PI(3)P binding motif has significantly impacted the field of membrane trafficking and shed light on additional cellular functions of PI(3)P. Through localization studies of the FYVE domain using both conventional light microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy, PI(3)P has been found to exist in endosomal membranes, on intralumenal vesicles contained within MVBs, autophagosomes, and in vacuolar/lysosomal membranes. Recent studies indicate that another lipid binding motif, the PX domain, specifically recognizes PI(3)P. Further studies are required to determine the validity of this concept and whether this is a general principle or may only apply to a certain subset of FYVE-domain containing proteins.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2003
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Developmental Cell
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    Anjon Audhya · Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: The essential phospholipid PI4,5P(2) is generated by a well conserved PI4P 5-kinase, Mss4, in yeast. Balanced production and turnover of PI4,5P(2) is important for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell viability. Previous studies have shown that multiple PI phosphatases can regulate PI4,5P(2) levels. We report a new, unexpected regulatory mechanism for PI4,5P(2) homeostasis, directed by nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of the lipid kinase. We show that Mss4 is a phosphoprotein, which contains a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) and can shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Temperature-conditional mss4 cells that accumulate Mss4 protein in the nucleus exhibit reduced levels of PI4,5P(2), depolarization of the actin cytoskeleton and a block in Mss4 phosphorylation, suggesting an essential role for phosphorylated Mss4 at the plasma membrane. Through the isolation of gene dosage-dependent suppressors of mss4 mutants, we identified Bcp1, a protein enriched in the nucleus, which is required for Mss4 nuclear export and is related to the mammalian BRCA2-interacting protein BCCIP. Together, these studies suggest a new mechanism for lipid kinase regulation through regulated nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2003 · The EMBO Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Down-regulation (degradation) of cell surface proteins within the lysosomal lumen depends on the function of the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. The function of this pathway requires the class E vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins. Of the class E Vps proteins, both the ESCRT-I complex (composed of the class E proteins Vps23, 28, and 37) and Vps27 (mammalian hepatocyte receptor tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs) have been shown to interact with ubiquitin, a signal for entry into the MVB pathway. We demonstrate that activation of the MVB sorting reaction is dictated largely through interactions between Vps27 and the endosomally enriched lipid species phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate via the FYVE domain (Fab1, YGL023, Vps27, and EEA1) of Vps27. ESCRT-I then physically binds to Vps27 on endosomal membranes via a domain within the COOH terminus of Vps27. A peptide sequence in this domain, PTVP, is involved in the function of Vps27 in the MVB pathway, the efficient endosomal recruitment of ESCRT-I, and is related to a motif in HIV-1 Gag protein that is capable of interacting with Tsg101, the mammalian homologue of Vps23. We propose that compartmental specificity for the MVB sorting reaction is the result of interactions of Vps27 with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and ubiquitin. Vps27 subsequently recruits/activates ESCRT-I on endosomes, thereby facilitating sorting of ubiquitinated MVB cargoes.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2003 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Multivesicular bodies are late endosomal compartments containing lumenal vesicles that are formed by inward budding of the limiting endosomal membrane. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, integral membrane proteins are sorted into the lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies, and this process requires the class E subset of VPS genes. We show that one of the class E VPS genes, BRO1/VPS31, encodes a cytoplasmic protein that associates with endosomal compartments. The dissociation of Bro1 from endosomes requires another class E Vps protein, Vps4, which is an ATPase that also regulates the endosomal dissociation of ESCRT-III, a complex of four class E Vps proteins (Vps2, Vps20, Vps24 and Snf7/Vps32) that oligomerize at the endosomal membrane. We also show that the endosomal association of Bro1 is specifically dependent on one of the ESCRT-III components, Snf7. Our data suggest that the function of Bro1 in the MVB pathway takes place on endosomal membranes and occurs in concert with or downstream of the function of the ESCRT-III complex.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Cell Science
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    David J Katzmann · Greg Odorizzi · Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: The sorting of proteins into the inner vesicles of multivesicular bodies is required for many key cellular processes, which range from the downregulation of activated signalling receptors to the proper stimulation of the immune response. Recent advances in our understanding of the multivesicular-body sorting pathway have resulted from the identification of ubiquitin as a signal for the efficient sorting of proteins into this transport route, and from the discovery of components of the sorting and regulatory machinery that directs this complex process.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The LSB6 gene product was identified from the Saccharomyces Genome Data Base (locus YJL100W) as a putative member of a novel type II phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase family. Cell extracts lacking the LSB6 gene had a reduced level of PI 4-kinase activity. In addition, multicopy plasmids containing the LSB6 gene directed the overexpression of PI 4-kinase activity in cell extracts of wild-type cells, in anlsb6Δ mutant, in a pik1 ts stt4 ts double mutant, and in anpik1 ts stt4 ts lsb6Δ triple mutant. The heterologous expression of theS. cerevisiae LSB6 gene in Escherichia coli resulted in the expression of a protein that possessed PI 4-kinase activity. Although the lsb6Δ mutant did not exhibit a growth phenotype and failed to exhibit a defect in phosphoinositide synthesis in vivo, the overexpression of the LSB6 gene could partially suppress the lethal phenotype of an stt4Δ mutant defective in the type IIISTT4-encoded PI 4-kinase indicating that Lsb6p functions as a PI 4-kinase in vivo. Lsb6p was localized to the membrane fraction of the cell, and when overexpressed, GFP-tagged Lsb6p was observed on both the plasma membrane and the vacuole membrane. The enzymological properties (pH optimum, dependence on magnesium or manganese as a cofactor, the dependence of activity on Triton X-100, the dependence on the PI surface concentration, and temperature sensitivity) of the LSB6-encoded enzyme were very similar to the membrane-associated 55-kDa PI 4-kinase previously purified fromS. cerevisiae.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Vivek Malhotra · Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: This year, the recipients of the Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research are James Rothman and Randy Schekman. This highly anticipated honor highlights their unique contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms of membrane traffic.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: A direct role for phosphoinositides in vesicular trafficking has been demonstrated by the identification of the yeast VPS34 gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). Vps34p binds the protein kinase Vps15p, and it has recently been shown that Vps15p and Vps34p associate with Vps30p and Vps38p to form a multimeric complex, termed complex II. We observed that mutations in the VPS30 and VPS38 genes led to a selective sorting and maturation phenotype of the soluble vacuolar protease CPY. Localization studies revealed that the CPY receptor Vps10p and the Golgi-endoprotease Kex2p were mislocalized to vacuolar membranes in strains deficient for either Vps30p or Vps38p, respectively. Interestingly, we measured decreased PtdIns3P levels in Deltavps30 and Deltavps38 cells and observed redistribution of Vps5p and Vps17p to the cytoplasm in these mutants. Vps5p and Vps17p are subunits of the retromer complex that is required for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport. Both proteins contain the Phox homology (PX) domain, a recently identified phosphoinositide-binding motif. We demonstrate that the PX domains of Vps5p and Vps17p specifically bind to PtdIns3P in vitro and in vivo. On the basis of these and other observations, we propose that the PtdIns 3-kinase complex II directs the synthesis of a specific endosomal pool of PtdIns3P, which is required for recruitment/activation of the retromer complex, thereby ensuring efficient endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Sorting of ubiquitinated endosomal membrane proteins into the MVB pathway is executed by the class E Vps protein complexes ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, and the AAA-type ATPase Vps4. This study characterizes ESCRT-II, a soluble approximately 155 kDa protein complex formed by the class E Vps proteins Vps22, Vps25, and Vps36. This protein complex transiently associates with the endosomal membrane and thereby initiates the formation of ESCRT-III, a membrane-associated protein complex that functions immediately downstream of ESCRT-II during sorting of MVB cargo. ESCRT-II in turn functions downstream of ESCRT-I, a protein complex that binds to ubiquitinated endosomal cargo. We propose that the ESCRT complexes perform a coordinated cascade of events to select and sort MVB cargoes for delivery to the lumen of the vacuole/lysosome.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Developmental Cell
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    Andrew E Wurmser · Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is the process whereby cytoplasmic cargo (e.g., protein and organelles) are sequestered within a double membrane-enclosed transport vesicle and degraded after vesicle fusion with the vacuole/lysosome. Current evidence suggests that the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is essential for macroautophagy, a starvation-induced autophagy pathway (Kihara et al., 2001). Here, we characterize a requirement for Vps34 in constitutive autophagy by the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway. First, we show that transient disruption of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-phosphate (PtdIns[3]P) synthesis through inactivation of temperature-sensitive Vps34 or its upstream activator, Vps15, blocks the Cvt and macroautophagy pathways. Yet, PtdIns(3)P-binding FYVE domain-containing proteins, which mediate carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) transport to the vacuole by the CPY pathway, do not account for the requirement of Vps34 in autophagy. Using a genetic selection designed to isolate PtdIns(3)P-binding effectors of Vps34, we identify Etf1, an uncharacterized type II transmembrane protein. Although Etf1 does not contain a known 3-phosphoinositide-binding domain (i.e., FYVE or Phox), we find that Etf1 interacts with PtdIns(3)P and that this interaction requires a basic amino acid motif (KKPAKK) within the cytosolic region of the protein. Moreover, deletion of ETF1 or mutation of the KKPAKK motif results in strong sorting defects in the Cvt pathway but not in macroautophagy or in CPY sorting. We propose that Vps34 regulates the CPY, Cvt, and macroautophagy pathways through distinct sets of PtdIns(3)P-binding effectors and that Vps34 promotes protein trafficking in the Cvt pathway through activation/localization of the effector protein Etf1.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2002 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The sorting of transmembrane proteins (e.g., cell surface receptors) into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway to the lysosomal/vacuolar lumen requires the function of the ESCRT protein complexes. The soluble coiled-coil-containing proteins Vps2, Vps20, Vps24, and Snf7 are recruited from the cytoplasm to endosomal membranes where they oligomerize into a protein complex, ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III contains two functionally distinct subcomplexes. The Vps20-Snf7 subcomplex binds to the endosomal membrane, in part via the myristoyl group of Vps20. The Vps2-Vps24 subcomplex binds to the Vps20-Snf7 complex and thereby serves to recruit additional cofactors to this site of protein sorting. We provide evidence for a role for ESCRT-III in sorting and/or concentration of MVB cargoes.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Developmental Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a catabolic membrane-trafficking mechanism involved in cell maintenance and development. Most components of autophagy also function in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a constitutive biosynthetic pathway required for the transport of aminopeptidase I (Ape1). The protein components of autophagy and the Cvt pathway include a putative complex composed of Apg1 kinase and several interacting proteins that are specific for either the Cvt pathway or autophagy. A second required complex includes a phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase and associated proteins that are involved in its activation and localization. The majority of proteins required for the Cvt and autophagy pathways localize to a perivacuolar pre-autophagosomal structure. We show that the Cvt13 and Cvt20 proteins are required for transport of precursor Ape1 through the Cvt pathway. Both proteins contain phox homology domains that bind PtdIns(3)P and are necessary for membrane localization to the pre-autophagosomal structure. Functional phox homology domains are required for Cvt pathway function. Cvt13 and Cvt20 interact with each other and with an autophagy-specific protein, Apg17, that interacts with Apg1 kinase. These results provide the first functional connection between the Apg1 and PtdIns 3-kinase complexes. The data suggest a role for PtdIns(3)P in the Cvt pathway and demonstrate that this lipid is required at the pre-autophagosomal structure.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin functions as a signal for sorting cargo at multiple steps of the endocytic pathway and controls the activity of trans-acting components of the endocytic machinery (reviewed in refs 1, and 2). By contrast to proteasome degradation, which generally requires a polyubiquitin chain that is at least four subunits long, internalization and sorting of endocytic cargo at the late endosome are mediated by mono-ubiquitination. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIMs) found in epsins and Vps27p (ref. 9) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae are required for ubiquitin binding and protein transport. Epsin UIMs are important for the internalization of receptors into vesicles at the plasma membrane. Vps27p UIMs are necessary to sort biosynthetic and endocytic cargo into vesicles that bud into the lumen of a late endosomal compartment, the multivesicular body. We propose that mono-ubiquitin regulates internalization and endosomal sorting by interacting with modular ubiquitin-binding domains in core components of the protein transport machinery. UIM domains are found in a broad spectrum of proteins, consistent with the idea that mono-ubiquitin can function as a regulatory signal to control diverse biological activities.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Nature Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: There are 17 human members of the sorting nexin (SNX) family of proteins that contain Phox (PX) domains. Yeast orthologs function in vesicular trafficking and mammalian proteins have been implicated in endocytic trafficking of cell surface receptors. The first member of this family, SNX1, was identified via interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor. The present studies indicate that SNX1 and SNX2 are colocalized to tubulovesicular endosomal membranes and this localization depends on PI 3-kinase activity. Point mutations in the PX domain that abolish recognition of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) in vitro abolish vesicle localization in vivo indicating that lipid binding by the PX domain is necessary for localization to vesicle membranes. Deletion of a predicted coiled-coil region in the COOH terminus of SNX1 also abolished vesicle localization, indicating that this helical domain, too, is necessary for SNX1 localization. Thus, both PX domain recognition of PtdIns and COOH terminal helical domains are necessary for localization of SNX1 with neither alone being sufficient. Regulated overexpression of the NH(2) terminus of SNX1 containing the PX domain decreased the rate of ligand-induced epidermal growth factor receptor degradation, an effect consistent with inhibition of endogenous SNX1 function in the endosome compartment. SNX1 thus functions in regulating trafficking in the endosome compartment via PX domain recognition of phosphorylated PtdIns and via interaction with other protein components.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Publication Stats

35k Citations
2,357.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • Cornell University
      • • Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics
      • • Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 1994-2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (CMM)
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1991-2007
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
    • Hamilton College
      • Department of Biology
      Клинтон, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Toronto
      • Banting and Best Department of Medical Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (MCDB)
      Boulder, CO, United States
  • 1998-2002
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1993-1998
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 1986-1992
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Biology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Microbiology
      Urbana, IL, United States
  • 1984-1985
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Biochemistry
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1983
    • Moncrief Cancer Institute
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States
  • 1980
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States